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Chapter 8 - Flashcards

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Class:CCJ 1020 - Intro to Criminal Justice
Subject:CCJ: Crim & Criminal Justice
University:Valencia Community College
Term:Fall 2013
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what roles do courts play in society The court provides an environment in which the basis of the argument can be decided through the application of the law.
Due process function

Giving the individuals a fair chance against the government in any courtroom proceedings.


Crime control function

Punishment and retribution

Criminals must suffer for the arm done to society and it is the courts responsibility to see that they do so.

rehabilitation function The criminal can be rehabilitated to become a productive member of society and thus save taxpayers the costs of incarceration or other punishment.
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The bureaucratic function

The court is concerned with speed and efficiency, and loftier concepts such as justice can be secondary to a judges need to wrap up a case before six o clock so that administrative deadlines can be met.




How American courts operate The US does not have a single judicial system, but fifty two different systems one for each state, for the district of Columbia and for the federal government. Each state has its own unique judiciary with its own set of rule, some of which may be in conflict with the federal judiciary.
Jurisdiction The authority of a court to hear and decide cases within an area of the law or a geographic territory.
Geographic jurisdiction A court can exercise its authority over residents of a certain area.
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Concurrent jurisdiction The situation that occurs when two or more courts have the authority to preside over the same jurisdiction.
Extradition The process by which one jurisdiction surrenders a person accused or convicted of violating another jurisdictions criminal law to the second jurisdiction.
Trial court The type of court in which most cases usually begin and in which questions of fact are examined. 
Multiple trials When different courts share jurisdiction over the same defendant, multiple trials can result.
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Federal versus state
Appellate court A court that reviews decisions made by lower courts, such as trial courts also known as courts of appeals.
Opinion A statement by a judge expressing the reasons for the courts decision in a case. 
Dual Court system The separate but interrelated court system of the United States, made up of the courts on the national level and the courts on the state level.
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Courts of limited jurisdiction

Cases involving minor criminal matters such as traffic violations, prostitution, and drunk and disorderly conduct.


Cases are decided by a judge rather than a jury

Arraignments, bail hearings and preliminary hearings








Specialty courts

A lower court that has jurisdiction over one specific area of criminal activity such as illegal drugs or domestic violence.

drug courts deal with illegal substances

gun courts deal with illegal firearms

juvenile courts crime omitted by minors

domestic courts crimes of domestic violence

elder courts focus on special needs of elders

trial court of general jurisdiction

county courts, district courts, superior courts or circuit courts.

They have the authority to hear and decide cases involving many types of subject matter. 

State courts of appeals Appellate o reviewing court
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US district courts Trial courts of general jurisdiction and various courts of limited jurisdiction.
US courts of appeals Intermediate courts of appeals
The US Supreme Courts Reviews cases decided in the US each year.
Judicial review The power of a court to review the ations of the executive and legislative branches.
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 what roles do courts play in societyThe court provides an environment in which the basis of the argument can be decided through the application of the law.
 Due process function

Giving the individuals a fair chance against the government in any courtroom proceedings.


 Crime control function

Punishment and retribution

Criminals must suffer for the arm done to society and it is the courts responsibility to see that they do so.

 rehabilitation functionThe criminal can be rehabilitated to become a productive member of society and thus save taxpayers the costs of incarceration or other punishment.
 The bureaucratic function

The court is concerned with speed and efficiency, and loftier concepts such as justice can be secondary to a judges need to wrap up a case before six o clock so that administrative deadlines can be met.




 How American courts operateThe US does not have a single judicial system, but fifty two different systems one for each state, for the district of Columbia and for the federal government. Each state has its own unique judiciary with its own set of rule, some of which may be in conflict with the federal judiciary.
 JurisdictionThe authority of a court to hear and decide cases within an area of the law or a geographic territory.
 Geographic jurisdictionA court can exercise its authority over residents of a certain area.
 Concurrent jurisdictionThe situation that occurs when two or more courts have the authority to preside over the same jurisdiction.
 ExtraditionThe process by which one jurisdiction surrenders a person accused or convicted of violating another jurisdictions criminal law to the second jurisdiction.
 Trial courtThe type of court in which most cases usually begin and in which questions of fact are examined. 
 Multiple trialsWhen different courts share jurisdiction over the same defendant, multiple trials can result.
 Federal versus state 
 Appellate courtA court that reviews decisions made by lower courts, such as trial courts also known as courts of appeals.
 OpinionA statement by a judge expressing the reasons for the courts decision in a case. 
 Dual Court systemThe separate but interrelated court system of the United States, made up of the courts on the national level and the courts on the state level.
 Courts of limited jurisdiction

Cases involving minor criminal matters such as traffic violations, prostitution, and drunk and disorderly conduct.


Cases are decided by a judge rather than a jury

Arraignments, bail hearings and preliminary hearings








 Specialty courts

A lower court that has jurisdiction over one specific area of criminal activity such as illegal drugs or domestic violence.

drug courts deal with illegal substances

gun courts deal with illegal firearms

juvenile courts crime omitted by minors

domestic courts crimes of domestic violence

elder courts focus on special needs of elders

 trial court of general jurisdiction

county courts, district courts, superior courts or circuit courts.

They have the authority to hear and decide cases involving many types of subject matter. 

 State courts of appealsAppellate o reviewing court
 US district courtsTrial courts of general jurisdiction and various courts of limited jurisdiction.
 US courts of appealsIntermediate courts of appeals
 The US Supreme CourtsReviews cases decided in the US each year.
 Judicial reviewThe power of a court to review the ations of the executive and legislative branches.
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