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Chapters 1,2,3 - Flashcards

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Class:CHDV 101 - Child Growth/Develop: 0-10 Yrs
Subject:Child Development
University:Lansing Community College
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Developmental Science The field of study that focuses on the physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes that children undergo from conception onward.
Nature In the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, physical world, or material world.  The inherited biological predispositions of an individual. 
Nurture The nature versus nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities.  The influences of the social and cultural environment on an individual.
Plasticity A non-specific neuroscience term referring to the ability of the brain and nervous system in all species to change structurally and functionally as a result of input from the environment.  The degree to which , and the condition under which, development is open to change and intervention. 
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Critical Period A critical period in an organism's or person's development.  A period during which specific biological or environmental events are required for normal development to occur.
Sensitive Period A term coined by the Dutch geneticist Hugo de Vries and adopted by the Italian educator Maria Montessori to refer to important periods of childhood development.  A time in a child's development when a particular experience has an especially profound effect.
Developmental Stages A qualitatively distinctive, coherent pattern of behavior that emerges during the course of development.
Theory Originally the word theory as it is used in English is a technical term from Ancient Greek philosophy.  A broad framework or set of principles that can be used to guide the collection and interpretation of a set of facts. 
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Psychodynamic Theories Theories, such as those of Freud and Erikson, exploring the influence on development and developmental stages of universal biological drives and the life experiences of individuals.
Social Learning Theories Theories that focus on development as a result of learning, changes in behavior as a result of forming associations between behavior and it's consequences.
Constructivist Theory Constructivism is a theory of knowledge that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas.  Piaget's theory, in which cognitive development results from children's active construction of reality based on their experiences with the world.
Equilibration The condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced.  The main source of development, consisting of a process of achieving a balance between the child's present understanding and the child's new experiences. 
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Sociocultural Theory The theory associated with Vygotsky that emphasizes the influence of culture on development.
Zone of Proximal Development Often abbreviated ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.  For Vygotsky, the gap between what children can accomplish independently and what they can accomplish when interacting with others who are more competent. 
Evolutionary Theories The change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of individuals.  Theories that explain human behavior in terms of how it contributes to the survival of the species and that look of how our evolutionary past influences individual development.   
Ethology The scientific study of animal behavior, and a sub-topic of zoology.  An interdisciplinary science that studies the biological and evolutionary foundations of behavior.
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Information-Processing Theories Theories that look at cognitive development in terms of how children come to process, store, organize, retrieve, and manipulate information in increasingly efficient ways.
Systems Theories The transdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research.  Theories that envision development in terms of complex wholes made up of parts and that explore how these wholes and their parts are organized and interact and change over time. 
Dynamic Systems Theory An area of applied mathematics used to describe the behavior of complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations.  Theory that addresses how new complex systems of behavior develop from the interaction of less complex parts. 
Ecological Systems Theory

Also called Development in Context or Human Ecology theory, specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.  Theory focusing on the organization and interactions of the multiple

environmental contexts within which children develop.

