Koofers

Bio 2 lecture terms- Test 1 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:BSC 2011 - HON BIO SCI II
Subject:BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
University:Florida State University
Term:Spring 2012
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Scientific Method
  1. observe something
  2. ask a question
  3. form a hypothesis
  4. make a prediction
  5.  experiment
  6. revise your hypothesis
3 Signaling Stages (4b)
  1. reception
  2. transduction
  3. response
2 chromatin modification methods
  1. DNA methylation
  2. histone acetylation
falsifiability
  • something must have the ability to be tested or proven wrong to be considered a theory
Generated by Koofers.com
3 entities and processes of central dogma
  • entities:
  1. DNA
  2. RNA
  3. protein
  • processes:
  1. replication
  2. transcription
  3. translation
Replication
  • Where: nucleus
  • What: replicate DNA 
Transcription
  • Where: nucleus to cytoplasm
  • What: DNA to mRNA, RNA processing
Translation
  • Where: ribosome in the cytoplasm
  • What: mRNA to protein
Generated by Koofers.com
tRNA transfer RNA: attaches to ribosomes and matches anticodons that code for specific amino acids to codons on mRNA during translation to form proteins
mutation and different types
  • change in the genetic material of a cell
  1. point mutation
  2. substitutions
  3. indels (insertions & deletions)
gene unit of hereditary info on part of a chromosome
chromosome organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells
Generated by Koofers.com
chromatin
  • The major structures in DNA compaction 
  • DNA, the nucleosome...
euchromatin structure and function
  • loosely packed DNA and proteins
  • wraps around nucleosomes
  • actively transcribed
heterochromatin structure and function
  • tightly packed DNA and proteins
  • genetically inactive (genes repressed, not transcribed)
  • eukaryotes only
  • involved in gene regulation and chromosome structure
control elements (and transcription)
  • regulatory proteins with active sites respond to a signal and bind to DNA sequences near a gene
  • DNA sequences "upstream" of a gene
Generated by Koofers.com
differentiation expressing different genes to make cells different
histone acetylation
  • modification of histone by adding an acetyl group
  • makes DNA accessible for transcription by weakening histone association
DNA methylation
  • adding methyl group to C & G nucleotides to inactivate DNA
  • turns off/ slows down transcription

recombinant DNA made by inserting a gene or genes from one organism into another and getting the recipient organism to regulate and express the inserted gene(s) as part of its own genome.
Generated by Koofers.com
phosphorylation cascade (4e)
  • multi-step pathway
  • protein kinases: activate/deactivate protein by adding PO4
  • protein phosphatases: activate/deactivate protein by removing PO4
genomic equivalence (5ai) all of the different cell types in an organism have identical genomes (the same DNA), but they express different genes
cell potency (5b) specifies its differentiation potential, or potential to differentiate into different cell types
pluripotent vs. totipotent vs. multipotent cells (5bii)
  • totipotency: ability of a cell to become an entirely different organism
  • pluripotency: can differentiate into any cell type
  • multipotency:capable of differentiating / forming any cell of a particular cell line
  • totipotent cells have "total potential". they specialize into pluripotent cells that can make most, but not all, tissues.
  • EX: a pluripotent cell can form blood/neurons/bone/epithelial tissue, while multipotent can form different blood cell types (red, white, platelets...)
Generated by Koofers.com
stem cell (5biii) relatively undifferentiated cells that can be induced to differentiate
embryonic vs adult stem cells (5biv)
  • embryonic: totipotent and pluripotent
  • adult: multipotent and pluripotent
determination (5ci)
  • process of cell differentiation
  • involves regulating the expression of genes to make tissue-specific proteins
induction (5cii) cell to cell signaling that triggers cell differentiation
Generated by Koofers.com
cytoplasmic determinants (CDs) (5ciii) signal molecules (proteins) within the cytoplasm that differ cell to cell to help with differentiation and regulating early gene expression
cloning (5di) attaining an adult asexually from a parent somatic cell
steps of reproductive cloning (5dii)
  • nucleus from differentiated adult cell “treated” (1) & transplanted (3) into enucleated (2) egg cell, grown in culture (4), implanted into surrogate mother (5) & embryo grows (6).
