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Final Exam - Flashcards

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Class:BSCI 105 - PRIN BIOL I
Subject:Biological Sciences Program
University:University of Maryland
Term:Spring 2010
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Gene Expression (1) The process by which DNA directs protein synthesis
One gene- One enzyme Hypothesis (2) Each gene dictates production of a specific enzyme/ Restated to one gene- one protein then one gene- one polypeptide
RNA (1) Intermediate between genes and the proteins for which they code
Transcription (2) Synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA/ Produces messenger RNA (mRNA)
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Translation (1) Synthesis of a polypeptide which occurs under the direction of mRNA
Ribosomes (1) Sites of translation
RNA Processing(1) Modifies eukaryotic RNA transcripts to yield finished mRNA
Primary Transcript (1) Initial RNA transcript from any gene
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Triplet Code (1) Series of nonoverlapping, three-nucleotide words
Template Strand (1) Provides template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
Codons (2) mRNA base triplets that are read in the 5' to 3' direction/ Specifies amino acid to be placed at the corresponding position along a polypeptide
RNA Polymerase (2) Catalyzes RMA synthesis/ Pries DNA strands apart and hooks together RNA nucleotides
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Promoter (1) DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches
Terminator (1) Sequence signaling the end of transcription
Transcription Unit (1) Stretch of DNA that is transcribed
Stages of Transcription (3) Initiation/ Elongation/ Termination
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Transcription Factors (1) Mediate binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
Transcription Initiation Complex (1) Complete assembly of transcrition factors and RNA polymerase II bound to a promoter
TATA Box (1) A promoter that is crucial in forming initiation complex in eukaryotes
Termination in Bacteria (1) Polymerase stops transcription at end of terminator
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Termination in Eukaryotes (2) Polymerase continues transcription after pre-mRNA is cleaved from growing RNA chain/ Polymerase eventually falls off the DNA
End of pre-mRNA Modified by: (2) 5' end receives a mofied nucleotide 5' cap/ 3' end gets a poly A tail
Modification Function (3) Facilitate export of mRNA/ Protect mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes/ Help ribosomes attach to the 5' end
Introns (2) Intervening Sequences/ Noncoding stretches of nucleotides that lie between coding regions
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Exons (2) Are eventually expressed/ Usually translated into amino acid sequences
RNA Splicing (2) Removes introns and joins exons creating an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence/ Sometimes carried out by spliceosomes
Spliceosomes (1) Consist of a variety of proteins and several small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) that recognize the splice sites
Ribozymes (1) Catalytic RNA molecules that function as enzumes and splice RNA
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Properties of RNA That Allow It to Function As An Enzyme (3) It can form 3D structure because of its ability to base pair itself/ Some bases in RNA contain functional groups/ RNA may H-bond with other nucleic acid molecules
Alternative RNA Splicing (1) Some genes can encode for more than one kind of polypeptide depending on which segments are treated as exons during RNA splicing
Domains (1) Discrete regions of proteins
Transfer RNA(5) tRNA/ Translates an mRNA message into protein/ Each carries a specific amino acid on one end/ Each has an anticodon on the other end which pairs with complementary codon on mRNA/ Single starnd of RNA 80 nucleotide long
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Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase(1) Makes correct match between tRNA and an amino acid
Wobble(2) Flexible pairing at the thirs base of a codon/ Allows some tRNA to mind to more than one codon
Ribosomal Subunits(1) Proteins and ribosomal RNA
Stages of Translation(4) Initiation/ Elongation/ Termination/ Require protein factors that aid in translation process
