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Class:BIS 002B - Introduction to Biology
Subject:Biological Sciences
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Fall 2013
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ecology the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment 

the fundamental goal is to determine the biological and physical factors that determine the distribution and abundance of species 

environmental science and conservation biology use the principles of ecology to help solve environmental problems 
environmentalism is a concern for the conservation and improvement of the natural environment both for its own sake as well as its importance to civilization 

why is it important to study ecology all connected to each other through environment 
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evolution simply a change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual . 
in biological context, these changes are heritable via the genetic material from one generation to the next

a population evolves when individuals with different genetic make up or alleles survive or reproduce at different rates

why we study ecology and evolution together ecology influences evolution: habitats, the physical environment and other species all affect how species evolve and adapt 

AND

evolution influences ecology: past evolutionary history influences the present characteristics of species and which species are present in a given habitat 

connection of lyme disease acorn production causes the coincidence in space (oak patches) and time of high densities of larval ticks and the tick host most capable of infecting ticks with the bacterium 
-adult ticks drop off deer, lay eggs and larval ticks infest mice
-new infected adult ticks move onto deer int the following spring and summer 
-deer export ticks to habitats (suburbs, woods) where hikers or dog walkers encounter ticks

Lessons from Lyme disease -complex interactions between the physical and biological environment have large impacts on humans and have large impacts generally on biodiversity and ecosystems 
-these interactions are not easily predictable 
-ecology is about understanding and predicting these connections 
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species diversity a measure that combines both richness and evenness

species richness the number of species in a given area

species evenness the degree to which species are equally abundant 
biological diversity occurs at many levels species diversity across physical environments: habitat or ecosystem ( river lake ocean)
range of branches on the evolutionary tree of life: higher taxa ( genera, orders, phyla) and functional groups (predators) 
-many different species 
-heritable differences among individuals of the same species: genetic 
-trait variation among individuals with the same genes caused by changes in the environment: plasticity 
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Morphological Species individuals are grouped into species based on their similar appearances
Benefit: similar appearance is often the result of common genetic ancestry (shared genes), practically simple to apply

Issues: within species variation can pose problems, convergent forms of distantly related species 

genetic isolation, but not morphological differentiation: Morphologically identical, clearly closely related. mostly geographically non overlapping. however, differences in song prevent from interbreeding 
Carolus Linneas used morphology to develop a classification system based on Latin Binomials 
Biological Species Ernst Mayr 
species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such groups 

Advantage: had clear biological and evolutionary meaning 
Disadvantages: can be hard to apply. potential vs actual interbreeding in Nature; difficult to apply to species that reproduce without mating 
ex. The California Salamanders in a ring 

how many described species? 2 million described species 

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Sir Robert May Theory on pop size estimated the slope of the line that describes the number of species based on body size
assumes we have a good estimate of larger things, provides us with an estimate of the numbers of smaller things 
10-50 million 

Erwin's Estimate of species 30 Million 
used the beetles to predict 

Boreal Forest biodiversity : low 
habitat loss: low 
threats: warming 

distribution of ecosystems described by (mostly) temperature 
and moisture gradients 

global diversity gradients: high in wet, warm productive environments; low in cold and dry environments 

most groups, both marine and terrestrial environments show increasing diversity towards the tropics 

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Ecological hypotheses for Why tropics are more Diverse more warmth and moisture leads to 
higher primary productivity (solar energy)
more stable, predictable environments 
higher carrying capacities of populations 
more life; more species, more specialized species 

Evolutionary Hypotheses for high diversity in tropics higher diversification rates 
lower extinction rates (more stable environment) 
Historical hypotheses for higher biodiversity in tropics more time for evolution 
what determines climate? incident solar radiation (varies with season and latitude) 
air circulation driven by solar radiation and Earth's rotation 

when the sun is directly overhead, the atmosphere is heated causing air to rise 
as it rises, it cools and cool air holds less moisture than warm air 

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ICTZ where moist air rises from the surface it condenses as it cools, producing precipitation and wet regions (ITCZ) 
where it sinks aloft, if is dry, resulting in deserts 30 degrees N and S of latitude 

shifts seasonally 

functional diversity diversity generated by species carrying different functions
autotroph make energy (food) from inorganic materials

photoautotrophs use light as the energy source to make food (energy) from inorganic materials