  1. cultured mammary cells are semistarved, arresting the cell cycle and causing dediffierentiation
  2. nucleus removed
  3. cells fused
  4. grown in culture
  5. implanted in uterus of third sheep
  6. embryonic development
somatic vs. germ cells (6a)
  • somatic (body) cells:
  1. made by mitotic cell division and contain the full number of chromosomes (46) for a given species
  2. chromosomes are in pairs, each with a maternal and paternal chromosome. each pair has the same # and kind of genes.
  • germ/sex cells (gametes):
  1. made by meiotic cell division, found in testes or ovaries
  2. have half the #of chromosomes (23), just one from each pair
  3. function: production of gametes
Generated by Koofers.com
zygote (6b) fertilized egg
introns
  • non-coding INtervening sections
  • spliced out
exons
  • coding regions
  • EXpressed
  • will be translated
G-linked protein receptor cell membrane receptor
Generated by Koofers.com
steroid hormone testosterone intracellular receptor
cAMP
  • secondary messenger
  • activated by G-protein
constitutive expression always on
initiation RNA polymerase -> promoter sequence on template
Generated by Koofers.com
elongation

RNA polymerase moves along template -> RNA nucleotides 5’ to 3’ that are complementary to DNA, making mRNA strand

termination
  • last step in transcription
  • polyadenylation sequence (poly-A tail) transcribed after stop signal
RNA processing
  • capping and tailing
  • 5' guanine triphosphate cap
  • 3' poly-adenine tail
RNA splicing post transcriptional modification of RNA, forming introns and exons
Generated by Koofers.com
3rd base "wobble"
  • multiple codons may code for the same amino acid
  • ex: UUU & UUC = Phe (<-- amino acid)
Indels
  • Insertion: one nucleotide added
  • Deletion: one nucleotide removed
  • cause frameshift mutations
transcription factors
  • regulatory proteins with active sites respond to a signal and bind to DNA sequences near a gene
  • facilitate RNA polymerase binding to the promoter of a gene
RNAi
  • RNA interference 
  • post-transcriptional control
Generated by Koofers.com
miRNA
  • micro RNA
  • non-coding RNA molecules that bind to proteins forming a complex that binds to mRNA transcripts and blocks their translation at the ribosome
siRNA
  • small interfering RNA
  • like miRNA, but arises from longer double-stranded RNA precursor
regulatory factors bind to 5' end of transcript and block attachment to ribosome
initiation factors initiate translation
Generated by Koofers.com
mitosis
  • cell division
  • to increase # of cells
  • to replicate DNA in daughter cells
morphogenesis
  • "setting up a body plan"
  • relies on cell signaling affecting gene regulation and cell movements
haploid cell cell containing only one set of chromosomes
diploid cell a cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
Generated by Koofers.com
Stages of embryonic development (7a)
  1. fertilization: fusion of egg and sperm (zygote)
  2. cleavage: zygote >> blastula)
  3. gastrulation/ morphogenesis (blastula >> gastrula)
  4. organogenesis/ neurulation (gastrula >> embryo)
Acrosome
  • membrane-bound vesicle on sperm
  • has enzymes for egg penetration- eats its way through
Fertilization Process-Sea Urchin (7b)
  1. Contact
  2. Acrosomal Reaction
  3. Contact and fusion of egg and sperm membranes
  4. Entry of sperm nucleus
  5. Cortical Reaction
More specific Fertilization sequence (separate lecture slide set)
  1. Acrosomal Reaction
  2. Gamete recognition proteins bind
  3. Egg membrane depolarization
  4. fast block to polyspermy (temporary)
  5. fusion of gamete cell membranes
  6. Ca++ wave
  7. cortical granules released (cortical reaction)
  8. fertilization envelope forms
  9. slow block to polyspermy (permanent)
  10. egg and sperm nuclei fuse
Generated by Koofers.com
Acrosomal Reaction
  1. Contact: acrosome's hydrolytic enzymes eat egg's jelly coat
  2. Acrosomal process (w/ attached proteins) ejected & proteins (bindin) bind to egg membrane receptors (both proteins and receptors are species specific to prevent hybridization (7c))
  3. Membranes fuse: egg membrane becomes depolarized, results in fast block of polyspermy
  4. Cortical Reaction: Ca++ wave stimulate release of cortical enzymes out of egg, vitelline space swells & hardens into fertilization envelope
