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Test 3-Final Urinary System - Flashcards

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Class:BIOL 252 - Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Subject:BIOLOGY
University:University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Term:Spring 2010
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Excretion Function of the Urinary System Taking things/waste in the body out
Path of Urine Nephrons produce filtrate -> PCT, Loop of Henle DCT -> collecting Duct -> Drains down the minor and major calyx -> renal pelvis -> ureter -> urinary bladder -> urethra -> external urethral orifice
Structure of the Nephron
Nephron A system of tubules with association between blood vessels Basic structural and functional unit of the kidney
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Structure of the Nephron Renal Corpuscle- Renal Cortex * Glomerulus * Bowman's Capsule Tubules * PCT- Renal Cortex * Loop of Henle- Medulla * DCT- Renal Cortex * Collecting duct- Medulla
Renal Corpuscle Where act of filtration takes place
Glomerulus Blood vessels in the Bowman's capsule
Bowman's Capsule (function) Collects filtrate or product of filtration
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Tubule system Function: moves filtrate to the collecting duct Composition: Proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, and Distal Convoluted Tubule, Collecting Duct
Loop of Henle Important for the concentration of urine
Processes that lead to Excretion Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion
Glomerular Filtration While the blood is in the glomerular capillary, there is a movement from capillaries to interstitial space which is later collected/filtrated in the glomerular capsule.
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Tubular reabsorption Taking something from the filtrate (yellow portion) and bringing it back into the blood (in the peritubular capillary) * Good stuff is reabsorbed back in
Structure of Capillary Beds Glomerulus- afferent and efferent arteriole Preitubular Capillaries
Path of blood surrounding Nephron Afferent arteriole -> Efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries -> veins out of nephron
Afferent Arteriole (function) Brings blood in
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Efferent Arteriole (function) Takes blood out
The Filtration Membrane Filters fluids that go through glomerular capillaries Cells- PODOCYTES which wrap around with interlocking feet with cytoplasmic process.
Capsular Space Space where product and filtration will reside When fluid collects and moves through the proximal convoluted tube.
3 Forces that drive fluid from glomerulus to capsular space Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure
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Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure (Blood) pressure ~55mmHg
Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure ~15 mmHg So Glomerular - Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure = Net pressure of ~35-40 mmHg- tends to push fluid TO capsular space
Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure Opposes hydrostatic pressure- deals with concentration of water between blood and capsular space- allows fluid to move back in
Net Filtration Pressure Net overall pressure of ~10mmHg in the direction of leaving the blood = (Glomerular HP - Capsular HP) - Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure
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Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)= amount of blood leaving in proportions to pressure total amount of filtrate formed per minute (~125mL) * Directly proportional to NFP (inc. NFP = inc. GFR) ** But less reabsorption and efficiency of transporters * Changes in GFR affect efficiency of reabsorption (takes back liquid and dissolved particles back to blood) and secretion
Regulation of GFR The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Intrinsic Controls (autoregulation): Myogenic Mechanism and Tuboglomerular feedback Extrinsic Controls: Renin-Angiotensin Mechanism, Sympathetic NC Stimulation
The Juxtoglomerular Apparatus Granular Cells (juxtaglomerular apparatus) and Macula Densa (tubules)
Granular Cells Group of cells which are close to the glomerulus Part of Myogenic Mechanism Function: * Form the wall of the capillaries, smooth muscle, and endocrine * They contain mechanoreceptors which respond to stretch
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Myogenic Mechanism How arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant. High pressure -> stretch of afferent arteriole -> vasoconstriction -> dec blood in glomerulus and GFR Low pressure -> no stretch in afferent arteriole -> vasodilation Ideal Pressure: ~10mmHg
Renin: Released of granular cells when afferent arterioles are dilated and still not enough pressure. (Or sympathetic/fight or flight triggers it) Hormones of kidney that goes out to blood and... Converts hormone from angiotensinogen (always inactive in blood) to angiotensin I which reacts with ACE to become angiotensin II (active hormone) ACE is located in lungs.
Angiotensin II A peripheral vasoconstricor (dec stretch of granulosa cells (dec blood pressure) -> Renin released
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (reabsorption) PCT: where most reabsorption (mostly organic molecules but also ions, and water) takes place DCT: both reabsorption and secretion
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Loop of Henle (reabsorption) Descending Limb Ascending limb
Descending Limb Water is pulled out passively; impermeable to salts
Ascending Limb Na+ and Cl- are pumped out
Hormornal Regulation of Reabsorption Location: DCT and Collecting Duct via hormonal control Hormones: ADH, Aldosterone, PTH
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ADH Allows water reabsorption
PTH Stimulates Ca2+ reabsoption
Aldosterone Stiulates Na+ reabsorption
Tubular Secretion * Secretion is opposite of reabsorption * Occurs mostly in DCT and collecting duct * Allows regulation of K+ (into DTC lowers blood levels) , pH (H+ and HCO3-)
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Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume * Interstitial osmolality increases towards medulla because things are being pumped out into the interstitial fluid * Gradient allows concentration of wastes in urine
The Countercurrent Multiplier Loop of Henle 1. Ascending limb pumps NaCl to interstitial fluid [] dependent * helps water leave filtrate 2. Descending limb leaks water passively 3. Urea is allowed to escape collecting duct, adding to the osmotic gradient of medulla What’s left is the urea and waste products which were at a lower level becomes more compact at a smaller volume
Composition of Urine Nitrogenous wastes (Urea- AA metab, Uric acid- Nucleic A metab, Creatine- CP metab) Electrolytes- pH 6 (more acidic than the body's 7.4) Not found in urine: Glucose (or diabetes) and Proteins (or lax filtration complex)
Micturition Urinating/Voiding/peeing 1. Afferent impulses from stretch receptors to pons 2. Pontine micturition center activated 3. Parasympathetic NS relaxes internal urethral sphincters and contracts bladder Internal Urethral sphincter- smooth muscle External Urethral Sphincter
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External Urethral Sphincter Skeletal muscle (floor of pelvis) * Ordinarily contracted * we have conscious control to relax muscle
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 ExcretionFunction of the Urinary System
Taking things/waste in the body out
 Path of UrineNephrons produce filtrate -> PCT, Loop of Henle DCT -> collecting Duct -> Drains down the minor and major calyx -> renal pelvis -> ureter -> urinary bladder -> urethra -> external urethral orifice
 Structure of the Nephron 
 NephronA system of tubules with association between blood vessels
Basic structural and functional unit of the kidney
 Structure of the NephronRenal Corpuscle- Renal Cortex
* Glomerulus
* Bowman's Capsule