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chemoautotrophs derive their energy from chemical reactions 
methanogens
halophiles
thermoacidphiles

heterotrophs derive energy (food) from other organisms (organic sources)
C3 plants when water is limiting, then stomata  close and as photosynthesis occurs, then CO2 concentration drops and O2 concentration increases 

most plants 
C4 plants tropical grasses 
spatially separate cycles so that CO2 concentration remains high where it enters photosystem 

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CAM Plants crussulaceae, desert succulents
day/night cycles, different pathway
maintains photosynthesis with minimal water loss

fungal associates rhizobium bacteria provide N for legumes
mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient and water uptake by plants 
root/ shoot trade off

mycorrhizal networks can enhance nutrient acquisition, but cost carbon to maintain 
interplant nutrient transfer among vascular plants through a common mycorrhizal network 

herbivores consume plant material 
dentition for grinding plant matter 
piercing or sucking mouthparts in some insects 
long gut to aid in digestion of low-quality plant matter 
enzymes to detoxify chemical defenses

carnivores attack and consume animal material 
adaptations to subdue or pursue prey
nematocysts (stinging cells) sharp teeth, claws etc

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omnivores consume both plant and animal matter 
generalist morphologies 
may be indiscriminate feeders

detritivores consume plant or animal matter 
mobile animals that ingest organic matter 
fungi 
low quality food

suspension feeder or filter feeder
remove particles from the water 

deposit feeders consume dead or organic matter

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predator active hunter of live organisms using speed and or stealth 

symbiont live in or on another organism and obtain nutrition from that organism (their host)
parasitic: benefit comes at the expense of the host 
mutualist: host benefits as well

why specialize? increased efficiency of predation on preferred prey 

hummingbirds, parasites, some sea slugs

why generalize? balanced diet, dilute toxins, reduced search costs

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what determines prey choice? 1. effort required to capture and consume prey
-relative size of predator and prey
-prey defenses (spines, shells, ability to hide or escape)
2. Value of the prey
-energy content 
-presence of rare/ critical nutrients 
-defenses that reduce digestibility 
-toxic chemicals
ideally  a predator would consume high value prey that have little cost 
maximize the difference between costs and benefits

How might the optimal solution change with the environment? at low prey density, cost of finding new prey is high relative to cost of handling 

as prey density increases, cost of finding new prey is lower so it pays to only bother with the most profitable prey

When to generalize? predators with short handling times relative to search times should generalize because it costs little to process any prey captured relative to the costs of finding the next prey item 

birds feeding on insects, suspension feeding fish and whales


when to be selective? predators with long handling times relative to search time should be selective because of the costs of locating prey are negligible, but the costs of processing prey can be high 

sharks, lions

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probability of being eaten= detection 
capture 
consumption

*won't be solving this

camouflage coloration or patterning that renders an animal cryptic and less vulnerable to detection
cryptic coloration: color change can occur on a long timescale (months) or rapidly
cost of being cryptic: tied to particular habitats
some carry it with them and others do not
detection remain in inaccessible locations

burrowing, habitat choice
inside vegetation vs outside vegetation and the food choices that come with that

capture agility, accessibility, speed
reducing the probability of capture: refuges in size
individual size determines predator risk
predators may alter foraging behavior to avoid their predators
safety in numbers a reduced probability of capture in a group

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consumption animals can be chemically nasty particularly those that are slow or easily caught
so some may advertise the fact that they are there and that they do not taste good
animals also have body armor, shells, horns, spines, etc
 
PLANTS: 
unpalatable, physical defenses 
hairs, thorns, poison ivy

avoiding disease immune system 
behavioral mechanisms 
cultural mechanisms

countries with warm climates susceptible to food spoilage have spicier food

niche the set of environmental conditions under which organisms can grow and reproduce 

stressful conditions are those outside the normal optimum zone
without adaptations stress leads to decreased performance

organisms gain heat from solar radiation 
conduction from objects in the environment

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organisms lose heat from conduction to cooler objects
convection by air cooler than body temperature
radiation if warmer than environment 
evaporation of water results in heat loss

ectotherms use external sources of heat to regulate body temperature 
exhibit behaviors or morphologies to aid in heat gain or loss
most species are ectotherms

endotherms maintain body temperature by the production of heat within their bodies (burning fat, shivering, panting) 

a high benefit- high cost strategy that works well provided that resources (fuel for producing heat) are predictably abundant 

acclimation reversible changes in an organisms's phenotype (morphology, physiology, etc) that allow it to perform better in the environment in which it occurs

like world class swimmer with 40% body fat for internal wet suit

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adaptation: evolutionary change in genotype that maximize performance
innuit people have lived above the artic circle for 10,000 years
barrrel shaped bodies, short limbs, sub cut. fat all over body, shunt blood to extremities when cold 

mechanism for reducing water loss morphology: color affects heat absorption

behavior: seeking cool, moist locations during warm parts of the day 
burrows cracks pools in intertidal organisms

morphological adaptations to water stress in plants decrease loss: 
waxy covering 
reduce stomatal opening 
wilting (reduces surface area and heat from sun)

increase uptake 
deep tap roots
store water during times of plenty like cactus

isomotic seawater
equal conc of solutes in an dout 
type of regulation: osmoconformer: no regulation

