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Exam 3 - Flashcards

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Class:CHEM 177 - GENERAL CHEMISTRY I
Subject:CHEMISTRY
University:Iowa State University
Term:Spring 2010
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Thermodynamically Favored Likely to occur on its own due to thermochemical properties.
Spontaneous Energy must be imparted to get the reaction started.
Entropy The randomness in a system or the extent to which energy is distributed or dispersed among the various motions of the molecules of the system.
Electronic Structure The arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule. The number of electrons in an atom and the distribution of the electrons around the nucleus and their energies. 6.1
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Light Consists of regularly oscillating magnetic and electrical fields. Visible, infrared, ultra-violet, and x-ray light. 6.1
Electromagnetic Radiation A form of energy that has wave characteristics and that propagates through a vacuum at the characteristic speed of 3.00 x 10^8 m/s. Visible light, radio waves, infrared radiation, and x-rays. 6.1
Wave A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space and time, usually with transference of energy. 6.1
Wavelength (λ) The distance between two adjacent peaks. λ = c/ν 6.1
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Frequency (ν) The number of complete wavelengths, or cycles that pass a given point each second. ν = c/λ 6.1
Speed of Light 3.00 x 10^8 m/s c = ν*λ 6.1
Photon Particle of light E = h*ν 6.2
Quantization The energy in discrete energy packets, not continuous. 6.2
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Quantum The smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation. 6.2
Line Spectra When atoms of a particular element excited (heat, electrical discharge) discrete colors are emitted rather than a rainbow. 6.3
Ground State The lowest energy state. n=1 6.3
Excited State When the electron is in a higher energy orbit. n=2 or higher. 6.3
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Bohr Model Depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus. 6.3
DeBroglie Equation λ=h/mv v=velocity mv=momentum h=Planck's constant 6.4
Electron Density Distribution Result of calculation showing where it is likely to find electrons. 6.5
Principle Quantum Number (n) 1,2,3, etc. As n increases, the orbital volume increases, electron exists further from nucleus on average, electrons less tightly bound. shell/level 6.5
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Azimuthal Quantum Number l 1,2,3...n-1 defines the shape of the orbital sublevel 6.5
Magnetic Quantum Number ml values between L and -L indicates orientation of orbital in space specific orbital 6.5
Electron Spin Electrons behave as if they spin on their axis-giving rise to a magnetic field. 6.5
Spin Quantum Number ms 1/2 or -1/2 spin up or spin down electronic spin 6.5
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Pauli Exclusion Principle each electron in an atom has a unique set of quantum numbers: n, l, ml, and ms. No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers. 6.7
Hund's Rule For degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized. Parallel spins 6.8
Degenerate Orbitals orbitals at identical energy levels. 6.8
Valence Electrons Electrons involved in chemical bonding All outer shell electrons 6.8
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Core Electrons Inner shell electrons 6.8
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 Thermodynamically FavoredLikely to occur on its own due to thermochemical properties.
 SpontaneousEnergy must be imparted to get the reaction started.
 EntropyThe randomness in a system or the extent to which energy is distributed or dispersed among the various motions of the molecules of the system.
 Electronic StructureThe arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule.
The number of electrons in an atom and the distribution of the electrons around the nucleus and their energies.
6.1
 LightConsists of regularly oscillating magnetic and electrical fields.
Visible, infrared, ultra-violet, and x-ray light.
6.1
 Electromagnetic RadiationA form of energy that has wave characteristics and that propagates through a vacuum at the characteristic speed of 3.00 x 10^8 m/s.
Visible light, radio waves, infrared radiation, and x-rays.
6.1
 WaveA wave is a disturbance that propagates through space and time, usually with transference of energy.
6.1
 Wavelength (λ)The distance between two adjacent peaks.
λ = c/ν
6.1
 Frequency (ν)The number of complete wavelengths, or cycles that pass a given point each second.
ν = c/λ
6.1
 Speed of Light3.00 x 10^8 m/s
c = ν*λ
6.1
 PhotonParticle of light
E = h*ν
6.2
 QuantizationThe energy in discrete energy packets, not continuous.
6.2
 QuantumThe smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation.
6.2
 Line SpectraWhen atoms of a particular element excited (heat, electrical discharge) discrete colors are emitted rather than a rainbow.
6.3
 Ground StateThe lowest energy state. n=1
6.3
 Excited StateWhen the electron is in a higher energy orbit.
n=2 or higher.
6.3
 Bohr ModelDepicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus.
6.3
 DeBroglie Equationλ=h/mv
v=velocity
mv=momentum
h=Planck's constant
6.4
 Electron Density DistributionResult of calculation showing where it is likely to find electrons.
6.5
 Principle Quantum Number (n)1,2,3, etc.
As n increases, the orbital volume increases, electron exists further from nucleus on average, electrons less tightly bound.
shell/level
6.5
 Azimuthal Quantum Number l
1,2,3...n-1
defines the shape of the orbital
sublevel
6.5
 Magnetic Quantum Numberml
values between L and -L
indicates orientation of orbital in space
specific orbital
6.5
 Electron SpinElectrons behave as if they spin on their axis-giving rise to a magnetic field.
6.5
 Spin Quantum Numberms
1/2 or -1/2
spin up or spin down
electronic spin
6.5
 Pauli Exclusion Principleeach electron in an atom has a unique set of quantum numbers: n, l, ml, and ms.
No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers.
6.7
 Hund's RuleFor degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized.
Parallel spins
6.8
 Degenerate Orbitalsorbitals at identical energy levels.
6.8
 Valence ElectronsElectrons involved in chemical bonding
All outer shell electrons
6.8
 Core ElectronsInner shell electrons
6.8
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