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Initiation(4) Brings together mRNA, tRNA with the first amino acid, and 2 ribosomal subunits/ Small ribosomal subunit binds with mRNA and special initiator tRNA/ Small subunit moves along mRNA until it reaches start codon AUG/ Proteins called initiation factors being in large subunit that completes translation initiation complex
Elongation(2) Amino acids are added one by one to preceding amino acid/ Each addition involves elongation factor proteins and occurs in codon recognition, peptide bond formation and translocation
Termination(4) Stop codon in mRNA reaches A site of ribosome/ A site accepts protein called release factor/ Release factor causes addition of water molecule instead of amino acid/ Reaction releases polypeptide and the translation assembly then comes apart
Polyribosome(2) Number of ribosomes that can translate a single mRNA simultaneously/ Enable a cell to make many copies of a polypeptide very quickly
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Two Populations of Ribosomes Present in Cells(2) Free ribsomoes in cytosol/ Bound ribosomes attached to ER
Free Ribosomes(1) Synthesize proteins that function in the cytosol
Bound Ribosomes(1) Make proteins of the endomembrane system and proteins that are secreted from the cell
Signal Recognition Particle(2) Binds to the signal peptide/ The SRP brings the signal peptide and its ribosome to the ER
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Signal Peptide(3) SRP/ Binds to signal peptide which marks polypeptides bound for secretion or ER/ Brings signal peptide and ribosome into ER
Mutation(1) Changes in genetic material
Point Mutation(4) Chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene/ Can affect protien structure and function/ Base pair substitutions/ Insertions or deletions
Base Pair Substitution(1) Replaces one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides
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Missense(1) Still code for an amino acid but not necessarily the right one
Nonsense(1) Change an amino acid codon to a stop codon causing disfunctional codon
Insertions/ Deletion(3) Additions or losses of nucleotide pairs in a gene/ Have disastrous effect on resulting protein/ May alter reading frame to cause frame shift mutation
Mutagens(1) Physical or chemical agents that can cause mutation
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Gene(3) Discrete unit of inheritance/ Region of specific nucleotide sequence in a chromosome/ A DNA sequence that codes for a specific polypeptide chain
Operator(1) Section of DNA that acts as a regulatory switch and is usually positioned within the promoter
Operon(1) Entire stretch of DNA that includes the operator, the promoter, and the genes that they control
Repressor(3) Switches off operon/ Prevents gene transcription by binding to the operator and blocking RNA polymerase/ active or inactive depending on the presence of the other molecule
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Regulatory gene(1) Produces repressor
Corepressor(1) Molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
Repressible Operon(3) Usually on/ Binding of a repressor to the operator shuts off transcription/ trp operon
Inducible Operon(2) Usually off/ Molecule called an inducer inactivates the repressor and turns on transcription
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CAP(4) Catabolic activator protein/ Activator of transcription/ If activated attaches promoter of the lac operon and increases the affinity of RNA polymerase which accelerates transcription/ Helps regulate other operons that encode enzymes used in catabolic pathways
Differential Gene Expression(2) Differences between cell types/ Expression of different genes by cells with the same genome
Histone Acetylation(2) Acetyl groups are attached to positively charged lysines in histone tails/ Loosens chromatin structure, thereby promoting initiation of transcription
Methylation(3) Addition of methyl groups can condense chromatin/ Associated with reduced transcription in some species/ Can cause long-term inactivation genes in cellular differentiation
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Phosphorylation(2) Addition of phosphate groups/ if next to a methylated amino acid can loosen chromatin
Histone Code Hypothesis(1) Specific combinations of modifications help determine chromatin configuration and influence transcription
Genomic Imprinting(1) Methylation regulates expression of either maternal or paternal alleles of certain genes at the start of development
