Koofers

Vertebrates Exam Flashcards - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:BIOL 221 - Biology of Organisms
Subject:Biology
University:University of San Diego
Term:Spring 2013
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Echinodermata
Phylum
  • Within Deuterostomes
spiny skinned invertebrates
water vascular system
Asteroidea Class
sea stars
  • tube feet, 5 or more arms, inverts digestive tract and secretes digestive enzymes. some can regenerate
Ophiuroidea Class
brittle stars or basket stars
  • no suckers on tube feet, distinct central disc and thin flexible arms, move by thrashing
Echinoidea Class
sea urchins and sand dollars
  • no arms, 5 rows of tube feet for locomotion, long external spines controlled by muscles for locomotion, complex mouth for eating seaweed
Generated by Koofers.com
Crinoidea Class
sea lilies and feather stars
  • attach to substrate or crawl with arms, filter feed

Holothuroidea Class
sea cucumbers
  • lack spines, elongated shape, 5 rows of tube feet, some oral tube feet modified as tentacles, respire through skin, water vascular system and respiratory tree with branches within the anus
Chordata Phylum
  • Within Deuterostomes, includes 3 invertebrate lineages and the rest are vertebrates
Defined by 4 characteristics present at some point in life
  • notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, and post anal tail
Cephalochordata Subphylum
lancelets
  • retain all 4 basic chordate characteristics
  • small, shallow marine filter feeders that bury tail-first in the sand with the oral cavity protruding
  • chevron-shaped muscle segments
Generated by Koofers.com
Urochordata Subphylum
tunicates
  • sea squirts, salps, sea pork
Radical metamorphosis from larva to adult
  • larva is free swimming with all 4 characteristic, adult is sessile and loses notochord, neural tube, and tail
  • surrounded by a "tunic"
Myxini Subphylum/Clade
hagfishes
only extant animals with a skull (craniata) but no vertebral column
feed on flesh of living and dead fish, secrete slime that hydrates and becomes copious amounts of slime
  • slippery, clogs gills of predators
Craniata Clade
have a head/skull
  • hox genes duplicated, brain at anterior end of dorsal nerve cord, cephalization
neural crest - a 4th germ layer
  • cells that appear near dorsal margins of closing neural tube, migrate to become variety of structures, including teeth, skull, inner facial layers, neurons
more active than tunicates & lancelets b/c higher metabolism
heart has at least 2 chambers, blood with hemoglobin
have kidneys - specialized organs to remove waste from blood
Vertebrata Subphylum/Clade (monophyletic)
evolutionary trend - notochord replaced by bony segments called vertebrae
have a skeleton
  • cartilage, collagen-based cartilage, or bone
  • mineralization of skeleton is a derived character (teeth, then skull, then whole skeleton)
Generated by Koofers.com
Agnatha Clade
  • within Vertebrata
no jaws
includes lampreys (petromyzontida)
Petromyzontida Class
lampreys
  • larvae are filter feeders, adults are parasitic
  • skeleton of cartilage
Gnathostomata Clade
  • within Vertebrata
vertebrates with jaws
  • enlarged forebrain, increased smell, vision, vibration sense
  • jaws evolved form modifications of pharyngeal bars, designed to increase efficiency of buccal pump
  • more predatory, teeth from modified dermal scales
Chondrichthyes Class
sharks, rays, skates, chimaera
  • skeleton of collagen-based cartilage, external gill slits lack an operculum, internal fertilization and may be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous, skin made of scales called dentacles
Generated by Koofers.com
Osteichthyes Clade
  • within Gnathostomata within Vertebrata within Chordata
bony fishes
  • operculum: bony flap covering gills externally
