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Final Review - Flashcards

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Class:BSCI 106 - PRIN BIOL II
Subject:Biological Sciences Program
University:University of Maryland
Term:Fall 2009
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Organismal Individual Interactions with their Environment
Population Regulating population growth rates and population size
Community Interactions among different species in an area
Ecosystem Interactions between communities and their environment
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Global Circulation (Hadley Cells) Air circulation and amount of light
Total number of births per unit of time B ____________ change in t
Total unit of deaths per unit of time D (deaths per community) ------------------------- Change in t
r-selected species Maximize reproductive output and expense of competitive ability -Reproduce early -Many offspring -Little parental care *Good for colonizing newly available habitats
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K-selected Species Maximize Competitive ability -Reproduce relevely late -Few Offspring -more parental care -good for competing when density-dependent factors and important.
rmax (b-d) Represents the maximum per capita growth rate of the population
r= -The actual per caputa growth rate of the population -Usually less then ramx, conditions ideal -May be negative
dN/dt rmaxN rmax-births are high and deaths are low N-the number of individuals added to the pop is related to indiv reproducing.
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Logistic Growth (Density Dependence) Most populations growht quicklyat low densities, but grwoth rates slow down at high densities
MSY Maximum Sustainable yield -Harvesting the max number of individuals possible without reducing the populations size over the long term
Fundamental Niche Species could potentially occupy (absence of competition)
Realized Niche Species actually does occupy with Competition
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Competiton Species that uses the same resources can affect each others' growth, survival and reproducton
xploritation Differential abilities to use or extract goods
Intraspecific Individuals within a species compete for limiting resources
Interspecific Competition Individuals of different species compete for limiting resources
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Human Impact= Human Impact= Species Decline
Niche Components specifying characteristics for lifestyle
Coesistaence -Use of resources (niche) differently -Resource Partitioning -(using different aspects of prey)
Competitive exclusion Principle Interspecific competiton leads to a decrese in each species' K
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Predation A positing/negative interaction in which one organism feeds on another
Predation is important for: -Regultion Population size -Community Structure -a force of natural selection (controls prey population) -Kangaroos example, heterogeneity(prey switching)
Plants, as prey: evolve their own respocse to predation, and regulate pop size from the bottom up -Physical, chemical defense -Herbivores Respond-The Red Queen
Compensatory Morality Death by predation that would have happened even in the absence of predators
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Mullerian Mimicry Distasteful or harmful species evolve to resemble each other
Mimicry An evolved similarity in "appearance"
Biotic Factors Niche Differentiation and character displacement can increase species richness
Abiotic Factors Environmental gradients(water, nutrients) Disturbances: +Can reduce dominance +favor difference like history characteristics
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Individualistic Hypothesis Emphasizing abiotic factors Gleason-communities are compsed of species that assemble along the same combination of abiotic gradients
Interactive Hypothesis (Biotic) Clements-Communities are tightly interacting groups of species.
Redundancey One species does not depend highly on other species
Species richness increases when you... compare species from the poles to the equator -Glaciations at higher latitudes are younger, with less species richness -older lakes, have had time for more species richness to occur.
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High diversity in commonly associated with: -Higher population -Higher productivity -Greater resistance to disturbances -Greater resistance
Nutrient Cycling -Movement of chemical elements through the ecosystem -These elements are recycled
Energy Flow -Passes one way through the ecosystem -Elements can be recycled, but requires continuous inputs
Gross Primary Production -Energy captured during phosythesis
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Net Primary Production -Represents amount of energy available to higher trophic levels
Primary Production (2) 1)Most energy is lost via heat respiration 2)All rest of heat goes into Secondary Production
Secondary Production Food Webs-Showing diagram of 'what eats what' -Helping to understand constraints on undesired and desired species
Grazing food web network of herbivores(primary consumers) and the organisms that eat herbivores(secondary consumers)
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Detrital Food Webs made up of species that eat the dead remains or organisms(primary decomposer's) and the organisms that eat decomposer (secondary consumers)
Pyramids of Production Always more productive(wider) at the bottom
Trophic Efficiency Production at one level/ the production at the bottom
Efficiency through the trophic levels about 10%
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Environmental Stability Higher levels susceptible to disruption at lower levels in the food web.
Environmental Complexity More niches means more potential interactions, which may provide redundancy and therefore stabilizing longer food webs