Tubules
* PCT- Renal Cortex
* Loop of Henle- Medulla
* DCT- Renal Cortex
* Collecting duct- Medulla
 Renal CorpuscleWhere act of filtration takes place
 GlomerulusBlood vessels in the Bowman's capsule
 Bowman's Capsule (function)Collects filtrate or product of filtration
 Tubule systemFunction: moves filtrate to the collecting duct

Composition: Proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, and Distal Convoluted Tubule, Collecting Duct
 Loop of HenleImportant for the concentration of urine
 Processes that lead to ExcretionGlomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion
 Glomerular FiltrationWhile the blood is in the glomerular capillary, there is a movement from capillaries to interstitial space which is later collected/filtrated in the glomerular capsule.
 Tubular reabsorptionTaking something from the filtrate (yellow portion) and bringing it back into the blood (in the peritubular capillary)
* Good stuff is reabsorbed back in
 Structure of Capillary BedsGlomerulus- afferent and efferent arteriole
Preitubular Capillaries
 Path of blood surrounding NephronAfferent arteriole -> Efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries -> veins out of nephron
 Afferent Arteriole (function)Brings blood in
 Efferent Arteriole (function)Takes blood out
 The Filtration MembraneFilters fluids that go through glomerular capillaries

Cells- PODOCYTES which wrap around with interlocking feet with cytoplasmic process.
 Capsular SpaceSpace where product and filtration will reside

When fluid collects and moves through the proximal convoluted tube.
 3 Forces that drive fluid from glomerulus to capsular spaceGlomerular Hydrostatic Pressure
Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure
 Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure(Blood) pressure ~55mmHg
 Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure~15 mmHg