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hypoosmotic freshwater

environment is too dilute water enters body from environment 

type of regulation: hyperosmotic

hyperosmotic or vapor pressure deficit hypersaline or air 

environment is too concentrated (little water relative to other stuff), loss of water to environment 

type of regulation: hypposmotic 

direct development newborns emerge from mother egg similar to adults 

developmental strategy 

indirect development involves a larval stage and metamorphosis. Larvae may develop with mother (brooded) or outside the mother (broadcast spawning) 

developmental strategy

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marine dispersal strategy dispersal phase when small
main feeding and growth phase when large

freshwater dispersal strategy main feeding and growth when small and dispersal when large
trophic as a suffix means having to do with the organisms feeding mechanism
planktotropic feeding on plankton 
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lecithotrophic is provisioned as a larvae with all the resources it will use in its larval stage; does not feed 
non-pelagic does not move through the water column (pelagic environment)
short plant dispersal syndromes ballistic 
gravity 
ants

medium plant dispersal syndromes wind 
winged 
microscopic 
water 

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long distance dispersal for plants internal dispersal (fruit seeds)

external animal dispersal (barbed seeds)
r-selected species rapid growth and development 
small body size
early reproduction
short life expectancy
high maximum growth rate
large number of offspring 
high productivity 
one time reproduction semelparous 

k-selected species slow growth, investment in self
large body size
delayed reproduction
long life expectancy 
low max growth rate 
small number of offspring 
good parental care 
high efficiency 
repeated reproduction (iteroparous)

conditions that favor r-selected environmental conditions that keep populations at low density 
environment is: harsh, variable, unpredictable
mortality is: 
independent of other organisms, often catastrophic 
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conditions that favor k-selected environmental conditions that allow high density populations 
environment is: stable, benign, predictable, resources may be scarce
 Mortality is: 
often due to interactions with other organisms 

annual complete life history in a single year, reproduce then die 
a special case of semelparity 
perennial life history takes multiple years to complete 

implies iteroparity

three types of semelparity 1 generation per year
more than one generation per year
more than one year per generation

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causes for birth and death rates to change with increasing density resource depletion (energy limitation) 
decreased per individual birth rates (fecundity)
decreased individual growth (fewer offspring)
increased death rate due to starvation 
waste product accumulation 
space limitation  (crowding in plants)
predators 
intraspecific (cannibalism)
interspecific (predation or disease)
dispersal or emigration
what do we use the logistic growth model for? maximum sustained yield- fisheries
survivorship curve: game management
reproductive value: game management, breeding
population viability: conservation biology

Demography account for individual age structure and growth rate. What is young of the year are less valuable to harvest than older individuals?
Determining age class contribution to population maintenance
application: life insurance 

Definition: a study of the vital statistics (birth, death) within a population and how they vary with age

help estimate r from a structured population 
life table: vital statistics of a cohort (group of individuals born about the same time)

help estimate r from a structured population

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Survivorship Ix 
proportion of individuals surviving to age or stage x

Type I most individuals survive to old age
Type II constant probability of dying 
Type III most newly born individuals die, but survival of adults is high 
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Age-specific fecundity mx

average number of offspring produced by an individual of age or stage x
reproductive value rx
the value of a particular age class (x) to population reproduction (Ixmx) 


net reproductive value Ro
average number of offspring produced by an individual during its entire lifetime

the product of survival and fecundity, summed over all age classes 

What you need to know to determine reproductive value 1. age-specific survivorship 
If type III survivorship: young individuals worth little (most die)
If type I survivorship: young individuals worth much, as they have high probability of survival and a lifetime of reproduction 
2. age-specific fecundity 
age of first reproduction: determines how long an individual must survive before having any reproductive value 