Epigenetic Inheritance(1) Inheritance of traits not directly involving the nucleotide sequence
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Control Elements(3) Associated with most eukaryotic genes/ Segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription by binding certain proteins/ Critical to precise regulation of gene expression in different cell types
Enhancers(1) Groups of distal elements that may be far away from the gene
Repressores(2) Inhibit expression of a particular gene/ some act indirectly by influencing chromatin structure to promote or silence transcription
Alternative RNA Splicing(1) Different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
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Proteasomes(1) Giant protein complexes that bind protein molecules and degrade them
MicroRNAs(2) MiRNAs/ Small single stranded RNA molecules that can bind to mRNA
RNA Interference(2) RNAi/ Phenomenon of inhibition of gene expression by RNA molecules
Small Interfering RNAs(3) siRNAs/ Cause RNAi, similar to siRNAs but formed from different precuror/ Play role in heterochromatin formation and can block large regions of chromosomes
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Cell Differentiation(2) Process by which cells become specialized in structure and function/ Marked by the production of tissue-specific proteins
Morphogenesis(1) Physical processes that give an organism its shape
Cytoplasmic Determinants(1) Maternal substances in the egg that influence early development
Induction(1) Signal molecules from the embryonic cells cause transcriptional changes in nearby target cells
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Determination (2) Commits a cell to its final fate/ Precedes differentiation
Pattern Formation(1) Development of a spatical organization of tissues and organs
Myoblasts(1) Produce muscle-specific proteins
Pattern Formation(1) The development of a spatial organization of tissues and organs
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Positional Information(2) The molecular cues that control pattern formation/ Tells a cell its location relative to the body axes and to neighboring cells
Embryonic Lethals(1) Embryos with lethal mutations
Maternal effect genes(1) Encode for cytoplasmic determinants that initially establish the axes of the body of drosophilia
Egg-polarity Genes Maternal effect genes/ Control orientation of the egg and consequently the fly
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Bicoid(1) A maternal effect gene that affects the front half of the body
Oncogenes(1) Caner-causing genes
Proto-oncogenes(1) The corresponding normal cellular genes that are responsible for normal cell growth and division
Protogenes Converted to Oncogenes By:(3) Movement of DNA within the genome: if it ends up near an active promoter, transcription may increase/ Amplification of a proto-oncogene: increases the number of copies of the gene/ Point mutations in the proto-oncogene or its control elemnts: cause an increase in gene expression
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Tumor Suppressor Genes(1) Help prevent uncontrolled cell growth
Tumor Suppressor Proteins(3) Repair damages DNA/ Control cell adhesion/ Inhibit the cell cycle in the cell-signaling pathway
Ras Gene(1) Mutations can lead to production of a hyperactive Ras protein and increased cell division
p53(1) Mutations prevent suppression of cell cycle
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Virus Small infectious particles consisting of nucleis acid enclosed in a protein coat and in some cases, a membranous envelope
Viral Envelopes Surround the capsids of viruses/ Derived from the host cell's membrane/ Contain a combination of viral and host cell molecules
Bacteriophages Phages/ Viruses that infect pacteria/ Have the most complex capsids found among viruses/ Have elongated capsid head that encloses their DNA
Host Range Limited number of host cells that a virus can infect
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Reproductive Mechanisms of Phages(1) Lytic and lysogenic cycle
Lytic Cycle(2) Phage reproductive cycle that culminates in the death of the host cell/ Produces new phages and digests the host's cell wall to release progeny viruses
Virulent Phage(1) Phage that reproduces only by lytic cycle
Restriction Enzymes(1) Bacterial defenses against phages that recognize and cut up certain phage DNA
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Lysogenic Cycle(2) Replicates the phage genome without destroying the host/ Viral DNA molecule is incorporated into the host cell's chromosome
