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exam 2 spring '10 - Flashcards

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Class:CHEM 177 - GENERAL CHEMISTRY I
Subject:CHEMISTRY
University:Iowa State University
Term:Spring 2010
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Formula Weight (Mass) (3.3) Used to determine the number of molecules. Weight of one formula unit. Allows conversion of mass to number of molecules.
Molecular Weight The mass of one molecule. CO2: 1 C and 2 O = 12.01 + 2(16.00) = 44.01 amu Similar to molar mass. (3.3)
Percent Composition by Mass (mass of element/total mass) x 100 (3.3)
Mole The mole (symbol mol) is the SI base unit of amount of substance; one of a few units used to measure this physical quantity. (3.3)
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Avogadro's Number 6.022 x 10^23 can be used for any unit (3.3)
Molar Mass the mass of one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound). (3.3)
Stoichiometry the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in a balanced chemical reaction.
Limiting Reagent the limiting reagent, also known as the "limiting reactant", is the chemical that determines how far the reaction will go (amount of product that can be formed) before the chemical in question gets "used up", causing the reaction to stop. (3.7)
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Theoretical Yield The quantity of product that is calculated to form when all of the limiting reactant reacts. (3.7)
Actual Yield The amount of product actually obtained in a reaction. (3.7)
Percent Yield (actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100% (3.7)
Excess Reagent Amount of product left over after the reaction goes to completion. (3.7)
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Aqueous In water (4.1)
Aqueous Solution A solution in which water is the dissolving medium. (4.1)
Strong Electrolyte Solutes that exist in solution completely or nearly completely as ions. (4.1)
Weak Electrolyte Solutes that exist in solution mostly in the form of molecules with only a small fraction in the form of ions. (4.1)
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Non-electrolytes A substance that does not form ions in solution or conduct electricity. (4.1)
Strong Acids A strong acid is an acid that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution by losing one proton, according to the equation. Strong electrolyte 7 strong acids (4.1)
Strong Base Strong electrolyte (4.1)
Weak Acid A weak acid is an acid that dissociates incompletely. Weak electrolyte (4.1)
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Dissociation Breaks down into separate ions (4.1)
Ionization Dissociation of an acid or ionic substance into ions in aqueous solutions. (4.1)
Hydronium Ion H3O+ (4.1)
Precipitate Insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution. (4.2)
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Solubility Amount of substance that can be dissolved in a certain volume of solvent. (4.2)
Soluble Can be dissolved in liquid solvent. Doesn't form precipitate. (4.2)
Insoluble Cannot be dissolved. Forms precipitate. (4.2)
Metathesis exchange reaction - switch partners Double replacement reaction (4.2)
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Complete Ionic Reaction Equation Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s) +Na+(aq) +NO3-(aq) (4.2)
Net Ionic Reaction Equation Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s) (4.2)
Acids Donate H+ ions in reactions. Start with H or end with COOH. (4.3)
Base Accept H+ in reactions. Contain a metal cation with the hydroxide anion, OH- Bases that don't contain OH usually contain N. (4.3)
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Salt Neither an acid or a base. Formula that contains a cation that is not H+ and an anion that is not OH- (4.3)
Oxidation Lose electrons Ca→Ca2+ (4.4)
Reduction Gain electrons O2→O2- (4.4)
Redox Redox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. (4.4)
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Oxidation State Accounting of electrons in reactions.
Molarity The concentration of a solution as the number of moles of solute in a liter of solution. M = moles of solute/volume (L) (4.5)
Titration Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant. (4.6)
Equivalence Point Theoretical volume of the titrant needed to react completely. (4.6)
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Neutralization Reaction is a chemical reaction whereby an acid and a base react to form water and a salt. (4.3)
Thermochemistry study of the energy evolved or absorbed in chemical reactions and any physical transformations, such as melting and boiling. the energy exchange accompanying transformations, heat capacity, heat of combustion, heat of formation, enthalpy, and free energy. (5.1)
Thermodynamics (from the Greek therme, meaning "heat" and , dynamis, meaning "power") relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes (5.1)
Kinetic Energy Energy of motion 1/2mv^2 (5.1)
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Thermal Energy Energy of particle energy associated with the motion or KE of atoms/molecules (5.1)
Potential Energy Stored energy; some force acting on or constraining the object/particle. (5.1)
Joule SI unit for energy (5.1)
Kilojoules 1000 Joules (5.1)
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Calorie energy unit 1 cal = 4.184 joules 1 cal raises the temp of 1 g of water by 1℃ 1 food calorie = 1000 scientific calories = 1 kilocalorie (5.1)