Reproductive value tells you which age classes will most influence future population growth
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population viability assessment estimating the likelihood that a population of a given size and demographic structure will persist for some period of time into the future 
demographic or census based methods 
yellowstone grizzly, stellar sea lions

theory of evolution foundations of the theory (what darwin had to work with)
two great insights: 
descent with modification 
evolution by natural selection
why are there so many kinds of organisms? 
why do some organisms resemble one another?
why do some organisms seem so well designed?
Charles Lyell 1797-1875
"The present is the key to the past" 
past geological processes are the same as in the present day 
geological change is very slow

James Hutton geological catastrophism gives way to uniformitarianism/ gradualism 
1726-1797 
the earth is continuously modified (volcanoes, erosion, sedimentation, wind, earthquakes) 

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Cuvier the fossil record shows changes over time within particular locations. Why? paleontologist, anatomist, anti-evolutionist 
species are immutable 
all species created separately
boundaries between fossil strata caused by floods, earthquakes, etc
new species appeared in more recent layers by re-populating from elsewhere 
extinctions happen 
CATASTROPHISM 
age of earth age of life on earth 4.5 billion years

3.5 billion years

by Darwin's time scientists generally accepted that 1. organisms have changed to over time (evolved)

2. extinctions were commonplace

3. the earth is OLD much older than biblical estimates of 5000-9000 years
Lamark's proposal principle of use and disuse 
disuse leads to vestigial structures and organs
Inheritance of acquired characteristics through use and disuse 

like giraffes getting longer necks

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How does descent with modification explain the origin of new species? they evolve from ancestral species 
How does descent with modification explain: species resemblances? vestigial structues? inheritance from a common ancestor 
HOMOLOGY 
What causes evolutionary change? Why are species so well adapted? evolution by natural selection 

 " If you accept that natural traits are variable, that variation is heritable, and that there is a struggle for existence, evolution by natural selection must follow."
What Darwin already knew individuals vary within species 
some variation is heritable (offspring tend to resemble parents)
plant and animal breeders create new varieties by artificial selection 

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Darwin's insights from Malthus populations should increase exponentially if all offspring survive to reproduce 

but populations do not increase exponentially: they remain at a relatively constant size

limited availability of resources, predation or disease control population size: most offspring do not survive to reproduce 

=A STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE 
Darwin's 3 key inferences 1. A struggle for existence; most individuals cannot realize maximum fecundity 
2. Natural trait variation produces winners and losers in the struggle for existence (differential survival and reproduction) 
3. heritable traits that enhance an individual's survivorship and reproduction in nature ( relative to other individuals) will increase in frequency in a population over time

Thought questions What observations formed the basis for Darwin's theory?
What is modification by descent?
What biological phenomena does it explain?
What did Darwin learn from plant and animal breeding?
What are the necessary conditions for evolution by natural selection to occur? 
evidence for evolution by natural selection field observations
reciprocal transplants and common gardens
resurrection experiments
experimental evolution 

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selection differential S
the change in trait mean within a generation after selection

heritability h2
the proportion of trait variation explained by inheritance 
possible range from 0-1
0: all variation is environmental 
1: all variation is genetic 

common garden experiment individuals are all in a common environment so variation among them must be genetically based 

reciprocal transplant experiment grow plants from Sweden and Italy in common gardens in Sweden and Italy 

Measure lifetime fitness for all individuals ( survival and seed number)

look for home court advantage

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a resurrection study with wild mustard 1997: seeds collected from 2 populations (wet and dry sites) near Irvine, Ca in 1997, and stored in the lab 
2000-2004: 4 years of El Nino drought with early soil drying in spring 
2004: seeds again collected from plants growing in the same sites
seeds from both generations grown together in a common garden in the greenhouse

Dry places flowering much sooner than wet places
as time went on all shifted towards flowering sooner

experimental evolution: the case of the alpine sky pilot
pollinated by flies and other small insects
narrow flowers (small corolla flare)
alpine populations 
bumblebee pollinated
wide flowers
bees prefer wide flowers, and therefore wide flowers set more seed
corolla flare is heritable
grow progeny from both cross types (w/ bees and without) and measure corolla flare
was selected for and showed response 
Questions for thought How do you measure selection?
How do you predict evolutionary change?
How do you test whether evolutionary change has occurred? 
How do you test for local adaptation?
How do you identify the selective agent that caused the evolutionary change? 
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 ecologythe study of the interactions among organisms and their environment 

the fundamental goal is to determine the biological and physical factors that determine the distribution and abundance of species 

 environmental science and conservation biologyuse the principles of ecology to help solve environmental problems 
 environmentalismis a concern for the conservation and improvement of the natural environment both for its own sake as well as its importance to civilization 

 why is it important to study ecologyall connected to each other through environment 
 evolutionsimply a change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual . 
in biological context, these changes are heritable via the genetic material from one generation to the next

a population evolves when individuals with different genetic make up or alleles survive or reproduce at different rates

 why we study ecology and evolution togetherecology influences evolution: habitats, the physical environment and other species all affect how species evolve and adapt 

