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voice disorders exam #4 - Flashcards

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Class:CDO 230 - Speech/Lang/Hearing Disorders
Subject:Communication Disorders
University:Central Michigan University
Term:Spring 2010
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vibration of the phonatory system (thyoarytenoid muscles) is due to what 2 facotrs? 1. the elasticity of the tissue- myoelasticity 2. pressure changes between the vocal cords
according to the myoelastic-aerodynamic theory, what is NORMAL VOCAL FOLD FIBRATION? pleasant, healthy voice, - regular vocal fold vibration
according to the myoelastic- aerodynamic theory, what is ABNORMAL VIBRATION? raspy, hoarse voice, - irregular vocal fold vibration
pitch - frequency of vibration - measured in Hertz (Hz) - mass is thicker, the pitch is lower - more tension, pitch is higher
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what is fundamental frequency? average rate of vocal fold vibration - how fast or slow they vibrate
what are the gender averages? adult male - 120 Hz adult female - 200 Hz infant/child - 300 Hz
loudness - intensity of the signal - dependent upon air pressure built up below the vocal folds - the higher the pressure, louder the voice - measured in decibels (db)
quality - what you're hearing Dependent upon: *regularity of the vibration * vocal fold adduction
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what are the 3 etiologies of voice disorders? 1. organic voice disorders 2. functional voice disorders 3. psychogenic voice disorders
etiology of voice disorders:: ORGANIC VOICE DISORDERS associated with some structured or anatomic deviation in the larynx and with the vocal folds themselves
etiology of voice disorders :: FUNCTIONAL VOIC DISORDERS - due to vocal abuse and or vocal misuse - functional disorders can become organic if prolonged
etiology of voice disorders :: PSYCHOGENIC VOICE DISORDERS - due to emotional state, and perception of reality - usually no evidence of structural abnormality
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voice disorders of phonation voice sounds hoarse, breathy, raspy, low-pitched, and loudness problems
what are the 7 organic etiologies of voice disorders? 1. vocal fold paralysis 2. cancer of larynx 3. vocal papilloma 4. laryngeal web 5. vocal nodules 6. vocal polyps 7. contact ulcers/granuloma
organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS - lack of nerve signal to the vocal folds 10th cranial nerve - vagus nerve - due to neurological disease or surgical mistake - voice = breathy and weak - may lead to wide open glottis known as aphonia
organic etiologies of VD :: CANCER OF LARYNX - 3-5% of cancers are laryngeal - more frequent in men than women - 4000 people undergo surgical treatment for cancer in U.S in one year - smoking is dominant factor related to laryngeal cancer - tumors on or around the vocal folds - symptoms = hoarseness, pain, difficulty swallowing
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organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL PAPILLOMA - wart-like growth(s) on the vocal folds or anywhere in the larynx - due to viral infection - greater in children than adults - voice = breathy and hoarse - can be surgically removed but can recur
organic etiologies of VD :: LARYNGEAL WEB - extra tissue that grows across glottis - most are congenital - incomplete web has an opening - voice may be weak if present at all
organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL NODULES - small nodes or bumps that develop on the vocal folds - cause = vocal abuse and misuse - usually bilateral, growths at the anterior portion of the vocal folds - singers especially susceptible - can be surgically removed but will return if vocal habits stay the same - voice = weak, hoarse, breathy, raspy
organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL POLYS - growth on the vocal folds - soft and fluid filled - cause = vocal abuse and misuse - occur unilaterally - seen most frequently in adults - surgery along with vice therapy are common treatment
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organic etiologies of VD :: CONTACT ULCERS/GRANULOMA - scores on posterior end of one or both vocal folds - more common in adult males - cause = vocal abuse and misuse typically in people who talk excessively - voice = hoarse and especially low-pitched
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 vibration of the phonatory system (thyoarytenoid muscles) is due to what 2 facotrs?1. the elasticity of the tissue- myoelasticity 2. pressure changes between the vocal cords
 according to the myoelastic-aerodynamic theory, what is NORMAL VOCAL FOLD FIBRATION?pleasant, healthy voice, - regular vocal fold vibration
 according to the myoelastic- aerodynamic theory, what is ABNORMAL VIBRATION?raspy, hoarse voice, - irregular vocal fold vibration
 pitch- frequency of vibration - measured in Hertz (Hz) - mass is thicker, the pitch is lower - more tension, pitch is higher
 what is fundamental frequency?average rate of vocal fold vibration - how fast or slow they vibrate
 what are the gender averages?adult male - 120 Hz adult female - 200 Hz infant/child - 300 Hz
 loudness- intensity of the signal - dependent upon air pressure built up below the vocal folds - the higher the pressure, louder the voice - measured in decibels (db)
 quality- what you're hearing Dependent upon: *regularity of the vibration * vocal fold adduction
 what are the 3 etiologies of voice disorders?1. organic voice disorders 2. functional voice disorders 3. psychogenic voice disorders
 etiology of voice disorders:: ORGANIC VOICE DISORDERSassociated with some structured or anatomic deviation in the larynx and with the vocal folds themselves
 etiology of voice disorders :: FUNCTIONAL VOIC DISORDERS- due to vocal abuse and or vocal misuse - functional disorders can become organic if prolonged
 etiology of voice disorders :: PSYCHOGENIC VOICE DISORDERS- due to emotional state, and perception of reality - usually no evidence of structural abnormality
 voice disorders of phonationvoice sounds hoarse, breathy, raspy, low-pitched, and loudness problems
 what are the 7 organic etiologies of voice disorders?1. vocal fold paralysis 2. cancer of larynx 3. vocal papilloma 4. laryngeal web 5. vocal nodules 6. vocal polyps 7. contact ulcers/granuloma
 organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS- lack of nerve signal to the vocal folds 10th cranial nerve - vagus nerve - due to neurological disease or surgical mistake - voice = breathy and weak - may lead to wide open glottis known as aphonia
 organic etiologies of VD :: CANCER OF LARYNX- 3-5% of cancers are laryngeal - more frequent in men than women - 4000 people undergo surgical treatment for cancer in U.S in one year - smoking is dominant factor related to laryngeal cancer - tumors on or around the vocal folds - symptoms = hoarseness, pain, difficulty swallowing
 organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL PAPILLOMA- wart-like growth(s) on the vocal folds or anywhere in the larynx - due to viral infection - greater in children than adults - voice = breathy and hoarse - can be surgically removed but can recur
 organic etiologies of VD :: LARYNGEAL WEB- extra tissue that grows across glottis - most are congenital - incomplete web has an opening - voice may be weak if present at all
 organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL NODULES- small nodes or bumps that develop on the vocal folds - cause = vocal abuse and misuse - usually bilateral, growths at the anterior portion of the vocal folds - singers especially susceptible - can be surgically removed but will return if vocal habits stay the same - voice = weak, hoarse, breathy, raspy
 organic etiologies of VD :: VOCAL POLYS- growth on the vocal folds - soft and fluid filled - cause = vocal abuse and misuse - occur unilaterally - seen most frequently in adults - surgery along with vice therapy are common treatment
 organic etiologies of VD :: CONTACT ULCERS/GRANULOMA- scores on posterior end of one or both vocal folds - more common in adult males - cause = vocal abuse and misuse typically in people who talk excessively - voice = hoarse and especially low-pitched
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