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Critical Theories Theories that address cultural biases that may be present in traditional developmental theories and that examine power relations between groups and the influence on development gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class.
Hypothesis A proposed explanation for a phenomenon based on theory, that is precise enough to be shown to be true or false. 
Objectivity In science is often attributed with the property of scientific measurement that can be tested independent from the individual scientist (the subject) who proposes them.  The requirement that scientific knowledge not be distorted by the investigator's preconceptions.   
Reliability In general, the ability of a person or system to perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances, as well as hostile or unexpected circumstances.  The scientific requirement that when the same behavior is measured on two or more occasions by the same or different observers, the measurements be consistent with each other.
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Replicability The ability of an experiment or study to be accurately reproduced, or replicated, by someone else working independently.  The scientific requirement that other researchers can use the same procedures as an initial investigator did an obtain the same result. 
Validity Race is classification of humans into large and distinct populations or groups by factors such as heritable phenotypic characteristics or geographic ancestry, but also often influenced by and correlated with traits such as appearance, culture, ethnicity, and socio-economic status.
Naturalistic Observations Observation of the actual behavior of people in the course of their everyday lives. 
Ethnography "The science of contextualization" often used in the field of social sciences-particularly in anthropology, in some branches of sociology, and in historical science-that studies people, ethnic groups and other ethnic formations, their ethnogenesis, composition, resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as their material and spiritual culture.
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Experiment Experimental psychology is a methodological approach rather than a subject and encompasses varied fields within psychology.  A method of testing - with the goal of explaining - the nature of reality.  In psychology, research in which a change is introduced in a person's experience and the effect of that change is measured. 
Experimental Group The persons in an experiment whose experience is changed as part of the experiment.
Control Group In the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment grou, while no treatments would be applied to members of a control group.
Ecological Validity A form of validity in a research study.  The extent to which behavior studied in one environment (such as a psychological test) is characteristic of behavior exhibited by the same person in a range of other environments.
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Clinical Method A research method in which questions are tailored to the individual, with each question depending on the answer of the preceding one.
Causation The belief that events occur in predictable ways and that one event leads to another.
Correlation In statistics, dependence refers to any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data.
Correlation Coefficient The degree of association between factors, symbolized as r and ranging between -1.0 and +1.0.
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Research Design Is concerned with turning the research question into a testing project.
Longitudinal Design A correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time - often many decades.
Cohort A cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study (a type of observational study) used in medicine, social science, actuarial science, and ecology.
Cross-Sectional Design Studies that form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at a defined time.
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Cohort Sequential Design An experimental design in which the longitudinal method is replicated with several cohorts.
Microgenetic Design A method of scientific examination in developmental psychology in which the same children are studied repeatedly over a short period of time.
Institutional Review Boards Also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC) or ethical review board (ERB), is a committee that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans with the aim to protect the rights and welfare of the research subjects.
Culture Material and Symbolic tools that accumulate through time, are passed on through social processes, and provide resources for the developing child.
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Material Tools Cultural tools including physical objects and observable patterns of behavior such as family routines and social practices.
Symbolic Tools Cultural tools, such as abstract knowledge, beliefs, and values.
Mediation Mediation, as used in law, is a form of alternative dispute resolution, is a way of resolving disputes between two or more parties.  How cultural tools organize people's activities and ways of relating to their environments. 
Social Enhancement The most basic social process of learning to use cultural resources, in which resources are used simply because others' activities have made them available in the immediate environment.
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Imitation Imitation is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's.  The social process through which children learn to use their culture's resources by observing and copying the behaviors of others. 
Explicit Instruction The social process in which children are purposefully taught to use the resources of their culture.
Cumulative Cultural Evolution The dynamic ongoing process of cultural change as a consequence of variation that individuals have produced in the cultural tools they use.
Heredity Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring.  The biological transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next. 
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Genes A gene is a molecular unit of heredity in a living organism.  The segments on a DNA molecule that act as hereditary blueprints in the organism's development. 
Genotype The genetic makeup (endowment) of a cell, an organism, or an individual. 
Phenotype An organism's observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior, the result from the interaction of the genotype with the environment.