Prophage(1) The integrated viral DNA
Temperate Phages(1) Phages that use both lytic and lysogenic cycles
Retroviruses Use reverse transcriptase to copy their RNA into DNA
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Provirus Viral DNA that is integrated into the host genome/ Remains a permanent resident of the host cell
Vaccines Harmless derivatives of pathogenic microbes that stimulate the immune system to mount defenses against the actual pathogen
Viroids(1) Carry circular RNA molecules that infect plants and disrupt their growth
Prions(1) Slow-acting virtually indistructible infectious proteins that cause brain diseases in mammals
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Recombinant DNA(1) Nucleotide sequences from 2 different sources are combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule
Genetic Engineering(1) Direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
Plasmids(1) Small circular DNA molecules that replicate seperately from the bacterial chromosome
Gene Cloning(1) Uses bacteria to make multiple copies of a gene
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Restriction Fragments(1) Cuts made by restriction enzymes
Restriction Enzymes(1) Cut DNA molecules at specific DNA sequences called restriction site
Cloning Vector(2) The originial plasmid in gene cloning/ DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and replicate there
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome BAC/ A large plasmid that has been trimmed down and can carry a large DNA insert
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cDNA Complementary DNA/ Library made by cloning DNA made in vitro by reverse transcription of all the mRNA produced by a particular cell/ Represents only part of the genome that is transformed into mRNA
Nucleic Acid Probe Can identify gene of interest/ Has a sequence complementary to the gene/ Process of nucleic acid hybridization
Expression Vector(1) A cloning vector that contains a highly active prokaryotic promoter
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes(3) YACs/ Used as a vector to help avoid gene expression problems/ Behave normally in mitosis and can carry more DNA than a plasmid
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Electroporation(2) Introduces recombinant DNA into eukaryotic cells/ Applies a brief electrical pulse to create temporary holes in plasma membranes
Polymerade Chain Reaction(2) PCR/ Can produce many copies of a specific target segment of DNA
DNA cloning allows scientists to: Compare genes and alleles between individuals/ Locate gene expression in a body/ Determine the role of a gene in an organism
Southern Blotting Gel electrophoreses of DNA fragments with nucleic acid hybridization
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Northern Blotting Combines gel electrophoreses of mRNA followed by hybridization with a probe on a membrane
Reverse Transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR/ Quicker and more sensitive
DNA Microaray assays Compare patterns of gene expression in different tissues at different times or under different condition
RNA Interface RNAi/ Can silence gene expression
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Totipotent Cell Can generate a complete new organism
Nuclear Transplantation Nucleas of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote is replaced with the nucleus of a differentiated cell
Stem Cell(1) Unspecialize cell that can reproduce iteld indefinitely and differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types
SNPs(2) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms/ Useful genetic markers
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STRs(2) Short tandem Repeats/ Variations in the number of repeats of specific DNA sequences
Linkage map(1) Maps location of several thousand genetic markers on each crhomosome
Physical Map(1) Expresses the distance between genetic markers usually as the number of base pairs along the DNA
Proteomics(1) Systematic study of all proteins encoded by a genome
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Pseudogenes(1) Former genes that have accumulated mutations and are nonfunctional
Repetitive DNA (1) Present in multiple copies in the genome
Transposable elements(1) Move from one side to another in a cell's DNA
Transposons(1) Move with a genome by means of a DNA intermediate
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Retrotransposons(1) Move by means of an RNA intermeidate