  • swim bladder: modification of pharyngeal pouch, gas-filled, regulates buoyancy, thought to have evolved from lung
Actinopterygii Class
  • within Osteichthyes
ray-finned fishes
  • pectoral and pelvic fins have webs of skin supported by bony spines (rays)
  • propulsion, maneuvering, defense
  • your "typical" fish and others like seahorses and eels
Sarcopterygii Class (Clade if you include lobe finned fish and tetrapods)
  • within Osteichthyes
lobe-finned fishes
  • fin bases are bony, fleshy, robust, surrounded by thick layer of muscle
Actinistia Clade (Subclass)
  • within Sarcopterygii
coelacanths
Generated by Koofers.com
Dipnoi Clade (Subclass)
  • within Sarcopterygii
lungfishes
Tetrapoda Clade
have 4 limbs that can support weight on land, have digits that allow transmission of force to ground when walking
first appear in mid-Devonian (~380 mya)
  • well-developed shoulder and pelvic girdle and limbs
  • pelvis becomes fused to spine
  • adaptations for respiration on land
  • cranial-cervical joint lets head move independently of skeleton
  • evolutionary trend: increased terrestriality
Amphibia Class
amphibians
  • usually terrestrial and aquatic lifestyle
  • smooth, mucous-covered skin (gas exchange through gills or lungs or skin)
  • positive pressure inhalation
  • unshelled eggs need water to stay moisturized
Anura Order
frogs and toads
  • morphology for hopping, no tail on adults, worldwide distribution, external fertilization
Generated by Koofers.com
Urodela Order
salamanders and newts
  • generalized tetrapod morphology (primitive scrawl)
  • external fertilization
  • northern hemisphere
Apoda Order
caecilians
  • secondarily limbless
  • rare, live in tropics
  • highly adapted to burrowing, with pointed snout
  • internal fertilization
Amniota Clade
tetrapods that have amniotic eggs
  • sister group to amphibians, increased terrestriality because egg can be deposited on land and won't desiccate
  • extraembroynic membranes: amnion, allantois, chorion, shell, yolk-sac
Reptilia Class
  • within Amniota within Tetrapoda
Generated by Koofers.com
Testudines Order
turtles
  • sister group to other extant Reptilia
  • Anapsids
  • first fossils ~210 mya
  • terrestrial, freshwater, and marine
  • shell = carapace, plastron, scutes
  • ectothermic?
Anapsids Clade
  • within Reptilia
only extant lineage is turtles
lack openings in the skull
Diapsids Clade
  • within Reptilia
"two arches" - two holes in skull
includes Lepidosauria and Archosauria
Lepidosauria Clade (Subclass)
  • within Reptilia
reptiles with overlapping scales
ectothermic
includes Squamata and Sphenodontia
Generated by Koofers.com
Sphenodontia Order
tuataras
  • 2 species, endemic to only New Zealand
Squamata Order
lizards and snakes
  • snakes are still tetrapods, have lost the trait of limbs (but vestigial limbs an still be seen in some early snake groups)
Archosauria Clade (Subclass)
includes Crocodilia and Aves, as well as extinct lineages Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia
Crocodilia Order
crocodiles, alligators, gharials, caimans
  • long snouts with pointed, conical teeth
  • nesting behavior and parental care (synapomorhpy, derived shared character of Archosauria
  • primitive tetrapod sprawl
  • ectothermic?
Generated by Koofers.com
Pterosauria Order
pterosaurs
  • flying archosaurs, extinct by end of the Mesozoic
  • first vertebrates with powered flight
  • 25cm to 10m wingspan
  • endothermy? (evidence of rapid bone growth and hairy scales)
Ornithischia Order
"bird-hipped dinosaurs"
  • herbivores (like ceratopsians and hadrosaurs)
  • extinct 65 million years ago
  • considerable evidence of nesting behavior
  • endothermic? gigantothermic?
Saurischia Order
"lizard-hipped dinosaurs"
  • sauropods (long-necked herbivores) and theropods (bipedal, carnivorous)
  • only one lineage survived the K-T extinction: birds!