Natural Selection The nonrandom process by which biologic traits become more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers.  The process through which species survive and evolve, in which individuals with phenotypes that are more adaptive to the environmental conditions survive and reproduce with greater success than individuals with phenotypes that are less adaptive.
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Infant-Directed Speech Baby talk, also referred to as caretaker speech, infant-directed speech or child-directed speech (CDS) and informally as "motherese", "parentese", "mommy talk", or "daddy talk" is a nonstandard form of speech used by adults in talking to toddlers and infants.  The special, musical speech used in talking to infants.
Chromosome An organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells.  A threadlike structure made up of genes.  In humans, there are 46 chromosomes in every cell except sperm and ova. 
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) A long double-stranded molecule that makes up chromosomes.
Monozygotic Twins One of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy, that come from one zygote and therefore have identical genotypes. 
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Dizygotic Twins One of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy, that come from two zygotes.
X-Chromosome One of the two sex-determining chromosomes in many animal species, including mammals.  In females, both members of the twenty-third pair of chromosomes and in males, one member of the twenty-third pair. 
Y-Chromosome One of the two sex-determining chromosomes in most mammals, including humans.  In males, one member of the twenty-third pair of chromosomes. 
Allele One of two or more forms of a gene.  The specific form of a gene coded for a particular trait. 
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Homozygous Refers to the similarity of genes for a trait in an organism.  Having inherited two genes of the same allelic form for a trait. 
Heterozygous Zygosity refers to the similarity of genes for a trait in an organism.  Having inherited two genes of different allelic forms for a trait. 
Dominant Allele Dominance in genetics is a relationship between two variant forms of a single gene, in which one allele masks the effect of the other in influencing some trait.
Recessive Allele Dominance in genetics is a relationship between two variant forms of a single gene, in which one allele masks the effect of the other in influencing some trait.  The allele that is not expressed when an individual possesses two different alleles for the same trait. 
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Carriers Individuals who are heterozygous for a trait with a dominant and recessive allele and thus express only the characteristics associated
with the dominant allele but may pass the recessive allele, including for a recessive disorder, on to their offspring.
Codominance Outcome in which a trait that is different from the trait produced by either of the contributing alleles alone.
Gene Pool The total variety of genetic information possessed by a sexually reproducing population.
Mutation An alteration in the molecular structure of an individual's DNA.
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Zygote The single cell formed at conception from the union of the sperm and the ovum.
Germ Cells The sperm and ova, which are specialized for sexual reproduction and have half the number of chromosomes normal for a species.
Somatic Cells All the cells in the body except for the germ cells (ova and sperm).
Mitosis The process of cell duplication and division that generates all the individual's cells except sperm and ova.
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Meiosis The process that produces sperm and ova, each of which contains only half of the parent cell's original complement of 46 chromosomes.
Phenotypic Plasticity the degree to which the phenotype is open to influence by the environment, rather than determined by the genotype.
Canalized a trait that is canalized follows a strictly defined path, regardless of most environmental and genetic variations.
Heritability A measure of the degree to which  a variation in a particular trait among individuals in a specific population is related to genetic differences among those individuals.
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Kinship Studies The use of naturally occuring conditions provided by kinship relations to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to a phenotypic trait.
Family Study A study that compares members of the same family to determine how simular they are on a given trait.
Twin Study A study in which
Adoption Study
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Niche Construction
Co-Construction
Ecological Inheritance
Coevolution
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Baldwin Effect Also known as Baldwinian evolution or ontogenic evolution, is a theory of a possible evolutionary processes that was originally put forward in 1896 in a paper, "A New Factor in Evolution," by American psychologist James Mark Baldwin.  The role of cultural factors in determining which phenotypes are adaptive. 
Zygote
Germinal Period
Embryonic Period Chapter 3 page 85
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Fetal Period Chapter 3 page 85
Cleavage Chapter 3 page 85
Heterochrony Chapter 3 page 85
Heterogeneity Chapter 3 page 85
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Totipotent Stem Cells Chapter 3 page 86
Implantation Chapter 3 page 86
Aminion Chapter 3 page 86
Chorion Chapter 3 page 86
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Placenta Chapter 3 page 86
Umbilical Cord Chapter 3 page 86
Ectoderm Chapter 3 page 87 Cells of the inner cell mass yhat develop into the outer surface of the skin, the nails, part of the teeth, the lens of the eye, the inner ear, and the central nervous system.
Endoderm Chapter 3 page 87 Cells of the inner cell mass that develop into the digestive system and the lungs.
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Mesoderm Chapter 3 page 87 The cells of the inner cell mass that give rise to the muscles, the bones, the circulatory system, and the inner layers of the skin. 
Epigenesis Chapter 3 page 88 The process by which a new form emerges through the interactions of the preceding form and its curren environment.
Cephalocaudal Pattern Chapter 3 page 88 The pattern of development that proceeds from the head down.
Proximodistal Pattern Chapter 3 page 88