What shape are"pools" Boxes -Reservoirs where materials are stored up
What shape are "fluxes" Arrows -Flows of materials between pools
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Habitat Destruction-the greatest threats 1. Logging 2. Agriculture/Deforestation 3.Fragmentation 4.Species introduction
2 obvious patterns in nature 1. Organisms seem to "fit" in their environemtn 2. Groups nested within larger groups
Design Aspect (2) Organisms are comples Organisms are functionally integrated
Darwim's Design- Natural Selection Variation Struggle Ingeritable Variation Different repreodction based on heritable variation changes in characteristics of the population to better fit area's
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Does Natural Selection produce perfect adaptations? NO -Evolution tinkers with pre-existing design -Adaptations arising via Natural Selection
Homology (a related idea) Structural similarities under different uses more easily explained by community of descent than design -morphology, developmental patterns, genes
Vestigial Structure -Shows evidence of past funcetion, but no longer used -Strong evidence against intelligent design
Natural Selection: Evolution Change in genetic characteristics of a population over time
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Natural Selection (5): 1. Variation 2.Heritable Variation 3. Struggle 4. Differential reproduction based on heritable variation 5. evolution
Heritablility the proportion of the variation that is due to genes
Genes Are on chromosomes -Very long DNA molecule
Locus location of the gene on the chromosome
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Diploid (2n) 2 individuals have two compies of each chromosome -homologous pairs (1 Dad and 1 Mon)
Alleles A herniate form of a gene -a diploid individual can have two different alleles.
Mitosis (IPMAT) I - Interphse (chromosme replication, sister) P - Prophase (chromosomes condense) M - Metaphase(Chrom line up at Metaph plate) A - Anaphase (Chromatids pulled apart) T - Telophase
Meiosis I I - Interphse I P-Prophase I M- Metaphase I A - Anaphase I T - Telophase I
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Trait Characteristic of an organism -hair color, seed shape
Genotype The genetic make-up of an organism
Phenotype the discernible features of an organism
Mendel's Law of Segregation Alleles segregate into different gametes during Meiosis
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Independent Assortment Genes on different chromosomes or sufficiently far apart on the same chromosome -Alleles segregating independently
Incomplete Dominance Heterozygous have intermediate apperance
Codominance Seeing both alleles in phenotype
can the environment effect the phenotype? -"the norm of reaction" -two siblings growing up in different parts of the world, ending up differently after a number of years
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Where does variations come from>? Mutations Errors in repair or synthesis unequal crossing over errors in meiosis
Point Mutations Substitution Silent-code same amino acid Missense-code for wrong amino acid nonsense- prematurely stop translation insertion/deletion
Chromosomal rearrangeents Deletion Duplication Inversion Translocation
Geonotypic frequency Proportion of the total number of individuals composed of a particular genotype f(AA)=(#AA)/(total number of individuals)
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Allele Frequancy p= f(A) = (#A alleles)/(#A alleles + # of a alleles) q= f(a) = (#a alleles)/(#A alleles + # of a alleles) p + q = 1
Genetic Drift When reduced to smaller population, diversity is lost
Founder Effect A small founding population may have allele frequencies that differ from the parent population purely due to chance
Hardy-Weinberg 2 Distinct ways 1. Allows you to determine if evolutionary agents are acting, if you know q and p and genotype frequencies 2. Allows you to calculate pa nd q if you are willing to assume the population is in H-W equilibrium
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H-W assumes no evolutionary agents are acting: No Mutations No Migration No Selection No drift Random Mating
No Mutations No Migration No Selection No drift Random Mating Two parents giving rise to genetically offspring through the fusion of gametes produced by meiosis
Top 3 reasons not to have sex 1. Inefficient-better to produce all females 2. Costly-Devote time and or energy to producing and maintaine sexual organs, finding and courting mates... 3. Risky- STDs, fights, injury
Sexual Dimorphism Differences in characteristic between males and females of a species -Brightness -larger muscles -greater aggressive tendencies
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Intrasexual Selection Male/Male combat -leading to elaborate weapons and larger size
the Sexy Son Hypothesis Males are advertising nothing more that "sexiness" itself -Females mating with sexy males will produce: sexy sons, or daughters with tendency to find these traits sexy
Handicap Hyphothesis Ability to survive despite costly advertisements indicates good genes
Parasite Hypothesis parasites reduce the ability to produce displays -males that can produce and maintain elaborate displays must be resistant to parasites
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Most behavioral traits are Polygenic
Social Interactions Selfish the actor benefits at the expense of the recipient
Social Interactions Cooperation both participants benefit
Social Interactions Alruistic Actor is harmed, recipient benefits
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Social Interactions Spiteful Both participants are harmed
Relatedness (r) parents/ offspring r= 1/2 Siblings r = 1/2 First Cousins r = 1/8
Kin Selection Ground Squirrels example -Alarming others of danger, putting them selfs in greater danger.
