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Chapter 1&2&3 - Flashcards

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Class:BLY 121 - General Biology I
Subject:Biology
University:University of South Alabama
Term:Spring 2010
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The first two scientist to observe cells Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek
A cell a highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution
The cell theory states that all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells
A phylogenetic tree A family tree of all living organisms
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A hypothesis is a proposed explanation
A prediction is something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid.
Louis Pasteur proved that cells arise from cells and not by spontaneous generation
Evolution means that species are related to one another and can change through time
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Natural selection explains how evolution occurs
Fitness the ability of an individual to produce offspring.
Adaptation a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
population A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time
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Two conditions must be met for natural sel (1) individuals in the population vary in characteristics that are heritable; and (2) in a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help individ
artificial selection individuals in a population are selected for mating based on particular traits
Speciation a divergence process in which natural selection has caused populations of one species to diverge to form new species
tree of life a family tree of organisms that describes the genealogical relationships among species with a single ancestral species at its base
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Taxonomy the effort to name and classify organisms.
genus made up of a closely related group of species
species made up of individuals that regularly breed together or have characteristics that are distinct from those of other species
Carl Woese studied small subunit rRNA, as a means for understanding the evolutionary relationships among organisms, created a new taxonomic level called the domain
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Four key points to experimental design a. Experimental controls must be included. b. All treatments must be handled in an identical manner. c. Randomization must be used to equalize other miscellaneous effects a&#x;
A null hypothesis specifies what we should observe if the hypothesis being tested doesnt hold
directed dispersal hypothesis states that capsaicin in chili peppers is an adaptation that discourages seed predation while not preventing seed dispersal
Elements of a Well-Designed Experiment (1)It included a control group (the hackberries) to check for other factors that might influence the outcome; (2) experimental conditions were controlled to eliminate ot&#x;
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atomic number number of protons
mass number the number of protons + neutrons of the most common isotope
valence The number of unpaired electrons in an atom
Covalent bond Each atom’s unpaired electrons are shared by both nuclei to fill their orbitals
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Nonpolar covalent bond Electrons are evenly shared between two atoms and the bond is symmetrical
Polar covalent bond Electrons are asymmetrically shared
Ionic bond Electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Cation An atom that loses an electron and becomes positively charged
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Anion An atom that gains an electron and becomes negatively charged
Structural formulas indicate which atoms are bonded together and whether the bonds are single, double, or triple bonds
The molecular weight the sum of the mass numbers of all the atoms in the molecule
One mole 6.022  1023 molecules, has a mass equal to the molecular weight expressed in grams
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molarity (M) The concentration of a substance in a solution which is the number of moles per liter
cohesion Binding between like molecules
adhesion Binding between unlike molecules
acid proton donor transfers a proton
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base accepts protons from the acids
Chemical equilibrium occurs when the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate and the quantities of reactants and products remain constant.
Endothermic absorb heat
exothermic release heat
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Energy the capacity to do work or supply heat
potential energy Stored energy
kinetic energy energy of movement
thermal energy measured as temperature
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first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved—it cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred or transformed
second law of thermodynamics states that entropy (S) always increases.
The Gibbs free-energy change (ΔG) determines whether a reaction is spontaneous or requires energy
exergonic spontaneous reaction ΔG < 0
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endergonic reaction that requires energy i ΔG > 0
a reaction that is at equilibrium ΔG = 0
Carbonyl groups Sites of reactions that link molecules into larger, more complex compounds
Hydroxyl groups Act as weak acids
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Phosphate groups Have two negative charges
Sulfhydryl groups Link together via disulfide bonds
structure of a protein analyzed at four levels (1) Amino acid sequence (2) Substructures called -helices and -pleated sheets (3) Interactions between amino acids that dictate a protein’s overall shape (4) Combinations of individual proteins that make up larger, multiunit molecules
amino acids have a central carbon atom with four bonds that bonds to (1) NH3+ (an amino functional group), (2) COOH (a carboxyl functional group), (3) H (a hydrogen atom), and (4) a variable side chain (R group).
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Nonpolar hydrophobic R-groups cannot form hydrogen bonds with water and tend to group together
hydrophilic R-groups interact readily with water
Isomers molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures
Monomers polymerize through condensation reactions, which through condensation reactions, which release a water molecule
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hydrolysis water reacts with a polymer to release a monomer
peptide bond Condensation reactions bond the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another
polypeptide flexible and has directionality (the N-terminus has a free amino group, the C-terminus a free carboxyl group), and its side chains extend out from the backbone
Proteins have four levels of structure primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
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Secondary structure hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl oxygen of one amino acid residue and the amino hydrogen of another. A polypeptide must bend to allow this hydrogen bonding and usually forms an a-helix or b-pleated sheet.
tertiary structure R-groups can interact with other side chains or with the peptide-bonded backbone, causing the polypeptide to bend and fold into a precise shape.
quaternary structure Some proteins contain several polypeptide subunits; the bonding of two or more subunits
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 The first two scientist to observe cellsRobert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek
 A cella highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution
 The cell theorystates that all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells
 A phylogenetic treeA family tree of all living organisms
 A hypothesisis a proposed explanation
 A predictionis something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid.