The pattern of development that proceeds from the middle of the organism out to the periphery. 

 

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Neural Tube Chapter 3 page 94 An embryonic structure that will develop into the brain and spinal cord.
Teratogens Chapter 3 page 97 Environment agents that can cause deviations from normal development and can lead to abnormalities or death.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Chapter 3 page 99 A syndrome found in babies  whose mothers were heavy consumers of alcohol whike pregnant.  Symptoms include an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain, eye abnormalities, congenital heart disease, joint anomalies, and malformations of the face.
Apgar Scale Chapter 3 page 111 A quick, simple test used to diagnose the physical state of newborn infants.
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Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale Chapter 3 page 112 A scale used to assess the newborn's neurological condition.
Gestational Age Chapter 3 page 113 The time that has passed  between conception and birth.  The normal gestational age is between 37 and 43 weeks.
Preterm Chapter 3 page 113 Thw term for babies born before the 37th week of prenancy.
Low Birth Weight The term used to describe  babies weighting 2500 grams or less at birth, whether or not they are premature. 
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Small for Gestational Age Newborns whose birth weight falls in the lowest 10% for their gestational age because they have not grown at a normal rate.
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Developmental ScienceThe field of study that focuses on the physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes that children undergo from conception onward.
 NatureIn the broadest sense, is equivalent to the natural world, physical world, or material world.  The inherited biological predispositions of an individual. 
 NurtureThe nature versus nurture debate concerns the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities.  The influences of the social and cultural environment on an individual.
 PlasticityA non-specific neuroscience term referring to the ability of the brain and nervous system in all species to change structurally and functionally as a result of input from the environment.  The degree to which , and the condition under which, development is open to change and intervention. 
 Critical PeriodA critical period in an organism's or person's development.  A period during which specific biological or environmental events are required for normal development to occur.
 Sensitive PeriodA term coined by the Dutch geneticist Hugo de Vries and adopted by the Italian educator Maria Montessori to refer to important periods of childhood development.  A time in a child's development when a particular experience has an especially profound effect.
 Developmental StagesA qualitatively distinctive, coherent pattern of behavior that emerges during the course of development.
 TheoryOriginally the word theory as it is used in English is a technical term from Ancient Greek philosophy.  A broad framework or set of principles that can be used to guide the collection and interpretation of a set of facts. 
 Psychodynamic TheoriesTheories, such as those of Freud and Erikson, exploring the influence on development and developmental stages of universal biological drives and the life experiences of individuals.
 Social Learning TheoriesTheories that focus on development as a result of learning, changes in behavior as a result of forming associations between behavior and it's consequences.
 Constructivist TheoryConstructivism is a theory of knowledge that argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas.  Piaget's theory, in which cognitive development results from children's active construction of reality based on their experiences with the world.
 EquilibrationThe condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced.  The main source of development, consisting of a process of achieving a balance between the child's present understanding and the child's new experiences. 
 Sociocultural TheoryThe theory associated with Vygotsky that emphasizes the influence of culture on development.
 Zone of Proximal DevelopmentOften abbreviated ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.  For Vygotsky, the gap between what children can accomplish independently and what they can accomplish when interacting with others who are more competent. 
 Evolutionary TheoriesThe change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of individuals.  Theories that explain human behavior in terms of how it contributes to the survival of the species and that look of how our evolutionary past influences individual development.   
 EthologyThe scientific study of animal behavior, and a sub-topic of zoology.  An interdisciplinary science that studies the biological and evolutionary foundations of behavior.
 Information-Processing TheoriesTheories that look at cognitive development in terms of how children come to process, store, organize, retrieve, and manipulate information in increasingly efficient ways.
 Systems TheoriesThe transdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research.  Theories that envision development in terms of complex wholes made up of parts and that explore how these wholes and their parts are organized and interact and change over time. 
 Dynamic Systems TheoryAn area of applied mathematics used to describe the behavior of complex dynamical systems, usually by employing differential equations or difference equations.  Theory that addresses how new complex systems of behavior develop from the interaction of less complex parts. 
 Ecological Systems Theory

Also called Development in Context or Human Ecology theory, specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.  Theory focusing on the organization and interactions of the multiple

environmental contexts within which children develop.