Biological Species Concept BSC Potential to interbreed under natural conditions and produce viable, fertile offspring
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Prezygotic Barriers Prevent formation of a Zygote -anything from preventing individuals of two different species form mating
Postzygotic Barrier Prevent development of viable or fertile offspring
Habitat Isolation May occupy the same range and be potentially able to hybridize, but prefer different habitats, so never
Temporal Isolation May potentially interbreed, but "ready" at different times -Many plants, animals breed at different times
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Prokaryotes naked DNA -Circular genome -no membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotes Nuclear membrane -linear chromosomes -Sex, meiosis
Land vs. Water Habitat -Water limitation -Transportation -Support -Reproduction device
Why plants left the water -more direct sun -nutrients and minerals on land -initial absence of herbivores/ competitors
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Two major breakthrough's for land paltns 1. Cuticle 2. Enclosed Embryo
Early Tracheophyte(ferns) are still limited by: -Presence of a fragile gametophyte stage -reliance on water for reproduction
Gymnosperm showing two principle breakthroughs 1. The evolution of seeds 2. Reduction of the gametophye
Angiosperm= flowering plants -large sporophytes and tiny gametophytes
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Flowers and success with more efficient pollination -don't need to rely on wind -eaiser to avoid inbreeding -can reproduce even when in low abundance
Three origins of Multicellularity 1. Plants 2. Fungi 3. Animals -Multicellular organisms are polyphyletic and are paraphyletic "protists"
Fungi are: Heterotrophs
Saprobes feed on dead matter
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Linchens Mutualistic relationships between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria
Mycorrhizae Mutalistic relationship between fungi and plants
Three phases of the life cycle Haploid heterokaryotic diploid
Themes of plants moving onto land: 1. Mobility 2. Land!
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Types of Behavior Fixed action patterns -little variation -Species Specific -Continued to completion -Triggered by a rleaser (hardwired)
Types of Behavior Conditional Strategies -More complicated and flexible -Sex change in wrasses -Depends on conditions
Unwelt A description of the sensory world of the organism (cows and deer mostly facing North + South)
Proximate How a behavior occurs, and what triggers it
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Ultimate Explanation Adaptive value, or other explanation for its origin
Isolations causes: Dispersal to islands interrupts gene flow promoting speciation
Species number on an island reflects equilibrium between: Immigration and Extinction
For a given island: Immigration Decreases as species number increases
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For a given island: Extinction Increases as species number increases
Islands and equilibrium-size due to: Immigration Higher on large islands than on small islands -island is easier to find
Islands and equilibrium-size due to: Extinction Lower on large islands than on small islands -more habitat variety, protection...
Larger islands have a larger or smaller equilibrium number of species? Larger
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Parasites -Depend on haost to complete life cycle -Often have comples life cycles -Often are specialized to one or a few hosts
Parasite Transmission Direct -Relies on one host to carry the parasite to a new host (LICE)
Parasite Transmission Indirect -An intermediate stage of the life cycle that facilitates reproduction and transmision (MALARIA)
Parasitism is a nice example of Coevolution Red Queen Hypothesis
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The Red Queen Evolving pathogens and their environment
Myopia: Myopia: -has negative effects -is very common -has a heritable component
Heterozygote advantage -being more resistanct to malaria -frequency of heterozygotes is very much greater than the frequency of recessive homozygotes
Pathogens must do two things: 1. Reproduce- often causes sickness in the host, -higher rates of reproduction do more damage to the host 2.Disperse to a new host -this may/may not depend on the condition of the host
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Rhinovirus(common cold) relies on: relies on hose mobility for transmission
Virulence pathogens that don't rely on their host for transmission favor reproduction more than host mobility
Differences in the virulence of New World and old World diseases reflect: -Different histories of animals domestication -Different histories with respect to population size/density
Aging Hypothesis 1: Wear and Tear -and inevitable outcome of livingg -the fallacy of the machine
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Aging Hypothesis 2 Turnover -programmed death to remove older generation -NS acting on lifespan
Aging Hypothesis 3: Mutation-Accumulation -Genes that exert deleterious effects only very late in life are protected from natural selection -Selection Shadow(late effects)
Common message with age: The mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy theories both imply that aging rates are influence by Natural Selection
Mutation accumulation Late acting deleterious mutations do not experience strong selection -Reproduction is over, and the organisms is likely to have already died from other causes
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 OrganismalIndividual Interactions with their Environment
 PopulationRegulating population growth rates and population size
 CommunityInteractions among different species in an area
 EcosystemInteractions between communities and their environment
 Global Circulation(Hadley Cells)