So Glomerular - Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure = Net pressure of ~35-40 mmHg- tends to push fluid TO capsular space
 Blood Colloid Osmotic PressureOpposes hydrostatic pressure- deals with concentration of water between blood and capsular space- allows fluid to move back in

 Net Filtration PressureNet overall pressure of ~10mmHg in the direction of leaving the blood

= (Glomerular HP - Capsular HP) - Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure
 Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR)= amount of blood leaving in proportions to pressure
total amount of filtrate formed per minute (~125mL)

* Directly proportional to NFP (inc. NFP = inc. GFR)
** But less reabsorption and efficiency of transporters
* Changes in GFR affect efficiency of reabsorption (takes back liquid and dissolved particles back to blood) and secretion
 Regulation of GFRThe Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Intrinsic Controls (autoregulation): Myogenic Mechanism and Tuboglomerular feedback

Extrinsic Controls: Renin-Angiotensin Mechanism, Sympathetic NC Stimulation
 The Juxtoglomerular ApparatusGranular Cells (juxtaglomerular apparatus) and Macula Densa (tubules)
 Granular CellsGroup of cells which are close to the glomerulus
Part of Myogenic Mechanism
Function:
* Form the wall of the capillaries, smooth muscle, and endocrine
* They contain mechanoreceptors which respond to stretch

 Myogenic MechanismHow arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant.

High pressure -> stretch of afferent arteriole -> vasoconstriction -> dec blood in glomerulus and GFR
Low pressure -> no stretch in afferent arteriole -> vasodilation
Ideal Pressure: ~10mmHg
 Renin:Released of granular cells when afferent arterioles are dilated and still not enough pressure. (Or sympathetic/fight or flight triggers it)
Hormones of kidney that goes out to blood and...

Converts hormone from angiotensinogen (always inactive in blood) to angiotensin I which reacts with ACE to become angiotensin II (active hormone) ACE is located in lungs.
 Angiotensin IIA peripheral vasoconstricor
(dec stretch of granulosa cells (dec blood pressure) -> Renin released
 Proximal Convoluted Tubule (reabsorption)PCT: where most reabsorption (mostly organic molecules but also ions, and water) takes place

DCT: both reabsorption and secretion
 Loop of Henle (reabsorption)Descending Limb
Ascending limb
 Descending LimbWater is pulled out passively; impermeable to salts
 Ascending LimbNa+ and Cl- are pumped out
 Hormornal Regulation of ReabsorptionLocation: DCT and Collecting Duct via hormonal control

Hormones: ADH, Aldosterone, PTH
 ADHAllows water reabsorption
 PTHStimulates Ca2+ reabsoption
 AldosteroneStiulates Na+ reabsorption
 Tubular Secretion* Secretion is opposite of reabsorption
* Occurs mostly in DCT and collecting duct
* Allows regulation of K+ (into DTC lowers blood levels) , pH (H+ and HCO3-)
 Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume* Interstitial osmolality increases towards medulla
because things are being pumped out into the interstitial fluid
* Gradient allows concentration of wastes in urine
 The Countercurrent MultiplierLoop of Henle
1. Ascending limb pumps NaCl to interstitial fluid [] dependent
* helps water leave filtrate
2. Descending limb leaks water passively
3. Urea is allowed to escape collecting duct, adding to the osmotic gradient of medulla

What’s left is the urea and waste products which were at a lower level becomes more compact at a smaller volume
 Composition of UrineNitrogenous wastes (Urea- AA metab, Uric acid- Nucleic A metab, Creatine- CP metab)
Electrolytes- pH 6 (more acidic than the body's 7.4)

Not found in urine: Glucose (or diabetes) and Proteins (or lax filtration complex)
 MicturitionUrinating/Voiding/peeing

1. Afferent impulses from stretch receptors to pons
2. Pontine micturition center activated
3. Parasympathetic NS relaxes internal urethral sphincters and contracts bladder

Internal Urethral sphincter- smooth muscle
External Urethral Sphincter
 External Urethral SphincterSkeletal muscle (floor of pelvis)

* Ordinarily contracted
* we have conscious control to relax muscle
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