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Chapter 9 - Flashcards

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Class:CHEM 141 - Analytical Chemistry
Subject:Chemistry
University:University of the Pacific
Term:Fall 2009
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Weak Acid A weak acid is an acid that dissociates incompletely and does not release all of its hydrogens in a solution i.e it does not completely donate all of its protons. A weak acid is one that is not completely dissociated and thus that the reaction equation does not go to completion. Ka, is taken into consideration as the acid dissociation constant
Weak Base In chemistry, a weak base is a chemical base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution. a weak base is when the reaction equation does not go to completion. Kb, is taken into consideration as the base hydrolysis constant.
calculating the pH when [H+] > 10^(-6) M the pH is calculated considering the addition of H+ and OH-
calculating the pH when [H+] < 10^(-8) pH = 7
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calculating pH when [H+] is between 10^(-6) to 10^(-8) systematic equilibrium calculation is necessary.
pK formalism pK = -log K as K increases, pK decreases an acid is stronger if its Ka is large and that its pKa is small
Conjugate acid-base pairs Within the Brnsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of two compounds that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton. related by the gain or loss of proton Ka * Kb = Kw
Structure and Acidity Any effect that increases the stability of the product of a reaction drives the reaction forward. the product of the acid dissociation reaction can form a strong, internal hydrogen bond
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Formal Concentration (F) a measure of concentration similar to molarity. It is calculated based on the formula weights of chemicals per liter of solution. The difference between formal and molar concentrations is that the formal concentration indicates moles of the original chemical formula in solution, without regard for the species that actually exist in solution. Molar concentration, on the other hand, is the concentration of species in solution.
Weak Base Equilibria nearly all the OH- comes from the reaction of B + H2O. Setting [OH-] = [BH+] = x.
Buffer A buffer solution is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. solution that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added
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 Weak AcidA weak acid is an acid that dissociates incompletely and does not release all of its hydrogens in a solution i.e it does not completely donate all of its protons.

A weak acid is one that is not completely dissociated and thus that the reaction equation does not go to completion.

Ka, is taken into consideration as the acid dissociation constant
 Weak BaseIn chemistry, a weak base is a chemical base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.

a weak base is when the reaction equation does not go to completion.

Kb, is taken into consideration as the base hydrolysis constant.
 calculating the pH when [H+] > 10^(-6) Mthe pH is calculated considering the addition of H+ and OH-
 calculating the pH when [H+] < 10^(-8)pH = 7
 calculating pH when [H+] is between 10^(-6) to 10^(-8)systematic equilibrium calculation is necessary.
 pK formalismpK = -log K

as K increases, pK decreases

an acid is stronger if its Ka is large
and that its pKa is small
 Conjugate acid-base pairsWithin the Brnsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate acid is the acid member, HX, of a pair of two compounds that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton.

related by the gain or loss of proton

Ka * Kb = Kw
 Structure and AcidityAny effect that increases the stability of the product of a reaction drives the reaction forward.

the product of the acid dissociation reaction can form a strong, internal hydrogen bond
 Formal Concentration (F)a measure of concentration similar to molarity.
It is calculated based on the formula weights of chemicals per liter of solution.

The difference between formal and molar concentrations is that the formal concentration indicates moles of the original chemical formula in solution, without regard for the species that actually exist in solution. Molar concentration, on the other hand, is the concentration of species in solution.
 Weak Base Equilibrianearly all the OH- comes from the reaction of B + H2O. Setting [OH-] = [BH+] = x.
 BufferA buffer solution is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid.

solution that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added
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