Air circulation and amount of light
 Total number of births per unit of timeB
____________
change in t
 Total unit of deaths per unit of timeD (deaths per community)
-------------------------
Change in t
 r-selected speciesMaximize reproductive output and expense of competitive ability

-Reproduce early
-Many offspring
-Little parental care
*Good for colonizing newly available habitats
 K-selected SpeciesMaximize Competitive ability

-Reproduce relevely late
-Few Offspring
-more parental care
-good for competing when density-dependent factors and important.
 rmax(b-d)
Represents the maximum per capita growth rate of the population
 r=-The actual per caputa growth rate of the population
-Usually less then ramx, conditions ideal
-May be negative
 dN/dtrmaxN

rmax-births are high and deaths are low
N-the number of individuals added to the pop is related to indiv reproducing.
 Logistic Growth (Density Dependence)Most populations growht quicklyat low densities, but grwoth rates slow down at high densities
 MSYMaximum Sustainable yield

-Harvesting the max number of individuals possible without reducing the populations size over the long term
 Fundamental NicheSpecies could potentially occupy
(absence of competition)
 Realized NicheSpecies actually does occupy with Competition
 CompetitonSpecies that uses the same resources can affect each others' growth, survival and reproducton
 xploritationDifferential abilities to use or extract goods
 IntraspecificIndividuals within a species compete for limiting resources
 Interspecific CompetitionIndividuals of different species compete for limiting resources
 Human Impact=Human Impact= Species Decline
 NicheComponents specifying characteristics for lifestyle
 Coesistaence-Use of resources (niche) differently
-Resource Partitioning
-(using different aspects of prey)
 Competitive exclusion PrincipleInterspecific competiton leads to a decrese in each species' K
 PredationA positing/negative interaction in which one organism feeds on another
 Predation is important for:-Regultion Population size
-Community Structure
-a force of natural selection
(controls prey population)
-Kangaroos example, heterogeneity(prey switching)
 Plants, as prey:evolve their own respocse to predation, and regulate pop size from the bottom up
-Physical, chemical defense
-Herbivores Respond-The Red Queen
 Compensatory MoralityDeath by predation that would have happened even in the absence of predators
 Mullerian MimicryDistasteful or harmful species evolve to resemble each other
 MimicryAn evolved similarity in "appearance"
 Biotic FactorsNiche Differentiation and character displacement can increase species richness
 Abiotic FactorsEnvironmental gradients(water, nutrients)
Disturbances:
+Can reduce dominance
+favor difference like history characteristics
 Individualistic HypothesisEmphasizing abiotic factors