 Critical TheoriesTheories that address cultural biases that may be present in traditional developmental theories and that examine power relations between groups and the influence on development gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class.
 HypothesisA proposed explanation for a phenomenon based on theory, that is precise enough to be shown to be true or false. 
 ObjectivityIn science is often attributed with the property of scientific measurement that can be tested independent from the individual scientist (the subject) who proposes them.  The requirement that scientific knowledge not be distorted by the investigator's preconceptions.   
 ReliabilityIn general, the ability of a person or system to perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances, as well as hostile or unexpected circumstances.  The scientific requirement that when the same behavior is measured on two or more occasions by the same or different observers, the measurements be consistent with each other.
 ReplicabilityThe ability of an experiment or study to be accurately reproduced, or replicated, by someone else working independently.  The scientific requirement that other researchers can use the same procedures as an initial investigator did an obtain the same result. 
 ValidityRace is classification of humans into large and distinct populations or groups by factors such as heritable phenotypic characteristics or geographic ancestry, but also often influenced by and correlated with traits such as appearance, culture, ethnicity, and socio-economic status.
 Naturalistic ObservationsObservation of the actual behavior of people in the course of their everyday lives. 
 Ethnography"The science of contextualization" often used in the field of social sciences-particularly in anthropology, in some branches of sociology, and in historical science-that studies people, ethnic groups and other ethnic formations, their ethnogenesis, composition, resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as their material and spiritual culture.
 ExperimentExperimental psychology is a methodological approach rather than a subject and encompasses varied fields within psychology.  A method of testing - with the goal of explaining - the nature of reality.  In psychology, research in which a change is introduced in a person's experience and the effect of that change is measured. 
 Experimental GroupThe persons in an experiment whose experience is changed as part of the experiment.
 Control GroupIn the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment grou, while no treatments would be applied to members of a control group.
 Ecological ValidityA form of validity in a research study.  The extent to which behavior studied in one environment (such as a psychological test) is characteristic of behavior exhibited by the same person in a range of other environments.
 Clinical MethodA research method in which questions are tailored to the individual, with each question depending on the answer of the preceding one.
 CausationThe belief that events occur in predictable ways and that one event leads to another.
 CorrelationIn statistics, dependence refers to any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data.
 Correlation CoefficientThe degree of association between factors, symbolized as r and ranging between -1.0 and +1.0.
 Research DesignIs concerned with turning the research question into a testing project.
 Longitudinal DesignA correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time - often many decades.
 CohortA cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study (a type of observational study) used in medicine, social science, actuarial science, and ecology.
 Cross-Sectional DesignStudies that form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at a defined time.
 Cohort Sequential DesignAn experimental design in which the longitudinal method is replicated with several cohorts.
 Microgenetic DesignA method of scientific examination in developmental psychology in which the same children are studied repeatedly over a short period of time.
 Institutional Review BoardsAlso known as an independent ethics committee (IEC) or ethical review board (ERB), is a committee that has been formally designated to approve, monitor, and review biomedical and behavioral research involving humans with the aim to protect the rights and welfare of the research subjects.
 CultureMaterial and Symbolic tools that accumulate through time, are passed on through social processes, and provide resources for the developing child.
 Material ToolsCultural tools including physical objects and observable patterns of behavior such as family routines and social practices.
 Symbolic ToolsCultural tools, such as abstract knowledge, beliefs, and values.
 MediationMediation, as used in law, is a form of alternative dispute resolution, is a way of resolving disputes between two or more parties.  How cultural tools organize people's activities and ways of relating to their environments. 
 Social EnhancementThe most basic social process of learning to use cultural resources, in which resources are used simply because others' activities have made them available in the immediate environment.
 ImitationImitation is an advanced behavior whereby an individual observes and replicates another's.  The social process through which children learn to use their culture's resources by observing and copying the behaviors of others. 
 Explicit InstructionThe social process in which children are purposefully taught to use the resources of their culture.
 Cumulative Cultural EvolutionThe dynamic ongoing process of cultural change as a consequence of variation that individuals have produced in the cultural tools they use.
 HeredityHeredity is the passing of traits to offspring.  The biological transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next. 
 GenesA gene is a molecular unit of heredity in a living organism.  The segments on a DNA molecule that act as hereditary blueprints in the organism's development. 
 GenotypeThe genetic makeup (endowment) of a cell, an organism, or an individual. 
 PhenotypeAn organism's observable characteristics or traits: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior, the result from the interaction of the genotype with the environment.
 Natural SelectionThe nonrandom process by which biologic traits become more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers.  The process through which species survive and evolve, in which individuals with phenotypes that are more adaptive to the environmental conditions survive and reproduce with greater success than individuals with phenotypes that are less adaptive.