 Louis Pasteurproved that cells arise from cells and not by spontaneous generation
 Evolutionmeans that species are related to one another and can change through time
 Natural selectionexplains how evolution occurs
 Fitnessthe ability of an individual to produce offspring.
 Adaptationa trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
 populationA group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time
 Two conditions must be met for natural sel(1) individuals in the population vary in characteristics that are heritable; and (2) in a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help individ
 artificial selectionindividuals in a population are selected for mating based on particular traits
 Speciationa divergence process in which natural selection has caused populations of one species to diverge to form new species
 tree of lifea family tree of organisms that describes the genealogical relationships among species with a single ancestral species at its base
 Taxonomythe effort to name and classify organisms.
 genusmade up of a closely related group of species
 speciesmade up of individuals that regularly breed together or have characteristics that are distinct from those of other species
 Carl Woesestudied small subunit rRNA, as a means for understanding the evolutionary relationships among organisms, created a new taxonomic level called the domain
 Four key points to experimental designa. Experimental controls must be included.
b. All treatments must be handled in an identical manner.
c. Randomization must be used to equalize other miscellaneous effects a&#x;
 A null hypothesisspecifies what we should observe if the hypothesis being tested doesnt hold
 directed dispersal hypothesisstates that capsaicin in chili peppers is an adaptation that discourages seed predation while not preventing seed dispersal
 Elements of a Well-Designed Experiment(1)It included a control group (the hackberries) to check for other factors that might influence the outcome;

(2) experimental conditions were controlled to eliminate ot&#x;
 atomic numbernumber of protons
 mass number the number of protons + neutrons of the most common isotope
 valenceThe number of unpaired electrons in an atom
 Covalent bondEach atom’s unpaired electrons are shared by both nuclei to fill their orbitals
 Nonpolar covalent bondElectrons are evenly shared between two atoms and the bond is symmetrical
 Polar covalent bondElectrons are asymmetrically shared
 Ionic bondElectrons are transferred from one atom to another
 CationAn atom that loses an electron and becomes positively charged
 AnionAn atom that gains an electron and becomes negatively charged
 Structural formulas indicate which atoms are bonded together and whether the bonds are single, double, or triple bonds
 The molecular weight the sum of the mass numbers of all the atoms in the molecule
 One mole6.022  1023 molecules, has a mass equal to the molecular weight expressed in grams
 molarity (M)The concentration of a substance in a solution which is the number of moles per liter
 cohesionBinding between like molecules
 adhesionBinding between unlike molecules
 acidproton donor transfers a proton
 baseaccepts protons from the acids
 Chemical equilibriumoccurs when the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate and the quantities of reactants and products remain constant.
 Endothermicabsorb heat
 exothermicrelease heat
 Energythe capacity to do work or supply heat
 potential energyStored energy
 kinetic energy energy of movement
 thermal energymeasured as temperature
 first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved—it cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred or transformed
 second law of thermodynamics states that entropy (S) always increases.
 The Gibbs free-energy change (ΔG) determines whether a reaction is spontaneous or requires energy
 exergonic spontaneous reactionΔG < 0
 endergonic reaction that requires energy iΔG > 0
 a reaction that is at equilibriumΔG = 0
 Carbonyl groupsSites of reactions that link molecules into larger, more complex compounds
 Hydroxyl groupsAct as weak acids
 Phosphate groupsHave two negative charges
 Sulfhydryl groupsLink together via disulfide bonds
 structure of a protein analyzed at four levels(1) Amino acid sequence
(2) Substructures called -helices and -pleated sheets
(3) Interactions between amino acids that dictate a protein’s overall shape
(4) Combinations of individual proteins that make up larger, multiunit molecules
 amino acids have a central carbon atom with four bonds that bonds to (1) NH3+ (an amino functional group),
(2) COOH (a carboxyl functional group),
(3) H (a hydrogen atom), and
(4) a variable side chain (R group).
 Nonpolar hydrophobic R-groupscannot form hydrogen bonds with water and tend to group together
 hydrophilic R-groups interact readily with water
  Isomers molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures
 Monomers polymerize through condensation reactions, whichthrough condensation reactions, which release a water molecule
 hydrolysiswater reacts with a polymer to release a monomer
 peptide bond Condensation reactions bond the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another
 polypeptideflexible and has directionality (the N-terminus has a free amino group, the C-terminus a free carboxyl group), and its side chains extend out from the backbone
 Proteins have four levels of structureprimary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
 Secondary structure hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl oxygen of one amino acid residue and the amino hydrogen of another. A polypeptide must bend to allow this hydrogen bonding and usually forms an a-helix or b-pleated sheet.
 tertiary structureR-groups can interact with other side chains or with the peptide-bonded backbone, causing the polypeptide to bend and fold into a precise shape.
 quaternary structureSome proteins contain several polypeptide subunits; the bonding of two or more subunits
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