AND

evolution influences ecology: past evolutionary history influences the present characteristics of species and which species are present in a given habitat 

 connection of lyme diseaseacorn production causes the coincidence in space (oak patches) and time of high densities of larval ticks and the tick host most capable of infecting ticks with the bacterium 
-adult ticks drop off deer, lay eggs and larval ticks infest mice
-new infected adult ticks move onto deer int the following spring and summer 
-deer export ticks to habitats (suburbs, woods) where hikers or dog walkers encounter ticks

 Lessons from Lyme disease-complex interactions between the physical and biological environment have large impacts on humans and have large impacts generally on biodiversity and ecosystems 
-these interactions are not easily predictable 
-ecology is about understanding and predicting these connections 
 species diversitya measure that combines both richness and evenness

 species richnessthe number of species in a given area

 species evennessthe degree to which species are equally abundant 
 biological diversity occurs at many levelsspecies diversity across physical environments: habitat or ecosystem ( river lake ocean)
range of branches on the evolutionary tree of life: higher taxa ( genera, orders, phyla) and functional groups (predators) 
-many different species 
-heritable differences among individuals of the same species: genetic 
-trait variation among individuals with the same genes caused by changes in the environment: plasticity 
 Morphological Speciesindividuals are grouped into species based on their similar appearances
Benefit: similar appearance is often the result of common genetic ancestry (shared genes), practically simple to apply

Issues: within species variation can pose problems, convergent forms of distantly related species 

genetic isolation, but not morphological differentiation: Morphologically identical, clearly closely related. mostly geographically non overlapping. however, differences in song prevent from interbreeding 
 Carolus Linneasused morphology to develop a classification system based on Latin Binomials 
 Biological SpeciesErnst Mayr 
species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such groups 

Advantage: had clear biological and evolutionary meaning 
Disadvantages: can be hard to apply. potential vs actual interbreeding in Nature; difficult to apply to species that reproduce without mating 
ex. The California Salamanders in a ring 

 how many described species?2 million described species 

 Sir Robert May Theory on pop sizeestimated the slope of the line that describes the number of species based on body size
assumes we have a good estimate of larger things, provides us with an estimate of the numbers of smaller things 
10-50 million 

 Erwin's Estimate of species30 Million 
used the beetles to predict 

 Boreal Forestbiodiversity : low 
habitat loss: low 
threats: warming 

 distribution of ecosystems described by (mostly)temperature 
and moisture gradients 

global diversity gradients: high in wet, warm productive environments; low in cold and dry environments 

most groups, both marine and terrestrial environments show increasing diversity towards the tropics 

 Ecological hypotheses for Why tropics are more Diversemore warmth and moisture leads to 
higher primary productivity (solar energy)
more stable, predictable environments 
higher carrying capacities of populations 
more life; more species, more specialized species 

 Evolutionary Hypotheses for high diversity in tropicshigher diversification rates 
lower extinction rates (more stable environment) 
 Historical hypotheses for higher biodiversity in tropicsmore time for evolution 
 what determines climate?incident solar radiation (varies with season and latitude) 
air circulation driven by solar radiation and Earth's rotation 

when the sun is directly overhead, the atmosphere is heated causing air to rise 
as it rises, it cools and cool air holds less moisture than warm air 

 ICTZwhere moist air rises from the surface it condenses as it cools, producing precipitation and wet regions (ITCZ) 
where it sinks aloft, if is dry, resulting in deserts 30 degrees N and S of latitude 

shifts seasonally 

 functional diversitydiversity generated by species carrying different functions
 autotrophmake energy (food) from inorganic materials

 photoautotrophsuse light as the energy source to make food (energy) from inorganic materials

 chemoautotrophsderive their energy from chemical reactions 
methanogens
halophiles
thermoacidphiles

 heterotrophsderive energy (food) from other organisms (organic sources)
 C3 plantswhen water is limiting, then stomata  close and as photosynthesis occurs, then CO2 concentration drops and O2 concentration increases 

most plants 
 C4 plantstropical grasses 
spatially separate cycles so that CO2 concentration remains high where it enters photosystem 