Universe Consists of the system and surroundings (5.1)
System reaction vessel what is being looked at (5.1)
Surroundings everything outside the system (5.1)
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Heat or q q= heat added to the system (5.2)
Work or w w = work done on system (5.2)
1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved (neither created nor destroyed) energy lost by the system is transferred to surroundings energy gained by the system is transferred from surroundings. (5.2)
Internal Energy or E total energy (PE and KE) of the system (5.2)
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State Function A property of a system that is determined by specifying the system's condition, or state (temperature, pressure, etc.) (5.2)
Exothermic Heat is released (given off) heat is lost by system q<0; negative creates heat (5.2)
Endothermic Heat is absorbed by system q>0; positive cools down (5.2)
Pressure-Volume (PV) Work The work involved in the expansion or compression of gases w = -PΔV (5.3)
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Enthalpy (H) The heat flow in processes occuring at constant pressure when no forms of work are performed other than P-V work. ΔHqp (5.3)
Enthalpy of Reaction ΔHrxn = H(products) - H(reactants) (5.4)
Enthalpy Diagram representation of enthalpy change C(s) + O2(g) ↓ ΔHrxn ↑ ΔHrxn -393.5 kJ +393.5 kJ CO2(g) (5.4)
Calorimetry measure of heat flow (5.5)
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Calorimeter device used to measure heat flow (5.5)
Constant Pressure Calorimeter qsoln = msoln - CsolnΔT ΔH = qp (5.5)
Constant Volume Calorimeter bomb calorimeter - combustion ΔE = q + w ΔE = qv (5.5)
Molar Heat Capacity Amount of heat needed to raise the temp of one mole of a pure substance by 1℃. Heat capacity of one mole of a substance. (5.5)
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Heat Capacity amount of internal energy (E) to raise temp of substance by 1℃ (1 K). (5.5)
Specific Heat Specific heat capacity (often shortened to specific heat) is the measure of heat or thermal energy required to increase the temperature of a of a substance by one unit. Sp.Ht. = q/mass in g x ΔT (5.5)
Thermodynamically Favored likely to occur on its own due to thermochemical properties. (5.5)
Calorimeter Constant A calorimeter constant (denoted Ccal) is a constant that quantifies the heat capacity of a calorimeter. (5.5)
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Hess's Law If a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, ΔH for the overall reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps. (5.6)
Enthalpy of Formation change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states ΔH˚f (5.7)
Standard State Substance in its pure form at atmospheric pressure. (5.7)
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 Formula Weight (Mass)(3.3)
Used to determine the number of molecules.
Weight of one formula unit.
Allows conversion of mass to number of molecules.
 Molecular WeightThe mass of one molecule.
CO2: 1 C and 2 O = 12.01 + 2(16.00) = 44.01 amu
Similar to molar mass.
(3.3)
 Percent Composition by Mass(mass of element/total mass) x 100
(3.3)
 MoleThe mole (symbol mol) is the SI base unit of amount of substance; one of a few units used to measure this physical quantity.
(3.3)
 Avogadro's Number6.022 x 10^23
can be used for any unit
(3.3)
 Molar Mass the mass of one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound).
(3.3)
 Stoichiometry the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in a balanced chemical reaction.
 Limiting Reagent the limiting reagent, also known as the "limiting reactant", is the chemical that determines how far the reaction will go (amount of product that can be formed) before the chemical in question gets "used up", causing the reaction to stop.
(3.7)
 Theoretical YieldThe quantity of product that is calculated to form when all of the limiting reactant reacts.
(3.7)
 Actual YieldThe amount of product actually obtained in a reaction.
(3.7)
 Percent Yield(actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100%
(3.7)
 Excess ReagentAmount of product left over after the reaction goes to completion.
(3.7)
 AqueousIn water
(4.1)
 Aqueous SolutionA solution in which water is the dissolving medium.
(4.1)
 Strong ElectrolyteSolutes that exist in solution completely or nearly completely as ions.
(4.1)
 Weak ElectrolyteSolutes that exist in solution mostly in the form of molecules with only a small fraction in the form of ions.
(4.1)
 Non-electrolytesA substance that does not form ions in solution or conduct electricity.
(4.1)
 Strong AcidsA strong acid is an acid that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution by losing one proton, according to the equation.
Strong electrolyte
7 strong acids
(4.1)
 Strong BaseStrong electrolyte
(4.1)
 Weak AcidA weak acid is an acid that dissociates incompletely.
Weak electrolyte
(4.1)
 DissociationBreaks down into separate ions
(4.1)
 IonizationDissociation of an acid or ionic substance into ions in aqueous solutions.
(4.1)
 Hydronium IonH3O+
(4.1)
 PrecipitateInsoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution.
(4.2)
 SolubilityAmount of substance that can be dissolved in a certain volume of solvent.
(4.2)
 SolubleCan be dissolved in liquid solvent.
Doesn't form precipitate.
(4.2)
 InsolubleCannot be dissolved.
Forms precipitate.