  5. Sperm nucleus enters egg, later fusing with egg nucleus
Parthenogenesis Reproduction where female eggs develop asexually without sperm
Gynogenesis Reproduction where sperm is only used for egg activation & egg develops without sperm nucleus
Bindin gamete recognition protein on acrosomal process of sperm
Generated by Koofers.com
Cleavage
  • rapid series of mitotic cell divisions that occurs in the absence of cell growth
  • zygote >> morula >> blastula
  • cells don't have time to grow in between cell divisions because it happens so fast, so the overall structure stays the same size as the original zygote while the individual cells decrease in size with each division
Morula solid ball of cells
Blastula hollow ball of cells
Blastocoel & blastomere hollow cavity of blastula and individual cell of blastula respectively
Generated by Koofers.com
holoblastic cleavage
  • cells divide completely because there is no dense area of yolk to slow down division (like in a sea urchin egg or a frog egg)
Animal pole vs. Vegetal pole
Animal pole
  • mostly cytoplasm
  • site of cleavage
Vegetal pole
  • mostly dense yolk
mesolecithal
  • egg with moderate amount of yolk
  • typical of amphibians
microlecithal
  • small amounts of yolk
  • typical of sea urchins
Generated by Koofers.com
macrolecithal
  • lots of yolk
  • typical of birds
Meroblastic cleavage
  • incomplete cell division (like in a chick egg)
  • cleavage is at cytoplasm disk only; cleavage does not proceed entirely through the dense yolk
blastoderm
  • chick's equivalent to frog blastula
  • cells of blastoderm embryo grow on the yolk
Gastrulation/ Morphogenesis
  • A series of cell movements rearranges the position of the cells in the embryo
  • Cells move by changing shape and by changing cell adhesion (stickiness) 
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 76 Print
 
Front
Back
 Scientific Method
  1. observe something
  2. ask a question
  3. form a hypothesis
  4. make a prediction
  5.  experiment
  6. revise your hypothesis
 3 Signaling Stages (4b)
  1. reception
  2. transduction
  3. response
 2 chromatin modification methods
  1. DNA methylation
  2. histone acetylation
 falsifiability
  • something must have the ability to be tested or proven wrong to be considered a theory
 3 entities and processes of central dogma
  • entities:
  1. DNA
  2. RNA
  3. protein
  • processes:
  1. replication
  2. transcription
  3. translation
 Replication
  • Where: nucleus
  • What: replicate DNA 
 Transcription
  • Where: nucleus to cytoplasm
  • What: DNA to mRNA, RNA processing
 Translation
  • Where: ribosome in the cytoplasm
  • What: mRNA to protein
 tRNAtransfer RNA: attaches to ribosomes and matches anticodons that code for specific amino acids to codons on mRNA during translation to form proteins
 mutation and different types
  • change in the genetic material of a cell
  1. point mutation
  2. substitutions
  3. indels (insertions & deletions)
 geneunit of hereditary info on part of a chromosome
 chromosomeorganized structure of DNA and protein found in cells
 chromatin
  • The major structures in DNA compaction 
  • DNA, the nucleosome...
 euchromatin structure and function
  • loosely packed DNA and proteins
  • wraps around nucleosomes
  • actively transcribed
 heterochromatin structure and function
  • tightly packed DNA and proteins
  • genetically inactive (genes repressed, not transcribed)
  • eukaryotes only
  • involved in gene regulation and chromosome structure
 control elements (and transcription)
  • regulatory proteins with active sites respond to a signal and bind to DNA sequences near a gene
  • DNA sequences "upstream" of a gene
 differentiationexpressing different genes to make cells different
 histone acetylation
  • modification of histone by adding an acetyl group
  • makes DNA accessible for transcription by weakening histone association
 DNA methylation
  • adding methyl group to C & G nucleotides to inactivate DNA
  • turns off/ slows down transcription

 recombinant DNAmade by inserting a gene or genes from one organism into another and getting the recipient organism to regulate and express the inserted gene(s) as part of its own genome.