Simple Sequence DNA(1) Contains many copies of tandemly repeated short sequences
STR(2) Short Tandem Repeat/ A series of repeating units of 2-5 nucleotides
Mutlitigene Families(2) Collections of identical or very similar genes/ Some consist of identical DNA sequences, usually clustered tandemly, such as those that code for RNA products
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Evo-Devo(1) Study of the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms
4 Properties of Water Facilitate An Environment For Life(4) Cohesive behavoir/ Ability to moderate temperature/ Expansion upon freezing/ Versatility as a solvent
Effects of Changes in pH(2) Concentrations of H+ and OH- are equal in pure water/ Adding acids and bases modify H+ and OH- concentrations
Cell Does 3 Types of Work(3) Chemical/ Transport/ Mechanical
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Energy Coupling(2) The use of exergonic process to drive endergonic ones/ Mostly mediated by ATP
Main types of Membrane Receptors(3) G-protein-coupled receptors/ Receptros tyrosine kinases/ Ion channel receptors
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Gene Expression (1)The process by which DNA directs protein synthesis
 One gene- One enzyme Hypothesis (2)Each gene dictates production of a specific enzyme/ Restated to one gene- one protein then one gene- one polypeptide
 RNA (1)Intermediate between genes and the proteins for which they code
 Transcription (2)Synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA/ Produces messenger RNA (mRNA)
 Translation (1)Synthesis of a polypeptide which occurs under the direction of mRNA
 Ribosomes (1)Sites of translation
 RNA Processing(1)Modifies eukaryotic RNA transcripts to yield finished mRNA
 Primary Transcript (1)Initial RNA transcript from any gene
 Triplet Code (1)Series of nonoverlapping, three-nucleotide words
 Template Strand (1)Provides template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
 Codons (2)mRNA base triplets that are read in the 5' to 3' direction/ Specifies amino acid to be placed at the corresponding position along a polypeptide
 RNA Polymerase (2)Catalyzes RMA synthesis/ Pries DNA strands apart and hooks together RNA nucleotides
 Promoter (1)DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches
 Terminator (1) Sequence signaling the end of transcription
 Transcription Unit (1) Stretch of DNA that is transcribed
 Stages of Transcription (3)Initiation/ Elongation/ Termination
 Transcription Factors (1)Mediate binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
 Transcription Initiation Complex (1)Complete assembly of transcrition factors and RNA polymerase II bound to a promoter
 TATA Box (1)A promoter that is crucial in forming initiation complex in eukaryotes
 Termination in Bacteria (1) Polymerase stops transcription at end of terminator
 Termination in Eukaryotes (2)Polymerase continues transcription after pre-mRNA is cleaved from growing RNA chain/ Polymerase eventually falls off the DNA
 End of pre-mRNA Modified by: (2)5' end receives a mofied nucleotide 5' cap/ 3' end gets a poly A tail
 Modification Function (3)Facilitate export of mRNA/ Protect mRNA from hydrolytic enzymes/ Help ribosomes attach to the 5' end
 Introns (2)Intervening Sequences/ Noncoding stretches of nucleotides that lie between coding regions
 Exons (2)Are eventually expressed/ Usually translated into amino acid sequences
 RNA Splicing (2)Removes introns and joins exons creating an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence/ Sometimes carried out by spliceosomes
 Spliceosomes (1)Consist of a variety of proteins and several small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) that recognize the splice sites
 Ribozymes (1)Catalytic RNA molecules that function as enzumes and splice RNA
 Properties of RNA That Allow It to Function As An Enzyme (3)It can form 3D structure because of its ability to base pair itself/ Some bases in RNA contain functional groups/ RNA may H-bond with other nucleic acid molecules
 Alternative RNA Splicing (1)Some genes can encode for more than one kind of polypeptide depending on which segments are treated as exons during RNA splicing
 Domains (1)Discrete regions of proteins
 Transfer RNA(5)tRNA/ Translates an mRNA message into protein/ Each carries a specific amino acid on one end/ Each has an anticodon on the other end which pairs with complementary codon on mRNA/ Single starnd of RNA 80 nucleotide long
 Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase(1)Makes correct match between tRNA and an amino acid
 Wobble(2)Flexible pairing at the thirs base of a codon/ Allows some tRNA to mind to more than one codon
 Ribosomal Subunits(1)Proteins and ribosomal RNA
 Stages of Translation(4)Initiation/ Elongation/ Termination/ Require protein factors that aid in translation process
 Initiation(4)Brings together mRNA, tRNA with the first amino acid, and 2 ribosomal subunits/ Small ribosomal subunit binds with mRNA and special initiator tRNA/ Small subunit moves along mRNA until it reaches start codon AUG/ Proteins called initiation factors being in large subunit that completes translation initiation complex
 Elongation(2)Amino acids are added one by one to preceding amino acid/ Each addition involves elongation factor proteins and occurs in codon recognition, peptide bond formation and translocation
 Termination(4)Stop codon in mRNA reaches A site of ribosome/ A site accepts protein called release factor/ Release factor causes addition of water molecule instead of amino acid/ Reaction releases polypeptide and the translation assembly then comes apart
 Polyribosome(2)Number of ribosomes that can translate a single mRNA simultaneously/ Enable a cell to make many copies of a polypeptide very quickly
 Two Populations of Ribosomes Present in Cells(2)Free ribsomoes in cytosol/ Bound ribosomes attached to ER
 Free Ribosomes(1)Synthesize proteins that function in the cytosol
 Bound Ribosomes(1)Make proteins of the endomembrane system and proteins that are secreted from the cell
 Signal Recognition Particle(2) Binds to the signal peptide/ The SRP brings the signal peptide and its ribosome to the ER
 Signal Peptide(3)SRP/ Binds to signal peptide which marks polypeptides bound for secretion or ER/ Brings signal peptide and ribosome into ER
 Mutation(1)Changes in genetic material
 Point Mutation(4)Chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene/ Can affect protien structure and function/ Base pair substitutions/ Insertions or deletions
 Base Pair Substitution(1)Replaces one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides
 Missense(1)Still code for an amino acid but not necessarily the right one
 Nonsense(1)Change an amino acid codon to a stop codon causing disfunctional codon
 Insertions/ Deletion(3)Additions or losses of nucleotide pairs in a gene/ Have disastrous effect on resulting protein/ May alter reading frame to cause frame shift mutation
 Mutagens(1)Physical or chemical agents that can cause mutation
 Gene(3)Discrete unit of inheritance/ Region of specific nucleotide sequence in a chromosome/ A DNA sequence that codes for a specific polypeptide chain
 Operator(1)Section of DNA that acts as a regulatory switch and is usually positioned within the promoter
 Operon(1)Entire stretch of DNA that includes the operator, the promoter, and the genes that they control
 Repressor(3)Switches off operon/ Prevents gene transcription by binding to the operator and blocking RNA polymerase/ active or inactive depending on the presence of the other molecule
 Regulatory gene(1)Produces repressor
 Corepressor(1)Molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
 Repressible Operon(3)Usually on/ Binding of a repressor to the operator shuts off transcription/ trp operon
 Inducible Operon(2)Usually off/ Molecule called an inducer inactivates the repressor and turns on transcription
 CAP(4)Catabolic activator protein/ Activator of transcription/ If activated attaches promoter of the lac operon and increases the affinity of RNA polymerase which accelerates transcription/ Helps regulate other operons that encode enzymes used in catabolic pathways
 Differential Gene Expression(2)Differences between cell types/ Expression of different genes by cells with the same genome
 Histone Acetylation(2)Acetyl groups are attached to positively charged lysines in histone tails/ Loosens chromatin structure, thereby promoting initiation of transcription
 Methylation(3)Addition of methyl groups can condense chromatin/ Associated with reduced transcription in some species/ Can cause long-term inactivation genes in cellular differentiation
 Phosphorylation(2)Addition of phosphate groups/ if next to a methylated amino acid can loosen chromatin
 Histone Code Hypothesis(1)Specific combinations of modifications help determine chromatin configuration and influence transcription
 Genomic Imprinting(1)Methylation regulates expression of either maternal or paternal alleles of certain genes at the start of development