(4.2)
 Metathesisexchange reaction - switch partners
Double replacement reaction
(4.2)
 Complete Ionic Reaction EquationAg+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s) +Na+(aq) +NO3-(aq)
(4.2)
 Net Ionic Reaction EquationAg+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s)
(4.2)
 AcidsDonate H+ ions in reactions.
Start with H or end with COOH.
(4.3)
 BaseAccept H+ in reactions.
Contain a metal cation with the hydroxide anion, OH-
Bases that don't contain OH usually contain N.
(4.3)
 SaltNeither an acid or a base.
Formula that contains a cation that is not H+ and an anion that is not OH-
(4.3)
 OxidationLose electrons
Ca→Ca2+
(4.4)
 ReductionGain electrons
O2→O2-
(4.4)
 RedoxRedox (shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed.
(4.4)
 Oxidation StateAccounting of electrons in reactions.
 MolarityThe concentration of a solution as the number of moles of solute in a liter of solution.
M = moles of solute/volume (L)
(4.5)
 TitrationTitration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant.
(4.6)
 Equivalence PointTheoretical volume of the titrant needed to react completely.
(4.6)
 Neutralization Reaction is a chemical reaction whereby an acid and a base react to form water and a salt.
(4.3)
 Thermochemistry study of the energy evolved or absorbed in chemical reactions and any physical transformations, such as melting and boiling.
the energy exchange accompanying transformations,
heat capacity, heat of combustion, heat of formation, enthalpy, and free energy.
(5.1)
 Thermodynamics (from the Greek therme, meaning "heat" and , dynamis, meaning "power") relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes
(5.1)
 Kinetic EnergyEnergy of motion
1/2mv^2
(5.1)
 Thermal EnergyEnergy of particle energy
associated with the motion or KE of atoms/molecules
(5.1)
 Potential EnergyStored energy; some force acting on or constraining the object/particle.
(5.1)
 JouleSI unit for energy
(5.1)
 Kilojoules1000 Joules
(5.1)
 Calorieenergy unit
1 cal = 4.184 joules
1 cal raises the temp of 1 g of water by 1℃
1 food calorie = 1000 scientific calories = 1 kilocalorie
(5.1)
 UniverseConsists of the system and surroundings
(5.1)
 Systemreaction vessel
what is being looked at
(5.1)
 Surroundingseverything outside the system
(5.1)
 Heat or qq= heat added to the system
(5.2)
 Work or ww = work done on system
(5.2)
 1st Law of ThermodynamicsEnergy is conserved (neither created nor destroyed)
energy lost by the system is transferred to surroundings
energy gained by the system is transferred from surroundings.
(5.2)
 Internal Energy or Etotal energy (PE and KE) of the system
(5.2)
 State FunctionA property of a system that is determined by specifying the system's condition, or state (temperature, pressure, etc.)
(5.2)
 ExothermicHeat is released (given off)
heat is lost by system
q<0; negative
creates heat
(5.2)
 EndothermicHeat is absorbed by system
q>0; positive
cools down
(5.2)
 Pressure-Volume (PV) WorkThe work involved in the expansion or compression of gases
w = -PΔV
(5.3)
 Enthalpy (H)The heat flow in processes occuring at constant pressure when no forms of work are performed other than P-V work.
ΔHqp
(5.3)
 Enthalpy of ReactionΔHrxn = H(products) - H(reactants)
(5.4)
 Enthalpy Diagramrepresentation of enthalpy change
C(s) + O2(g)
↓ ΔHrxn ↑ ΔHrxn
-393.5 kJ +393.5 kJ
CO2(g)
(5.4)
 Calorimetrymeasure of heat flow
(5.5)
 Calorimeterdevice used to measure heat flow
(5.5)
 Constant Pressure Calorimeterqsoln = msoln - CsolnΔT
ΔH = qp
(5.5)
 Constant Volume Calorimeterbomb calorimeter - combustion
ΔE = q + w
ΔE = qv
(5.5)
 Molar Heat CapacityAmount of heat needed to raise the temp of one mole of a pure substance by 1℃.
Heat capacity of one mole of a substance.
(5.5)
 Heat Capacityamount of internal energy (E) to raise temp of substance by 1℃ (1 K).
(5.5)
 Specific HeatSpecific heat capacity (often shortened to specific heat) is the measure of heat or thermal energy required to increase the temperature of a of a substance by one unit.
Sp.Ht. = q/mass in g x ΔT
(5.5)
 Thermodynamically Favoredlikely to occur on its own due to thermochemical properties.
(5.5)
 Calorimeter ConstantA calorimeter constant (denoted Ccal) is a constant that quantifies the heat capacity of a calorimeter.
(5.5)
 Hess's LawIf a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, ΔH for the overall reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps.
(5.6)
 Enthalpy of Formation change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states
ΔH˚f
(5.7)
 Standard StateSubstance in its pure form at atmospheric pressure.
(5.7)
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