Aves Class
  • within Saurischia, extant lineage of dinosaurs
  • most diverse tetrapod vertebrates
  • diverse habitats and feeding habits and beak morphology
  • specialized for flight (lightweight skeleton, feathers, high metabolic rate, large flight muscles attached to sternum, efficient respiratory and circulatory systems)
  • hard-shelled eggs
Generated by Koofers.com
Synapsids Clade
single opening (fenestration in skull) - "fused arch"
mammals
  • diverged from Reptilia ~300 mya
  • gradual transition in skull morphology (increased control over jaws, specialized teeth, transition in hinge of jaw and evolution of inner ear)
Mammalia Class
first appear during early Mesozoic, diversify ~65 mya
characteristics
  • hair
  • mammary glands and sweat glands
  • deciduous, heterodont dentition
  • 3 middle ear ossicles (incus, malleus, stapes)
  • endothermic
  • 3 extant clades distinguished by reproductive strategy
Protheria Clade (Subclass)
Monotremes - platypus and echidna
found in Australia and New Guinea, only 5 species
share numerous plesiomorphic traits with Reptilia (lay eggs, have cloaca, lack nipples, legs to side rather than underneath)
  • but do have hair, mammary glands, dentition, ossicles
  • synapomorphies of their own include: leg with spur (venomous in male platypus), electroreception, no teeth in adults
Metatheria Clade (Subclass)
Marsupials - kangaroos, wallabies, wombats, possums
have a pouch called a marsupium to carry young
  • give birth at very early stage in development and then small baby crawls to find a nipple and suckle
  • cloaca, but separate reproductive system
Generated by Koofers.com
Eutheria Clade (Subclass)
Placentals
embryo attaches itself to the uterus via a large placenta via which the mother supplies food and oxygen and removes waste products
  • pregnancy long and young well-developed at birth
  • no cloaca - separate urinary, defecatory, and reproductive tract, though u and r orifice shared
  • 4 major clades with about 20 orders
Afrotheria Clade
  • within Eutheria
golden moles, tenrecs, elephant shrews, aardvarks, hyraxes, elephants, manatees
  • probably originated in Africa
  • possible synapomorphies: movable snout, testicondy (lack of scrotum -testicles inside body)
Xenarthia Clade
  • within Eutheria
sloths, anteaters, armadillos
  • originated in South America, colonized North America in Great American Interchange
Euarchontoglires Clade
  • within Eutheria
Subclades: Euarchonta and Glires

Generated by Koofers.com
Glires Subclade
  • within Euarchontoglires
Rodentia (rodents) and Lagomorpha (rabbits)
Rodentia Order
  • within clade Glires within clade Euarchontoglires
Rodents - squirrels, beavers, rats, mice, porcupines, chinchillas
Lagomorpha Order
  • within clade Glires within clade Euarchontoglires
Rabbits and pikas
Euarchonta Subclade
  • within Euarchontoglires
Scandentia (tree shrews), Dermoptera (flying lemurs), and Primata (primates)
Generated by Koofers.com
Scandentia Order
  • within Euarchonta within Euarchontoglires
tree shrews
Dermoptera Order
  • within Euarchonta within Euarchontoglires
flying lemurs
Primata Order
  • within Euarchonta within Euarchontoglires
primates - lemurs, monkeys, aye-aye, loris, apes, humans
Laurasiatheria Clade
  • within Eutheria
Subclades: Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera, Carnivora, Pholidota, Perissodactyla, Cetartiodactyla

Generated by Koofers.com
Eulipotyphla Order
  • within Laurasiatheria
hedgehogs, shrews, moles
  • insectivorous
Chiroptera Order
  • within Laurasiatheria
bats
  • forelimbs developed as wings, only mammals capable of flight
Carnivora Order
  • within Laurasiatheria
dogs, cats, skunks, bears, seals, mongooses, hyenas, weasels, raccoons, civets, wolverines, badgers, ferrets
Pholidota Order
  • within Laurasiatheria
pangolins
Generated by Koofers.com
Perissodactyla Order
  • within Laurasiatheria
odd-toed ungulates (1 or 3 toes)