 CAM Plantscrussulaceae, desert succulents
day/night cycles, different pathway
maintains photosynthesis with minimal water loss

 fungal associatesrhizobium bacteria provide N for legumes
mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient and water uptake by plants 
root/ shoot trade off

mycorrhizal networks can enhance nutrient acquisition, but cost carbon to maintain 
interplant nutrient transfer among vascular plants through a common mycorrhizal network 

 herbivoresconsume plant material 
dentition for grinding plant matter 
piercing or sucking mouthparts in some insects 
long gut to aid in digestion of low-quality plant matter 
enzymes to detoxify chemical defenses

 carnivoresattack and consume animal material 
adaptations to subdue or pursue prey
nematocysts (stinging cells) sharp teeth, claws etc

 omnivoresconsume both plant and animal matter 
generalist morphologies 
may be indiscriminate feeders

 detritivoresconsume plant or animal matter 
mobile animals that ingest organic matter 
fungi 
low quality food

 suspension feeder or filter feeder
remove particles from the water 

 deposit feedersconsume dead or organic matter

 predatoractive hunter of live organisms using speed and or stealth 

 symbiontlive in or on another organism and obtain nutrition from that organism (their host)
parasitic: benefit comes at the expense of the host 
mutualist: host benefits as well

 why specialize?increased efficiency of predation on preferred prey 

hummingbirds, parasites, some sea slugs

 why generalize?balanced diet, dilute toxins, reduced search costs

 what determines prey choice?1. effort required to capture and consume prey
-relative size of predator and prey
-prey defenses (spines, shells, ability to hide or escape)
2. Value of the prey
-energy content 
-presence of rare/ critical nutrients 
-defenses that reduce digestibility 
-toxic chemicals
ideally  a predator would consume high value prey that have little cost 
maximize the difference between costs and benefits

 How might the optimal solution change with the environment?at low prey density, cost of finding new prey is high relative to cost of handling 

as prey density increases, cost of finding new prey is lower so it pays to only bother with the most profitable prey

 When to generalize?predators with short handling times relative to search times should generalize because it costs little to process any prey captured relative to the costs of finding the next prey item 

birds feeding on insects, suspension feeding fish and whales


 when to be selective?predators with long handling times relative to search time should be selective because of the costs of locating prey are negligible, but the costs of processing prey can be high 

sharks, lions

 probability of being eaten=detection 
capture 
consumption

*won't be solving this

 camouflagecoloration or patterning that renders an animal cryptic and less vulnerable to detection
cryptic coloration: color change can occur on a long timescale (months) or rapidly
cost of being cryptic: tied to particular habitats
some carry it with them and others do not
 detectionremain in inaccessible locations

burrowing, habitat choice
inside vegetation vs outside vegetation and the food choices that come with that

 captureagility, accessibility, speed
reducing the probability of capture: refuges in size
individual size determines predator risk
predators may alter foraging behavior to avoid their predators
safety in numbers a reduced probability of capture in a group

 consumptionanimals can be chemically nasty particularly those that are slow or easily caught
so some may advertise the fact that they are there and that they do not taste good
animals also have body armor, shells, horns, spines, etc
 
PLANTS: 
unpalatable, physical defenses 
hairs, thorns, poison ivy

 avoiding diseaseimmune system 
behavioral mechanisms 
cultural mechanisms

countries with warm climates susceptible to food spoilage have spicier food

 nichethe set of environmental conditions under which organisms can grow and reproduce 

stressful conditions are those outside the normal optimum zone
without adaptations stress leads to decreased performance

 organisms gain heat fromsolar radiation 
conduction from objects in the environment

 organisms lose heat fromconduction to cooler objects
convection by air cooler than body temperature
radiation if warmer than environment 
evaporation of water results in heat loss

 ectothermsuse external sources of heat to regulate body temperature 
exhibit behaviors or morphologies to aid in heat gain or loss
most species are ectotherms

 endothermsmaintain body temperature by the production of heat within their bodies (burning fat, shivering, panting) 

a high benefit- high cost strategy that works well provided that resources (fuel for producing heat) are predictably abundant 

 acclimationreversible changes in an organisms's phenotype (morphology, physiology, etc) that allow it to perform better in the environment in which it occurs

like world class swimmer with 40% body fat for internal wet suit

 adaptation:evolutionary change in genotype that maximize performance
innuit people have lived above the artic circle for 10,000 years
barrrel shaped bodies, short limbs, sub cut. fat all over body, shunt blood to extremities when cold 