Gleason-communities are compsed of species that assemble along the same combination of abiotic gradients
 Interactive Hypothesis(Biotic)
Clements-Communities are tightly interacting groups of species.
 RedundanceyOne species does not depend highly on other species
 Species richness increases when you...compare species from the poles to the equator
-Glaciations at higher latitudes are younger, with less species richness
-older lakes, have had time for more species richness to occur.
 High diversity in commonly associated with:-Higher population
-Higher productivity
-Greater resistance to disturbances
-Greater resistance
 Nutrient Cycling-Movement of chemical elements through the ecosystem
-These elements are recycled
 Energy Flow-Passes one way through the ecosystem
-Elements can be recycled, but requires continuous inputs
 Gross Primary Production-Energy captured during phosythesis
 Net Primary Production-Represents amount of energy available to higher trophic levels
 Primary Production (2)1)Most energy is lost via heat respiration
2)All rest of heat goes into Secondary Production
 Secondary ProductionFood Webs-Showing diagram of 'what eats what'
-Helping to understand constraints on undesired and desired species
 Grazing food webnetwork of herbivores(primary consumers) and the organisms that eat herbivores(secondary consumers)
 Detrital Food Websmade up of species that eat the dead remains or organisms(primary decomposer's) and the organisms that eat decomposer (secondary consumers)
 Pyramids of ProductionAlways more productive(wider) at the bottom
 Trophic EfficiencyProduction at one level/
the production at the bottom
 Efficiency through the trophic levelsabout 10%
 Environmental StabilityHigher levels susceptible to disruption at lower levels in the food web.
 Environmental ComplexityMore niches means more potential interactions, which may provide redundancy and therefore stabilizing longer food webs
 What shape are"pools"Boxes
-Reservoirs where materials are stored up
 What shape are "fluxes"Arrows
-Flows of materials between pools
 Habitat Destruction-the greatest threats1. Logging
2. Agriculture/Deforestation
3.Fragmentation
4.Species introduction
 2 obvious patterns in nature1. Organisms seem to "fit" in their environemtn
2. Groups nested within larger groups
 Design Aspect (2)Organisms are comples

Organisms are functionally integrated
 Darwim's Design- Natural SelectionVariation Struggle
Ingeritable Variation
Different repreodction based on heritable variation
changes in characteristics of the population to better fit area's
 Does Natural Selection produce perfect adaptations?NO
-Evolution tinkers with pre-existing design
-Adaptations arising via Natural Selection
 Homology (a related idea)Structural similarities under different uses more easily explained by community of descent than design
-morphology, developmental patterns, genes
 Vestigial Structure-Shows evidence of past funcetion, but no longer used
-Strong evidence against intelligent design
 Natural Selection: EvolutionChange in genetic characteristics of a population over time
 Natural Selection (5):1. Variation
2.Heritable Variation
3. Struggle
4. Differential reproduction based on heritable variation
5. evolution
 Heritablilitythe proportion of the variation that is due to genes
 GenesAre on chromosomes
-Very long DNA molecule
 Locuslocation of the gene on the chromosome
 Diploid(2n)
2 individuals have two compies of each chromosome
-homologous pairs (1 Dad and 1 Mon)
 AllelesA herniate form of a gene
-a diploid individual can have two different alleles.
 Mitosis (IPMAT)I - Interphse (chromosme replication, sister)
P - Prophase (chromosomes condense)
M - Metaphase(Chrom line up at Metaph plate)
A - Anaphase (Chromatids pulled apart)
T - Telophase
 Meiosis II - Interphse I
P-Prophase I
M- Metaphase I
A - Anaphase I
T - Telophase I
 TraitCharacteristic of an organism