 Infant-Directed SpeechBaby talk, also referred to as caretaker speech, infant-directed speech or child-directed speech (CDS) and informally as "motherese", "parentese", "mommy talk", or "daddy talk" is a nonstandard form of speech used by adults in talking to toddlers and infants.  The special, musical speech used in talking to infants.
 ChromosomeAn organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells.  A threadlike structure made up of genes.  In humans, there are 46 chromosomes in every cell except sperm and ova. 
 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)A long double-stranded molecule that makes up chromosomes.
 Monozygotic TwinsOne of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy, that come from one zygote and therefore have identical genotypes. 
 Dizygotic TwinsOne of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy, that come from two zygotes.
 X-ChromosomeOne of the two sex-determining chromosomes in many animal species, including mammals.  In females, both members of the twenty-third pair of chromosomes and in males, one member of the twenty-third pair. 
 Y-ChromosomeOne of the two sex-determining chromosomes in most mammals, including humans.  In males, one member of the twenty-third pair of chromosomes. 
 AlleleOne of two or more forms of a gene.  The specific form of a gene coded for a particular trait. 
 HomozygousRefers to the similarity of genes for a trait in an organism.  Having inherited two genes of the same allelic form for a trait. 
 HeterozygousZygosity refers to the similarity of genes for a trait in an organism.  Having inherited two genes of different allelic forms for a trait. 
 Dominant AlleleDominance in genetics is a relationship between two variant forms of a single gene, in which one allele masks the effect of the other in influencing some trait.
 Recessive AlleleDominance in genetics is a relationship between two variant forms of a single gene, in which one allele masks the effect of the other in influencing some trait.  The allele that is not expressed when an individual possesses two different alleles for the same trait. 
 CarriersIndividuals who are heterozygous for a trait with a dominant and recessive allele and thus express only the characteristics associated
with the dominant allele but may pass the recessive allele, including for a recessive disorder, on to their offspring.
 CodominanceOutcome in which a trait that is different from the trait produced by either of the contributing alleles alone.
 Gene PoolThe total variety of genetic information possessed by a sexually reproducing population.
 MutationAn alteration in the molecular structure of an individual's DNA.
 ZygoteThe single cell formed at conception from the union of the sperm and the ovum.
 Germ CellsThe sperm and ova, which are specialized for sexual reproduction and have half the number of chromosomes normal for a species.
 Somatic CellsAll the cells in the body except for the germ cells (ova and sperm).
 MitosisThe process of cell duplication and division that generates all the individual's cells except sperm and ova.
 MeiosisThe process that produces sperm and ova, each of which contains only half of the parent cell's original complement of 46 chromosomes.
 Phenotypic Plasticitythe degree to which the phenotype is open to influence by the environment, rather than determined by the genotype.
 Canalizeda trait that is canalized follows a strictly defined path, regardless of most environmental and genetic variations.
 HeritabilityA measure of the degree to which  a variation in a particular trait among individuals in a specific population is related to genetic differences among those individuals.
 Kinship StudiesThe use of naturally occuring conditions provided by kinship relations to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to a phenotypic trait.
 Family StudyA study that compares members of the same family to determine how simular they are on a given trait.
 Twin StudyA study in which
 Adoption Study 
 Niche Construction 
 Co-Construction 
 Ecological Inheritance 
 Coevolution 
 Baldwin EffectAlso known as Baldwinian evolution or ontogenic evolution, is a theory of a possible evolutionary processes that was originally put forward in 1896 in a paper, "A New Factor in Evolution," by American psychologist James Mark Baldwin.  The role of cultural factors in determining which phenotypes are adaptive. 
 Zygote 
 Germinal Period 
 Embryonic Period Chapter 3 page 85 
 Fetal Period Chapter 3 page 85 
 Cleavage Chapter 3 page 85 
 Heterochrony Chapter 3 page 85 
 Heterogeneity Chapter 3 page 85 
 Totipotent Stem Cells Chapter 3 page 86 
 Implantation Chapter 3 page 86 
 Aminion Chapter 3 page 86 
 Chorion Chapter 3 page 86 
 Placenta Chapter 3 page 86 
 Umbilical Cord Chapter 3 page 86 
 Ectoderm Chapter 3 page 87Cells of the inner cell mass yhat develop into the outer surface of the skin, the nails, part of the teeth, the lens of the eye, the inner ear, and the central nervous system.
 Endoderm Chapter 3 page 87Cells of the inner cell mass that develop into the digestive system and the lungs.
 Mesoderm Chapter 3 page 87The cells of the inner cell mass that give rise to the muscles, the bones, the circulatory system, and the inner layers of the skin. 
 Epigenesis Chapter 3 page 88The process by which a new form emerges through the interactions of the preceding form and its curren environment.
 Cephalocaudal Pattern Chapter 3 page 88The pattern of development that proceeds from the head down.
 Proximodistal Pattern Chapter 3 page 88

The pattern of development that proceeds from the middle of the organism out to the periphery. 

 

 Neural Tube Chapter 3 page 94An embryonic structure that will develop into the brain and spinal cord.
 Teratogens Chapter 3 page 97Environment agents that can cause deviations from normal development and can lead to abnormalities or death.
 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Chapter 3 page 99A syndrome found in babies  whose mothers were heavy consumers of alcohol whike pregnant.  Symptoms include an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain, eye abnormalities, congenital heart disease, joint anomalies, and malformations of the face.
 Apgar Scale Chapter 3 page 111A quick, simple test used to diagnose the physical state of newborn infants.
 Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale Chapter 3 page 112A scale used to assess the newborn's neurological condition.
 Gestational Age Chapter 3 page 113The time that has passed  between conception and birth.  The normal gestational age is between 37 and 43 weeks.
 Preterm Chapter 3 page 113Thw term for babies born before the 37th week of prenancy.
 Low Birth WeightThe term used to describe  babies weighting 2500 grams or less at birth, whether or not they are premature. 
 Small for Gestational AgeNewborns whose birth weight falls in the lowest 10% for their gestational age because they have not grown at a normal rate.
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