 mechanism for reducing water lossmorphology: color affects heat absorption

behavior: seeking cool, moist locations during warm parts of the day 
burrows cracks pools in intertidal organisms

 morphological adaptations to water stress in plantsdecrease loss: 
waxy covering 
reduce stomatal opening 
wilting (reduces surface area and heat from sun)

increase uptake 
deep tap roots
store water during times of plenty like cactus

 isomoticseawater
equal conc of solutes in an dout 
type of regulation: osmoconformer: no regulation

 hypoosmoticfreshwater

environment is too dilute water enters body from environment 

type of regulation: hyperosmotic

 hyperosmotic or vapor pressure deficithypersaline or air 

environment is too concentrated (little water relative to other stuff), loss of water to environment 

type of regulation: hypposmotic 

 direct developmentnewborns emerge from mother egg similar to adults 

developmental strategy 

 indirect developmentinvolves a larval stage and metamorphosis. Larvae may develop with mother (brooded) or outside the mother (broadcast spawning) 

developmental strategy

 marine dispersal strategydispersal phase when small
main feeding and growth phase when large

 freshwater dispersal strategymain feeding and growth when small and dispersal when large
 trophicas a suffix means having to do with the organisms feeding mechanism
 planktotropicfeeding on plankton 
 lecithotrophicis provisioned as a larvae with all the resources it will use in its larval stage; does not feed 
 non-pelagicdoes not move through the water column (pelagic environment)
 short plant dispersal syndromesballistic 
gravity 
ants

 medium plant dispersal syndromeswind 
winged 
microscopic 
water 

 long distance dispersal for plantsinternal dispersal (fruit seeds)

external animal dispersal (barbed seeds)
 r-selected speciesrapid growth and development 
small body size
early reproduction
short life expectancy
high maximum growth rate
large number of offspring 
high productivity 
one time reproduction semelparous 

 k-selected speciesslow growth, investment in self
large body size
delayed reproduction
long life expectancy 
low max growth rate 
small number of offspring 
good parental care 
high efficiency 
repeated reproduction (iteroparous)

 conditions that favor r-selectedenvironmental conditions that keep populations at low density 
environment is: harsh, variable, unpredictable
mortality is: 
independent of other organisms, often catastrophic 
 conditions that favor k-selectedenvironmental conditions that allow high density populations 
environment is: stable, benign, predictable, resources may be scarce
 Mortality is: 
often due to interactions with other organisms 

 annualcomplete life history in a single year, reproduce then die 
a special case of semelparity 
 perenniallife history takes multiple years to complete 

implies iteroparity

 three types of semelparity1 generation per year
more than one generation per year
more than one year per generation

 causes for birth and death rates to change with increasing densityresource depletion (energy limitation) 
decreased per individual birth rates (fecundity)
decreased individual growth (fewer offspring)
increased death rate due to starvation 
waste product accumulation 
space limitation  (crowding in plants)
predators 
intraspecific (cannibalism)
interspecific (predation or disease)
dispersal or emigration
 what do we use the logistic growth model for?maximum sustained yield- fisheries
survivorship curve: game management
reproductive value: game management, breeding
population viability: conservation biology

 Demographyaccount for individual age structure and growth rate. What is young of the year are less valuable to harvest than older individuals?
Determining age class contribution to population maintenance
application: life insurance 

Definition: a study of the vital statistics (birth, death) within a population and how they vary with age

help estimate r from a structured population 
 life table:vital statistics of a cohort (group of individuals born about the same time)

help estimate r from a structured population

 SurvivorshipIx 
proportion of individuals surviving to age or stage x

 Type Imost individuals survive to old age
 Type IIconstant probability of dying 
 Type IIImost newly born individuals die, but survival of adults is high 
 Age-specific fecunditymx

average number of offspring produced by an individual of age or stage x
 reproductive valuerx
the value of a particular age class (x) to population reproduction (Ixmx) 


 net reproductive valueRo
average number of offspring produced by an individual during its entire lifetime

the product of survival and fecundity, summed over all age classes 

 What you need to know to determine reproductive value1. age-specific survivorship 
If type III survivorship: young individuals worth little (most die)
If type I survivorship: young individuals worth much, as they have high probability of survival and a lifetime of reproduction 
2. age-specific fecundity 
age of first reproduction: determines how long an individual must survive before having any reproductive value 