-hair color, seed shape
 GenotypeThe genetic make-up of an organism
 Phenotypethe discernible features of an organism
 Mendel's Law of SegregationAlleles segregate into different gametes during Meiosis
 Independent AssortmentGenes on different chromosomes or sufficiently far apart on the same chromosome
-Alleles segregating independently
 Incomplete DominanceHeterozygous have intermediate apperance
 CodominanceSeeing both alleles in phenotype
 can the environment effect the phenotype?-"the norm of reaction"
-two siblings growing up in different parts of the world, ending up differently after a number of years
 Where does variations come from>?Mutations
Errors in repair or synthesis
unequal crossing over
errors in meiosis
 Point MutationsSubstitution
Silent-code same amino acid
Missense-code for wrong amino acid
nonsense- prematurely stop translation
insertion/deletion
 Chromosomal rearrangeentsDeletion
Duplication
Inversion
Translocation
 Geonotypic frequencyProportion of the total number of individuals composed of a particular genotype

f(AA)=(#AA)/(total number of individuals)
 Allele Frequancyp= f(A) = (#A alleles)/(#A alleles + # of a alleles)
q= f(a) = (#a alleles)/(#A alleles + # of a alleles)
p + q = 1
 Genetic DriftWhen reduced to smaller population, diversity is lost
 Founder EffectA small founding population may have allele frequencies that differ from the parent population purely due to chance
 Hardy-Weinberg 2 Distinct ways1. Allows you to determine if evolutionary agents are acting, if you know q and p and genotype frequencies

2. Allows you to calculate pa nd q if you are willing to assume the population is in H-W equilibrium
 H-W assumes no evolutionary agents are acting:No Mutations
No Migration
No Selection
No drift
Random Mating
 No Mutations No Migration No Selection No drift Random MatingTwo parents giving rise to genetically offspring through the fusion of gametes produced by meiosis
 Top 3 reasons not to have sex1. Inefficient-better to produce all females
2. Costly-Devote time and or energy to producing and maintaine sexual organs, finding and courting mates...
3. Risky- STDs, fights, injury
 Sexual DimorphismDifferences in characteristic between males and females of a species
-Brightness
-larger muscles
-greater aggressive tendencies
 Intrasexual SelectionMale/Male combat
-leading to elaborate weapons and larger size
 the Sexy Son HypothesisMales are advertising nothing more that "sexiness" itself
-Females mating with sexy males will produce: sexy sons, or daughters with tendency to find these traits sexy
 Handicap HyphothesisAbility to survive despite costly advertisements indicates good genes
 Parasite Hypothesisparasites reduce the ability to produce displays
-males that can produce and maintain elaborate displays must be resistant to parasites
 Most behavioral traits arePolygenic
 Social Interactions Selfishthe actor benefits at the expense of the recipient
 Social Interactions Cooperationboth participants benefit
 Social Interactions AlruisticActor is harmed, recipient benefits
 Social Interactions SpitefulBoth participants are harmed
 Relatedness (r)parents/ offspring r= 1/2
Siblings r = 1/2
First Cousins r = 1/8
 Kin SelectionGround Squirrels example
-Alarming others of danger, putting them selfs in greater danger.
 Biological Species Concept BSCPotential to interbreed under natural conditions and produce viable, fertile offspring
 Prezygotic BarriersPrevent formation of a Zygote
-anything from preventing individuals of two different species form mating
 Postzygotic BarrierPrevent development of viable or fertile offspring
 Habitat IsolationMay occupy the same range and be potentially able to hybridize, but prefer different habitats, so never
 Temporal IsolationMay potentially interbreed, but "ready" at different times
-Many plants, animals breed at different times
 Prokaryotesnaked DNA
-Circular genome
-no membrane bound organelles
 EukaryotesNuclear membrane
-linear chromosomes
-Sex, meiosis
 Land vs. Water Habitat-Water limitation
-Transportation
-Support
-Reproduction device
 Why plants left the water-more direct sun
-nutrients and minerals on land
-initial absence of herbivores/ competitors
 Two major breakthrough's for land paltns1. Cuticle
2. Enclosed Embryo
 Early Tracheophyte(ferns) are still limited by:-Presence of a fragile gametophyte stage
-reliance on water for reproduction
 Gymnosperm showing two principle breakthroughs1. The evolution of seeds
2. Reduction of the gametophye
 Angiosperm=flowering plants
-large sporophytes and tiny gametophytes
 Flowers and success with more efficient pollination-don't need to rely on wind
-eaiser to avoid inbreeding
-can reproduce even when in low abundance
 Three origins of Multicellularity1. Plants
2. Fungi
3. Animals
-Multicellular organisms are polyphyletic and are paraphyletic "protists"
 Fungi are:Heterotrophs
 Saprobesfeed on dead matter
 LinchensMutualistic relationships between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria
 MycorrhizaeMutalistic relationship between fungi and plants
 Three phases of the life cycleHaploid
heterokaryotic
diploid
 Themes of plants moving onto land:1. Mobility
2. Land!
 Types of Behavior Fixed action patterns-little variation
-Species Specific
-Continued to completion
-Triggered by a rleaser
(hardwired)
 Types of Behavior Conditional Strategies-More complicated and flexible
-Sex change in wrasses
-Depends on conditions
 UnweltA description of the sensory world of the organism