horses, rhinos, tapirs
  • hind-gut fermenters
Cetartiodactyla Clade
  • within Laurasiatheria
includes within it orders: Artiodactyla and Cetacea

Artiodactyla Order
  • within Ceteratiodactyla within Laurasiatheria
even-toed ungulates
  • Clades: tylopoda (camels), suina (pigs), ruminantia (deer, antelope, cattle, bison, sheep, goats, giraffes), cetancodonta (hippos and cetaceans)
Cetacea Order
  • within Cetartiodactyla within Laurasiatheria
whales, dolphins
  • closest extant relative is the hippo
  • morphology shows vestigial limbs
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 64 Print
 
Front
Back
 Echinodermata
Phylum
  • Within Deuterostomes
spiny skinned invertebrates
water vascular system
 AsteroideaClass
sea stars
  • tube feet, 5 or more arms, inverts digestive tract and secretes digestive enzymes. some can regenerate
 OphiuroideaClass
brittle stars or basket stars
  • no suckers on tube feet, distinct central disc and thin flexible arms, move by thrashing
 EchinoideaClass
sea urchins and sand dollars
  • no arms, 5 rows of tube feet for locomotion, long external spines controlled by muscles for locomotion, complex mouth for eating seaweed
 CrinoideaClass
sea lilies and feather stars
  • attach to substrate or crawl with arms, filter feed

 HolothuroideaClass
sea cucumbers
  • lack spines, elongated shape, 5 rows of tube feet, some oral tube feet modified as tentacles, respire through skin, water vascular system and respiratory tree with branches within the anus
 ChordataPhylum
  • Within Deuterostomes, includes 3 invertebrate lineages and the rest are vertebrates
Defined by 4 characteristics present at some point in life
  • notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, and post anal tail
 CephalochordataSubphylum
lancelets
  • retain all 4 basic chordate characteristics
  • small, shallow marine filter feeders that bury tail-first in the sand with the oral cavity protruding
  • chevron-shaped muscle segments
 UrochordataSubphylum
tunicates
  • sea squirts, salps, sea pork
Radical metamorphosis from larva to adult
  • larva is free swimming with all 4 characteristic, adult is sessile and loses notochord, neural tube, and tail
  • surrounded by a "tunic"
 MyxiniSubphylum/Clade
hagfishes
only extant animals with a skull (craniata) but no vertebral column
feed on flesh of living and dead fish, secrete slime that hydrates and becomes copious amounts of slime
  • slippery, clogs gills of predators
 CraniataClade
have a head/skull
  • hox genes duplicated, brain at anterior end of dorsal nerve cord, cephalization
neural crest - a 4th germ layer
  • cells that appear near dorsal margins of closing neural tube, migrate to become variety of structures, including teeth, skull, inner facial layers, neurons
more active than tunicates & lancelets b/c higher metabolism
heart has at least 2 chambers, blood with hemoglobin
have kidneys - specialized organs to remove waste from blood
 VertebrataSubphylum/Clade (monophyletic)
evolutionary trend - notochord replaced by bony segments called vertebrae
have a skeleton
  • cartilage, collagen-based cartilage, or bone
  • mineralization of skeleton is a derived character (teeth, then skull, then whole skeleton)
 AgnathaClade
  • within Vertebrata
no jaws
includes lampreys (petromyzontida)
 PetromyzontidaClass
lampreys
  • larvae are filter feeders, adults are parasitic
  • skeleton of cartilage
 GnathostomataClade
  • within Vertebrata
vertebrates with jaws
  • enlarged forebrain, increased smell, vision, vibration sense
  • jaws evolved form modifications of pharyngeal bars, designed to increase efficiency of buccal pump
  • more predatory, teeth from modified dermal scales
 ChondrichthyesClass
sharks, rays, skates, chimaera
  • skeleton of collagen-based cartilage, external gill slits lack an operculum, internal fertilization and may be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous, skin made of scales called dentacles
