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The Lympatic- Immune System - Flashcards

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Class:BIOSC 316 - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Subject:BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
University:Clemson University
Term:Spring 2011
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fluid balance returns fluid from interstitial space to circulation; enters lymphatic capillaries, forming lymph
chyle Chyle (from the Greek word chylos, meaning juice) is a milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats, or free fatty acids (FFAs).
fat absorption absorb fats & other fat-soluble substances from digestive system via lacteals
lacteals A lacteal is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.
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defense organs/tissues serve as “filters” removing microbes & foreign substances cells provide immunological defense against disease-causing agents
lymphatic capillaries Lymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny thin-walled vessels that are closed at one end and are located in the spaces between cells throughout the body, except in the central nervous system, and in non-vascular tissues.
lymph node A lymph node is a small ball-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach/gut and linked by lymphatic vessels.
Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses: are nonselect and act immediately; does not distinguish one threat from another; present at birth (1&2)
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first line of defense skin and mucosadefenses at body surface external body membranes
second line of defense utilize antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes & other specialized cells that act to inhibit further invasion; includes inflammation; is signaled by chemicals released when 1st line of defense is penetrated
Adaptive (Specific) Defenses: represents body’s ability to mount an attack against specific foreign invaders (3)
third line of defense is body’s specific defenses function of lymphocyte activities
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internal defense phagocytes, fever, NK cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation
humoral immunity The Humoral Immune Response (HIR) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies (as opposed to cell-mediated immunity, which involves T lymphocytes) produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). provided by antibodies in body fluids, produced by plasma cells
cellular immunity Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies or complement but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
activation of innate immunity distinguishes between “self”, the body’s own cells, and invading/ foreign organisms/molecules
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PAMPs Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, are molecules associated with groups of pathogens, that are recognized by cells of the innate immune system.
toll-like R Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. recognize specific class of invading organisms once activated, release cytokines
phagocyte Phagocytes are the white blood cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
neutrophils most abundant phagocytic upon encounter with foreign intruder 1st to enter infected area, are mobile & quick to phagocytize
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mononuclear phagocyte system The mononuclear phagocyte system is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. monocytes in blood and macrophage when in tissues
organ-specific phagocytes of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs & brain microglia in brain tissue kupffer cells in liver
chemokines create a “chemical trail” for phagocytes to follow
chemotaxis chemical trail phagocytes follow
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fever an abnormally high body temperature. resetting the body’s “thermostat” in the hypothalamus. accomplished by the release of pyrogens from activated macrophages & leukocytes when exposed to foreign substances (referrred to as endogenous pyrogens) fever causes an increase in body’s metabolism, thus accelerating repair processes & impacts bacterial replication
interferons small proteins that protect body against viral infections short-acting produced by viral infected cells are not virus-specific, so provide protection from a variety of viruses considered a cytokine
cytokine chemical messengers released by tissue cells to coordinate local activities
adaptive immunity involves the ability to recognize, respond to and remember a particular substance requires a “meeting” or to be primed by an initial exposure to a specific antigen before it can protect the body -it is specific, it is systematic, it has a memory
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antigens An antigen is a substance/molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system, which will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader.
immunogenicity ability to stimulate production of specific lymphocytes
haptens A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself. are not immunogenic but reactive & bind with other proteins, making them “foreign”
immunocompetence Immunocompetence is the ability of the body to produce a normal immune response following exposure to an antigen.
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immunological tolerance Immune tolerance or immunological tolerance is the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen.
Functions of B lymphocytes exposure of B cells to appropriate Ag initiates growth, forming memory cells (impt in active immunity) and plasma cells (produce Ab’s specific to Ag)
complement represent group of plasma proteins, inactive in circulation upon activation, via either the classical or alternative pathway, final product is a MAC, that causes cell lysis in addition, other fragments created which serve to initiate chemotaxis, phagocytosis & histamine release
Functions of T lymphocytes T cells are a diverse lot and more complex than B cells in both classification & function T cells most efficient against microorganisms that live inside the cells of the body
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granzymes Granzymes are serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells.
T lymphocyte activation T cell R does not recognize free Ag thus Ag must be “presented” to a T cell via an APC, or Ag-presenting cell
Histocompatibility Antigens represent cellular “identity tags”, genetic markers of biological self
inflammation a localized event, involves aspects of innate & adaptive immunity neutrophils 1st to scene, release chemical signals to recruit other immune cells. as immune cells “gear up” for combat & then clean up, a variety of chemicals are released that lead to the characteristic signs of inflammation: redness & warmth (histamine-stimulated VD), swelling (edema) and pain is a protective response, designed to contain & eliminate harmful intruders
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active humoral immunity involves B cells being exposed to Ag; immunological memory develops; long-term protection - getting infection, getting vaccine with dead infection
passive humoral immunity administration of Ab’s; does not convey memory, no B cell challenged; short-lived protection -antibodies pass from mother, injection of immune serum
immunological memory represented by memory cells & responsible for what occurs during next exposure to a particular Ag secondary immune response rapid, prolonged & more efficient response
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 fluid balancereturns fluid from interstitial space to circulation; enters lymphatic capillaries, forming lymph
 chyleChyle (from the Greek word chylos, meaning juice) is a milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats, or free fatty acids (FFAs).
 fat absorptionabsorb fats & other fat-soluble substances from digestive system via lacteals
 lactealsA lacteal is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.
 defenseorgans/tissues serve as “filters”
removing microbes & foreign substances
cells
provide immunological defense against disease-causing agents
 lymphatic capillariesLymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny thin-walled vessels that are closed at one end and are located in the spaces between cells throughout the body, except in the central nervous system, and in non-vascular tissues.
 lymph nodeA lymph node is a small ball-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach/gut and linked by lymphatic vessels.
 Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses: are nonselect and act immediately; does not distinguish one threat from another; present at birth (1&2)
 first line of defenseskin and mucosadefenses at body surface
external body membranes
 second line of defenseutilize antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes & other specialized cells that act to inhibit further invasion; includes inflammation; is signaled by chemicals released when 1st line of defense is penetrated
 Adaptive (Specific) Defenses: represents body’s ability to mount an attack against specific foreign invaders (3)
 third line of defenseis body’s specific defenses
function of lymphocyte activities
 internal defensephagocytes, fever, NK cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation
 humoral immunityThe Humoral Immune Response (HIR) is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies (as opposed to cell-mediated immunity, which involves T lymphocytes) produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). provided by antibodies in body fluids, produced by plasma cells
 cellular immunityCell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies or complement but rather involves the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
 activation of innate immunitydistinguishes between “self”, the body’s own cells, and invading/ foreign organisms/molecules
 PAMPsPathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, are molecules associated with groups of pathogens, that are recognized by cells of the innate immune system.
 toll-like RToll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. recognize specific class of invading organisms
once activated, release cytokines
 phagocytePhagocytes are the white blood cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
 neutrophils most abundant
phagocytic upon encounter with foreign intruder
1st to enter infected area, are mobile & quick to phagocytize
 mononuclear phagocyte system The mononuclear phagocyte system is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue. monocytes in blood and macrophage when in tissues
 organ-specific phagocytes of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs & brain microglia in brain tissue
kupffer cells in liver
 chemokinescreate a “chemical trail” for phagocytes to follow
 chemotaxischemical trail phagocytes follow
 feveran abnormally high body temperature. resetting the body’s “thermostat” in the hypothalamus. accomplished by the release of pyrogens from activated macrophages & leukocytes when exposed to foreign substances (referrred to as endogenous pyrogens)
fever causes an increase in body’s metabolism, thus accelerating repair processes & impacts bacterial replication
 interferonssmall proteins that protect body against viral infections
short-acting
produced by viral infected cells
are not virus-specific, so provide protection from a variety of viruses
considered a cytokine
 cytokinechemical messengers released by tissue cells to coordinate local activities
 adaptive immunityinvolves the ability to recognize, respond to and remember a particular substance
requires a “meeting” or to be primed by an initial exposure to a specific antigen before it can protect the body
-it is specific, it is systematic, it has a memory
 antigensAn antigen is a substance/molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system, which will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader.
 immunogenicityability to stimulate production of specific lymphocytes
 haptensA hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself. are not immunogenic but reactive & bind with other proteins, making them “foreign”
 immunocompetence Immunocompetence is the ability of the body to produce a normal immune response following exposure to an antigen.
 immunological toleranceImmune tolerance or immunological tolerance is the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen.
  Functions of B lymphocytes exposure of B cells to appropriate Ag initiates growth, forming memory cells (impt in active immunity) and plasma cells (produce Ab’s specific to Ag)
 complementrepresent group of plasma proteins, inactive in circulation
upon activation, via either the classical or alternative pathway, final product is a MAC, that causes cell lysis
in addition, other fragments created which serve to initiate chemotaxis, phagocytosis & histamine release
 Functions of T lymphocytesT cells are a diverse lot and more complex than B cells in both classification & function
T cells most efficient against microorganisms that live inside the cells of the body
 granzymes Granzymes are serine proteases that are released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells.
 T lymphocyte activationT cell R does not recognize free Ag thus Ag must be “presented” to a T cell via an APC, or Ag-presenting cell
 Histocompatibility Antigensrepresent cellular “identity tags”, genetic markers of biological self
 inflammationa localized event, involves aspects of innate & adaptive immunity
neutrophils 1st to scene, release chemical signals to recruit other immune cells. as immune cells “gear up” for combat & then clean up, a variety of chemicals are released that lead to the characteristic signs of inflammation: redness & warmth (histamine-stimulated VD), swelling (edema) and pain
is a protective response, designed to contain & eliminate harmful intruders
 active humoral immunityinvolves B cells being exposed to Ag; immunological memory develops; long-term protection
- getting infection, getting vaccine with dead infection
 passive humoral immunityadministration of Ab’s; does not convey memory, no B cell challenged; short-lived protection
-antibodies pass from mother, injection of immune serum
 immunological memoryrepresented by memory cells & responsible for what occurs during next exposure to a particular Ag
secondary immune response
rapid, prolonged & more efficient response
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