 phosphorylation cascade (4e)
  • multi-step pathway
  • protein kinases: activate/deactivate protein by adding PO4
  • protein phosphatases: activate/deactivate protein by removing PO4
 genomic equivalence (5ai)all of the different cell types in an organism have identical genomes (the same DNA), but they express different genes
 cell potency (5b)specifies its differentiation potential, or potential to differentiate into different cell types
 pluripotent vs. totipotent vs. multipotent cells (5bii)
  • totipotency: ability of a cell to become an entirely different organism
  • pluripotency: can differentiate into any cell type
  • multipotency:capable of differentiating / forming any cell of a particular cell line
  • totipotent cells have "total potential". they specialize into pluripotent cells that can make most, but not all, tissues.
  • EX: a pluripotent cell can form blood/neurons/bone/epithelial tissue, while multipotent can form different blood cell types (red, white, platelets...)
 stem cell (5biii)relatively undifferentiated cells that can be induced to differentiate
 embryonic vs adult stem cells (5biv)
  • embryonic: totipotent and pluripotent
  • adult: multipotent and pluripotent
 determination (5ci)
  • process of cell differentiation
  • involves regulating the expression of genes to make tissue-specific proteins
 induction (5cii)cell to cell signaling that triggers cell differentiation
 cytoplasmic determinants (CDs) (5ciii)signal molecules (proteins) within the cytoplasm that differ cell to cell to help with differentiation and regulating early gene expression
 cloning (5di)attaining an adult asexually from a parent somatic cell
 steps of reproductive cloning (5dii)
  • nucleus from differentiated adult cell “treated” (1) & transplanted (3) into enucleated (2) egg cell, grown in culture (4), implanted into surrogate mother (5) & embryo grows (6).
  1. cultured mammary cells are semistarved, arresting the cell cycle and causing dediffierentiation
  2. nucleus removed
  3. cells fused
  4. grown in culture
  5. implanted in uterus of third sheep
  6. embryonic development
 somatic vs. germ cells (6a)
  • somatic (body) cells:
  1. made by mitotic cell division and contain the full number of chromosomes (46) for a given species
  2. chromosomes are in pairs, each with a maternal and paternal chromosome. each pair has the same # and kind of genes.
  • germ/sex cells (gametes):
  1. made by meiotic cell division, found in testes or ovaries
  2. have half the #of chromosomes (23), just one from each pair
  3. function: production of gametes
 zygote (6b)fertilized egg
 introns
  • non-coding INtervening sections
  • spliced out
 exons
  • coding regions
  • EXpressed
  • will be translated
 G-linked protein receptorcell membrane receptor
 steroid hormone testosteroneintracellular receptor
 cAMP
  • secondary messenger
  • activated by G-protein
 constitutive expressionalways on
 initiationRNA polymerase -> promoter sequence on template
 elongation

RNA polymerase moves along template -> RNA nucleotides 5’ to 3’ that are complementary to DNA, making mRNA strand

 termination
  • last step in transcription
  • polyadenylation sequence (poly-A tail) transcribed after stop signal
 RNA processing
  • capping and tailing
  • 5' guanine triphosphate cap
  • 3' poly-adenine tail
 RNA splicingpost transcriptional modification of RNA, forming introns and exons
 3rd base "wobble"
  • multiple codons may code for the same amino acid
  • ex: UUU & UUC = Phe (<-- amino acid)
 Indels
  • Insertion: one nucleotide added
  • Deletion: one nucleotide removed
  • cause frameshift mutations
 transcription factors
  • regulatory proteins with active sites respond to a signal and bind to DNA sequences near a gene
  • facilitate RNA polymerase binding to the promoter of a gene
 RNAi
  • RNA interference 
  • post-transcriptional control
 miRNA
  • micro RNA