 Epigenetic Inheritance(1)Inheritance of traits not directly involving the nucleotide sequence
 Control Elements(3)Associated with most eukaryotic genes/ Segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription by binding certain proteins/ Critical to precise regulation of gene expression in different cell types
 Enhancers(1)Groups of distal elements that may be far away from the gene
 Repressores(2)Inhibit expression of a particular gene/ some act indirectly by influencing chromatin structure to promote or silence transcription
 Alternative RNA Splicing(1)Different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
 Proteasomes(1)Giant protein complexes that bind protein molecules and degrade them
 MicroRNAs(2)MiRNAs/ Small single stranded RNA molecules that can bind to mRNA
 RNA Interference(2)RNAi/ Phenomenon of inhibition of gene expression by RNA molecules
 Small Interfering RNAs(3)siRNAs/ Cause RNAi, similar to siRNAs but formed from different precuror/ Play role in heterochromatin formation and can block large regions of chromosomes
 Cell Differentiation(2)Process by which cells become specialized in structure and function/ Marked by the production of tissue-specific proteins
 Morphogenesis(1)Physical processes that give an organism its shape
 Cytoplasmic Determinants(1)Maternal substances in the egg that influence early development
 Induction(1)Signal molecules from the embryonic cells cause transcriptional changes in nearby target cells
 Determination (2)Commits a cell to its final fate/ Precedes differentiation
 Pattern Formation(1)Development of a spatical organization of tissues and organs
 Myoblasts(1)Produce muscle-specific proteins
 Pattern Formation(1)The development of a spatial organization of tissues and organs
 Positional Information(2)The molecular cues that control pattern formation/ Tells a cell its location relative to the body axes and to neighboring cells
 Embryonic Lethals(1)Embryos with lethal mutations
 Maternal effect genes(1)Encode for cytoplasmic determinants that initially establish the axes of the body of drosophilia
 Egg-polarity GenesMaternal effect genes/ Control orientation of the egg and consequently the fly
 Bicoid(1)A maternal effect gene that affects the front half of the body
 Oncogenes(1)Caner-causing genes
 Proto-oncogenes(1)The corresponding normal cellular genes that are responsible for normal cell growth and division
 Protogenes Converted to Oncogenes By:(3)Movement of DNA within the genome: if it ends up near an active promoter, transcription may increase/ Amplification of a proto-oncogene: increases the number of copies of the gene/ Point mutations in the proto-oncogene or its control elemnts: cause an increase in gene expression
 Tumor Suppressor Genes(1)Help prevent uncontrolled cell growth
 Tumor Suppressor Proteins(3)Repair damages DNA/ Control cell adhesion/ Inhibit the cell cycle in the cell-signaling pathway
 Ras Gene(1)Mutations can lead to production of a hyperactive Ras protein and increased cell division
 p53(1)Mutations prevent suppression of cell cycle
 VirusSmall infectious particles consisting of nucleis acid enclosed in a protein coat and in some cases, a membranous envelope
 Viral EnvelopesSurround the capsids of viruses/ Derived from the host cell's membrane/ Contain a combination of viral and host cell molecules
 BacteriophagesPhages/ Viruses that infect pacteria/ Have the most complex capsids found among viruses/ Have elongated capsid head that encloses their DNA
 Host RangeLimited number of host cells that a virus can infect
 Reproductive Mechanisms of Phages(1)Lytic and lysogenic cycle
 Lytic Cycle(2)Phage reproductive cycle that culminates in the death of the host cell/ Produces new phages and digests the host's cell wall to release progeny viruses
 Virulent Phage(1)Phage that reproduces only by lytic cycle
 Restriction Enzymes(1)Bacterial defenses against phages that recognize and cut up certain phage DNA
 Lysogenic Cycle(2)Replicates the phage genome without destroying the host/ Viral DNA molecule is incorporated into the host cell's chromosome
 Prophage(1)The integrated viral DNA
 Temperate Phages(1)Phages that use both lytic and lysogenic cycles
 RetrovirusesUse reverse transcriptase to copy their RNA into DNA
 ProvirusViral DNA that is integrated into the host genome/ Remains a permanent resident of the host cell
 VaccinesHarmless derivatives of pathogenic microbes that stimulate the immune system to mount defenses against the actual pathogen