 OsteichthyesClade
  • within Gnathostomata within Vertebrata within Chordata
bony fishes
  • operculum: bony flap covering gills externally
  • swim bladder: modification of pharyngeal pouch, gas-filled, regulates buoyancy, thought to have evolved from lung
 ActinopterygiiClass
  • within Osteichthyes
ray-finned fishes
  • pectoral and pelvic fins have webs of skin supported by bony spines (rays)
  • propulsion, maneuvering, defense
  • your "typical" fish and others like seahorses and eels
 SarcopterygiiClass (Clade if you include lobe finned fish and tetrapods)
  • within Osteichthyes
lobe-finned fishes
  • fin bases are bony, fleshy, robust, surrounded by thick layer of muscle
 ActinistiaClade (Subclass)
  • within Sarcopterygii
coelacanths
 DipnoiClade (Subclass)
  • within Sarcopterygii
lungfishes
 TetrapodaClade
have 4 limbs that can support weight on land, have digits that allow transmission of force to ground when walking
first appear in mid-Devonian (~380 mya)
  • well-developed shoulder and pelvic girdle and limbs
  • pelvis becomes fused to spine
  • adaptations for respiration on land
  • cranial-cervical joint lets head move independently of skeleton
  • evolutionary trend: increased terrestriality
 AmphibiaClass
amphibians
  • usually terrestrial and aquatic lifestyle
  • smooth, mucous-covered skin (gas exchange through gills or lungs or skin)
  • positive pressure inhalation
  • unshelled eggs need water to stay moisturized
 AnuraOrder
frogs and toads
  • morphology for hopping, no tail on adults, worldwide distribution, external fertilization
 UrodelaOrder
salamanders and newts
  • generalized tetrapod morphology (primitive scrawl)
  • external fertilization
  • northern hemisphere
 ApodaOrder
caecilians
  • secondarily limbless
  • rare, live in tropics
  • highly adapted to burrowing, with pointed snout
  • internal fertilization
 AmniotaClade
tetrapods that have amniotic eggs
  • sister group to amphibians, increased terrestriality because egg can be deposited on land and won't desiccate
  • extraembroynic membranes: amnion, allantois, chorion, shell, yolk-sac
 ReptiliaClass
  • within Amniota within Tetrapoda
 TestudinesOrder
turtles
  • sister group to other extant Reptilia
  • Anapsids
  • first fossils ~210 mya
  • terrestrial, freshwater, and marine
  • shell = carapace, plastron, scutes
  • ectothermic?
 AnapsidsClade
  • within Reptilia
only extant lineage is turtles
lack openings in the skull
 DiapsidsClade
  • within Reptilia
"two arches" - two holes in skull
includes Lepidosauria and Archosauria
 LepidosauriaClade (Subclass)
  • within Reptilia
reptiles with overlapping scales
ectothermic
includes Squamata and Sphenodontia
 SphenodontiaOrder
tuataras
  • 2 species, endemic to only New Zealand
 SquamataOrder
lizards and snakes
  • snakes are still tetrapods, have lost the trait of limbs (but vestigial limbs an still be seen in some early snake groups)
 ArchosauriaClade (Subclass)
includes Crocodilia and Aves, as well as extinct lineages Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia
 CrocodiliaOrder
crocodiles, alligators, gharials, caimans
  • long snouts with pointed, conical teeth
  • nesting behavior and parental care (synapomorhpy, derived shared character of Archosauria
  • primitive tetrapod sprawl
  • ectothermic?
 PterosauriaOrder
pterosaurs
  • flying archosaurs, extinct by end of the Mesozoic
  • first vertebrates with powered flight
  • 25cm to 10m wingspan
  • endothermy? (evidence of rapid bone growth and hairy scales)
 OrnithischiaOrder
"bird-hipped dinosaurs"
  • herbivores (like ceratopsians and hadrosaurs)
  • extinct 65 million years ago
  • considerable evidence of nesting behavior
  • endothermic? gigantothermic?
 SaurischiaOrder
"lizard-hipped dinosaurs"
  • sauropods (long-necked herbivores) and theropods (bipedal, carnivorous)
  • only one lineage survived the K-T extinction: birds!