Reproductive value tells you which age classes will most influence future population growth
 population viability assessmentestimating the likelihood that a population of a given size and demographic structure will persist for some period of time into the future 
demographic or census based methods 
yellowstone grizzly, stellar sea lions

 theory of evolutionfoundations of the theory (what darwin had to work with)
two great insights: 
descent with modification 
evolution by natural selection
why are there so many kinds of organisms? 
why do some organisms resemble one another?
why do some organisms seem so well designed?
 Charles Lyell1797-1875
"The present is the key to the past" 
past geological processes are the same as in the present day 
geological change is very slow

 James Huttongeological catastrophism gives way to uniformitarianism/ gradualism 
1726-1797 
the earth is continuously modified (volcanoes, erosion, sedimentation, wind, earthquakes) 

 Cuvierthe fossil record shows changes over time within particular locations. Why? paleontologist, anatomist, anti-evolutionist 
species are immutable 
all species created separately
boundaries between fossil strata caused by floods, earthquakes, etc
new species appeared in more recent layers by re-populating from elsewhere 
extinctions happen 
CATASTROPHISM 
 age of earth age of life on earth4.5 billion years

3.5 billion years

 by Darwin's time scientists generally accepted that1. organisms have changed to over time (evolved)

2. extinctions were commonplace

3. the earth is OLD much older than biblical estimates of 5000-9000 years
 Lamark's proposalprinciple of use and disuse 
disuse leads to vestigial structures and organs
Inheritance of acquired characteristics through use and disuse 

like giraffes getting longer necks

 How does descent with modification explain the origin of new species?they evolve from ancestral species 
 How does descent with modification explain: species resemblances? vestigial structues?inheritance from a common ancestor 
HOMOLOGY 
 What causes evolutionary change? Why are species so well adapted?evolution by natural selection 

 " If you accept that natural traits are variable, that variation is heritable, and that there is a struggle for existence, evolution by natural selection must follow."
 What Darwin already knewindividuals vary within species 
some variation is heritable (offspring tend to resemble parents)
plant and animal breeders create new varieties by artificial selection 

 Darwin's insights from Malthuspopulations should increase exponentially if all offspring survive to reproduce 

but populations do not increase exponentially: they remain at a relatively constant size

limited availability of resources, predation or disease control population size: most offspring do not survive to reproduce 

=A STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE 
 Darwin's 3 key inferences1. A struggle for existence; most individuals cannot realize maximum fecundity 
2. Natural trait variation produces winners and losers in the struggle for existence (differential survival and reproduction) 
3. heritable traits that enhance an individual's survivorship and reproduction in nature ( relative to other individuals) will increase in frequency in a population over time

 Thought questionsWhat observations formed the basis for Darwin's theory?
What is modification by descent?
What biological phenomena does it explain?
What did Darwin learn from plant and animal breeding?
What are the necessary conditions for evolution by natural selection to occur? 
 evidence for evolution by natural selectionfield observations
reciprocal transplants and common gardens
resurrection experiments
experimental evolution 

 selection differentialS
the change in trait mean within a generation after selection

 heritabilityh2
the proportion of trait variation explained by inheritance 
possible range from 0-1
0: all variation is environmental 
1: all variation is genetic 

 common garden experimentindividuals are all in a common environment so variation among them must be genetically based 

 reciprocal transplant experimentgrow plants from Sweden and Italy in common gardens in Sweden and Italy 

Measure lifetime fitness for all individuals ( survival and seed number)

look for home court advantage

 a resurrection study with wild mustard1997: seeds collected from 2 populations (wet and dry sites) near Irvine, Ca in 1997, and stored in the lab 
2000-2004: 4 years of El Nino drought with early soil drying in spring 
2004: seeds again collected from plants growing in the same sites
seeds from both generations grown together in a common garden in the greenhouse

Dry places flowering much sooner than wet places
as time went on all shifted towards flowering sooner

 experimental evolution: the case of the alpine sky pilot
pollinated by flies and other small insects
narrow flowers (small corolla flare)
alpine populations 
bumblebee pollinated
wide flowers
bees prefer wide flowers, and therefore wide flowers set more seed
corolla flare is heritable
grow progeny from both cross types (w/ bees and without) and measure corolla flare
was selected for and showed response 
 Questions for thoughtHow do you measure selection?
How do you predict evolutionary change?
How do you test whether evolutionary change has occurred? 
How do you test for local adaptation?
How do you identify the selective agent that caused the evolutionary change? 
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