(cows and deer mostly facing North + South)
 ProximateHow a behavior occurs, and what triggers it
 Ultimate ExplanationAdaptive value, or other explanation for its origin
 Isolations causes:Dispersal to islands interrupts gene flow promoting speciation
 Species number on an island reflects equilibrium between:Immigration and Extinction
 For a given island: ImmigrationDecreases as species number increases
 For a given island: ExtinctionIncreases as species number increases
 Islands and equilibrium-size due to: ImmigrationHigher on large islands than on small islands

-island is easier to find
 Islands and equilibrium-size due to: ExtinctionLower on large islands than on small islands

-more habitat variety, protection...
 Larger islands have a larger or smaller equilibrium number of species?Larger
 Parasites-Depend on haost to complete life cycle
-Often have comples life cycles
-Often are specialized to one or a few hosts
 Parasite Transmission Direct-Relies on one host to carry the parasite to a new host

(LICE)
 Parasite Transmission Indirect-An intermediate stage of the life cycle that facilitates reproduction and transmision

(MALARIA)
 Parasitism is a nice example ofCoevolution
Red Queen Hypothesis
 The Red QueenEvolving pathogens and their environment
 Myopia:Myopia:
-has negative effects
-is very common
-has a heritable component
 Heterozygote advantage-being more resistanct to malaria

-frequency of heterozygotes is very much greater than the frequency of recessive homozygotes
 Pathogens must do two things:1. Reproduce- often causes sickness in the host,
-higher rates of reproduction do more damage to the host
2.Disperse to a new host
-this may/may not depend on the condition of the host
 Rhinovirus(common cold) relies on:relies on hose mobility for transmission
 Virulencepathogens that don't rely on their host for transmission favor reproduction more than host mobility
 Differences in the virulence of New World and old World diseases reflect:-Different histories of animals domestication
-Different histories with respect to population size/density
 Aging Hypothesis 1:Wear and Tear
-and inevitable outcome of livingg

-the fallacy of the machine
 Aging Hypothesis 2Turnover
-programmed death to remove older generation
-NS acting on lifespan
 Aging Hypothesis 3:Mutation-Accumulation
-Genes that exert deleterious effects only very late in life are protected from natural selection
-Selection Shadow(late effects)
 Common message with age:The mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy theories both imply that aging rates are influence by Natural Selection
 Mutation accumulationLate acting deleterious mutations do not experience strong selection

-Reproduction is over, and the organisms is likely to have already died from other causes
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