  • non-coding RNA molecules that bind to proteins forming a complex that binds to mRNA transcripts and blocks their translation at the ribosome
 siRNA
  • small interfering RNA
  • like miRNA, but arises from longer double-stranded RNA precursor
 regulatory factorsbind to 5' end of transcript and block attachment to ribosome
 initiation factorsinitiate translation
 mitosis
  • cell division
  • to increase # of cells
  • to replicate DNA in daughter cells
 morphogenesis
  • "setting up a body plan"
  • relies on cell signaling affecting gene regulation and cell movements
 haploid cellcell containing only one set of chromosomes
 diploid cella cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
 Stages of embryonic development (7a)
  1. fertilization: fusion of egg and sperm (zygote)
  2. cleavage: zygote >> blastula)
  3. gastrulation/ morphogenesis (blastula >> gastrula)
  4. organogenesis/ neurulation (gastrula >> embryo)
 Acrosome
  • membrane-bound vesicle on sperm
  • has enzymes for egg penetration- eats its way through
 Fertilization Process-Sea Urchin (7b)
  1. Contact
  2. Acrosomal Reaction
  3. Contact and fusion of egg and sperm membranes
  4. Entry of sperm nucleus
  5. Cortical Reaction
 More specific Fertilization sequence (separate lecture slide set)
  1. Acrosomal Reaction
  2. Gamete recognition proteins bind
  3. Egg membrane depolarization
  4. fast block to polyspermy (temporary)
  5. fusion of gamete cell membranes
  6. Ca++ wave
  7. cortical granules released (cortical reaction)
  8. fertilization envelope forms
  9. slow block to polyspermy (permanent)
  10. egg and sperm nuclei fuse
 Acrosomal Reaction
  1. Contact: acrosome's hydrolytic enzymes eat egg's jelly coat
  2. Acrosomal process (w/ attached proteins) ejected & proteins (bindin) bind to egg membrane receptors (both proteins and receptors are species specific to prevent hybridization (7c))
  3. Membranes fuse: egg membrane becomes depolarized, results in fast block of polyspermy
  4. Cortical Reaction: Ca++ wave stimulate release of cortical enzymes out of egg, vitelline space swells & hardens into fertilization envelope
  5. Sperm nucleus enters egg, later fusing with egg nucleus
 ParthenogenesisReproduction where female eggs develop asexually without sperm
 GynogenesisReproduction where sperm is only used for egg activation & egg develops without sperm nucleus
 Bindingamete recognition protein on acrosomal process of sperm
 Cleavage
  • rapid series of mitotic cell divisions that occurs in the absence of cell growth
  • zygote >> morula >> blastula
  • cells don't have time to grow in between cell divisions because it happens so fast, so the overall structure stays the same size as the original zygote while the individual cells decrease in size with each division
 Morulasolid ball of cells
 Blastulahollow ball of cells
 Blastocoel & blastomerehollow cavity of blastula and individual cell of blastula respectively
 holoblastic cleavage
  • cells divide completely because there is no dense area of yolk to slow down division (like in a sea urchin egg or a frog egg)
 Animal pole vs. Vegetal pole
Animal pole
  • mostly cytoplasm
  • site of cleavage
Vegetal pole
  • mostly dense yolk
 mesolecithal
  • egg with moderate amount of yolk
  • typical of amphibians
 microlecithal
  • small amounts of yolk
  • typical of sea urchins
 macrolecithal
  • lots of yolk
  • typical of birds
 Meroblastic cleavage
  • incomplete cell division (like in a chick egg)
  • cleavage is at cytoplasm disk only; cleavage does not proceed entirely through the dense yolk
 blastoderm
  • chick's equivalent to frog blastula
  • cells of blastoderm embryo grow on the yolk
 Gastrulation/ Morphogenesis
  • A series of cell movements rearranges the position of the cells in the embryo
  • Cells move by changing shape and by changing cell adhesion (stickiness) 
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"