 AvesClass
  • within Saurischia, extant lineage of dinosaurs
  • most diverse tetrapod vertebrates
  • diverse habitats and feeding habits and beak morphology
  • specialized for flight (lightweight skeleton, feathers, high metabolic rate, large flight muscles attached to sternum, efficient respiratory and circulatory systems)
  • hard-shelled eggs
 SynapsidsClade
single opening (fenestration in skull) - "fused arch"
mammals
  • diverged from Reptilia ~300 mya
  • gradual transition in skull morphology (increased control over jaws, specialized teeth, transition in hinge of jaw and evolution of inner ear)
 MammaliaClass
first appear during early Mesozoic, diversify ~65 mya
characteristics
  • hair
  • mammary glands and sweat glands
  • deciduous, heterodont dentition
  • 3 middle ear ossicles (incus, malleus, stapes)
  • endothermic
  • 3 extant clades distinguished by reproductive strategy
 ProtheriaClade (Subclass)
Monotremes - platypus and echidna
found in Australia and New Guinea, only 5 species
share numerous plesiomorphic traits with Reptilia (lay eggs, have cloaca, lack nipples, legs to side rather than underneath)
  • but do have hair, mammary glands, dentition, ossicles
  • synapomorphies of their own include: leg with spur (venomous in male platypus), electroreception, no teeth in adults
 MetatheriaClade (Subclass)
Marsupials - kangaroos, wallabies, wombats, possums
have a pouch called a marsupium to carry young
  • give birth at very early stage in development and then small baby crawls to find a nipple and suckle
  • cloaca, but separate reproductive system
 EutheriaClade (Subclass)
Placentals
embryo attaches itself to the uterus via a large placenta via which the mother supplies food and oxygen and removes waste products
  • pregnancy long and young well-developed at birth
  • no cloaca - separate urinary, defecatory, and reproductive tract, though u and r orifice shared
  • 4 major clades with about 20 orders
 AfrotheriaClade
  • within Eutheria
golden moles, tenrecs, elephant shrews, aardvarks, hyraxes, elephants, manatees
  • probably originated in Africa
  • possible synapomorphies: movable snout, testicondy (lack of scrotum -testicles inside body)
 XenarthiaClade
  • within Eutheria
sloths, anteaters, armadillos
  • originated in South America, colonized North America in Great American Interchange
 EuarchontogliresClade
  • within Eutheria
Subclades: Euarchonta and Glires

 GliresSubclade
  • within Euarchontoglires
Rodentia (rodents) and Lagomorpha (rabbits)
 RodentiaOrder
  • within clade Glires within clade Euarchontoglires
Rodents - squirrels, beavers, rats, mice, porcupines, chinchillas
 LagomorphaOrder
  • within clade Glires within clade Euarchontoglires
Rabbits and pikas
 EuarchontaSubclade
  • within Euarchontoglires
Scandentia (tree shrews), Dermoptera (flying lemurs), and Primata (primates)
 ScandentiaOrder
  • within Euarchonta within Euarchontoglires
tree shrews
 DermopteraOrder
  • within Euarchonta within Euarchontoglires
flying lemurs
 PrimataOrder
  • within Euarchonta within Euarchontoglires
primates - lemurs, monkeys, aye-aye, loris, apes, humans
 LaurasiatheriaClade
  • within Eutheria
Subclades: Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera, Carnivora, Pholidota, Perissodactyla, Cetartiodactyla

 EulipotyphlaOrder
  • within Laurasiatheria
hedgehogs, shrews, moles
  • insectivorous
 ChiropteraOrder
  • within Laurasiatheria
bats
  • forelimbs developed as wings, only mammals capable of flight
 CarnivoraOrder
  • within Laurasiatheria
dogs, cats, skunks, bears, seals, mongooses, hyenas, weasels, raccoons, civets, wolverines, badgers, ferrets
 PholidotaOrder
  • within Laurasiatheria
pangolins
 PerissodactylaOrder
  • within Laurasiatheria
odd-toed ungulates (1 or 3 toes)
horses, rhinos, tapirs
  • hind-gut fermenters
 CetartiodactylaClade
  • within Laurasiatheria
includes within it orders: Artiodactyla and Cetacea

 ArtiodactylaOrder
  • within Ceteratiodactyla within Laurasiatheria
even-toed ungulates
  • Clades: tylopoda (camels), suina (pigs), ruminantia (deer, antelope, cattle, bison, sheep, goats, giraffes), cetancodonta (hippos and cetaceans)
 CetaceaOrder
  • within Cetartiodactyla within Laurasiatheria
whales, dolphins
  • closest extant relative is the hippo
  • morphology shows vestigial limbs
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"