 Viroids(1)Carry circular RNA molecules that infect plants and disrupt their growth
 Prions(1)Slow-acting virtually indistructible infectious proteins that cause brain diseases in mammals
 Recombinant DNA(1)Nucleotide sequences from 2 different sources are combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule
 Genetic Engineering(1)Direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
 Plasmids(1)Small circular DNA molecules that replicate seperately from the bacterial chromosome
 Gene Cloning(1)Uses bacteria to make multiple copies of a gene
 Restriction Fragments(1)Cuts made by restriction enzymes
 Restriction Enzymes(1)Cut DNA molecules at specific DNA sequences called restriction site
 Cloning Vector(2)The originial plasmid in gene cloning/ DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and replicate there
 Bacterial Artificial ChromosomeBAC/ A large plasmid that has been trimmed down and can carry a large DNA insert
 cDNAComplementary DNA/ Library made by cloning DNA made in vitro by reverse transcription of all the mRNA produced by a particular cell/ Represents only part of the genome that is transformed into mRNA
 Nucleic Acid ProbeCan identify gene of interest/ Has a sequence complementary to the gene/ Process of nucleic acid hybridization
 Expression Vector(1)A cloning vector that contains a highly active prokaryotic promoter
 Yeast Artificial Chromosomes(3)YACs/ Used as a vector to help avoid gene expression problems/ Behave normally in mitosis and can carry more DNA than a plasmid
 Electroporation(2)Introduces recombinant DNA into eukaryotic cells/ Applies a brief electrical pulse to create temporary holes in plasma membranes
 Polymerade Chain Reaction(2)PCR/ Can produce many copies of a specific target segment of DNA
 DNA cloning allows scientists to:Compare genes and alleles between individuals/ Locate gene expression in a body/ Determine the role of a gene in an organism
 Southern BlottingGel electrophoreses of DNA fragments with nucleic acid hybridization
 Northern BlottingCombines gel electrophoreses of mRNA followed by hybridization with a probe on a membrane
 Reverse Transcriptase-polymerase chain reactionRT-PCR/ Quicker and more sensitive
 DNA Microaray assaysCompare patterns of gene expression in different tissues at different times or under different condition
 RNA InterfaceRNAi/ Can silence gene expression
 Totipotent CellCan generate a complete new organism
 Nuclear TransplantationNucleas of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote is replaced with the nucleus of a differentiated cell
 Stem Cell(1)Unspecialize cell that can reproduce iteld indefinitely and differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types
 SNPs(2)Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms/ Useful genetic markers
 STRs(2)Short tandem Repeats/ Variations in the number of repeats of specific DNA sequences
 Linkage map(1)Maps location of several thousand genetic markers on each crhomosome
 Physical Map(1)Expresses the distance between genetic markers usually as the number of base pairs along the DNA
 Proteomics(1)Systematic study of all proteins encoded by a genome
 Pseudogenes(1)Former genes that have accumulated mutations and are nonfunctional
 Repetitive DNA (1)Present in multiple copies in the genome
 Transposable elements(1)Move from one side to another in a cell's DNA
 Transposons(1)Move with a genome by means of a DNA intermediate
 Retrotransposons(1)Move by means of an RNA intermeidate
 Simple Sequence DNA(1)Contains many copies of tandemly repeated short sequences
 STR(2)Short Tandem Repeat/ A series of repeating units of 2-5 nucleotides
 Mutlitigene Families(2)Collections of identical or very similar genes/ Some consist of identical DNA sequences, usually clustered tandemly, such as those that code for RNA products
 Evo-Devo(1)Study of the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms
 4 Properties of Water Facilitate An Environment For Life(4)Cohesive behavoir/ Ability to moderate temperature/ Expansion upon freezing/ Versatility as a solvent
 Effects of Changes in pH(2)Concentrations of H+ and OH- are equal in pure water/ Adding acids and bases modify H+ and OH- concentrations
 Cell Does 3 Types of Work(3)Chemical/ Transport/ Mechanical
 Energy Coupling(2)The use of exergonic process to drive endergonic ones/ Mostly mediated by ATP
 Main types of Membrane Receptors(3)G-protein-coupled receptors/ Receptros tyrosine kinases/ Ion channel receptors
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"