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Class:CHEM 1307 - Principles Of Chemistry I: Principles of Chemistry I Majors Only
Subject:CHEMISTRY
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Fall 2011
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Compounds that are always soluble NH4+, K+, Na+, NO3-, ClO3-, ClO4-, CH3CO2-
Compounds that are soluble EXCEPT with Ag+, Hg2+, Pb2+ Cl-, Br-, I-
Soluble EXCEPT with Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+ F-
Soluble EXCEPT with Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+ SO4 2-
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Always insoluble EXCEPT with an always soluble compound CO3 2-, PO4 3-, C2O4 2-, CrO4 2-, S 2-, 
Most metal hydroxides and oxides are.... Insoluble except with an always soluble compound, alkali metals, and BaOH2 is an exception
Density Equation d= mass / volume (g/ml)
Law of Definite Composition The percentage by mass of the elements in a compound is always the same no matter how the compound is created.
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Isotopes variations of an element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons thus creating a different atomic mass.
What is 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom? 1 amu
Atomic Mass of isotopes Atomic Weight = (%abundance of isotope 1 / 100)(mass isotope 1) + (%abundance isotope 2 / 100)(mass isotope 2) +.........
Molecular Formula Describes the number of atoms of each element in a molecule but gives no structural information about how the atoms are connected.

EXAMPLE:  ethanol = C2H6O
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Condensed Formula Indicates how atoms are grouped together (which elements are bonded to each other).

EXAMPLE: ethanol= CH3CH2OH
Structural Formula Shows how all the atoms are attached in a molecule.  Lines Represent chemical bonds.

EXAMPLE:  O=C-O (CO2)
Monoatomic Ions An ion that is formed from a single atom. EXAMPLE: P + 3e-  ->  P3-
Different Copper Ions Copper(I) (cuprous) ; Copper(II) (cupric) 
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Different Cobalt Ions Cobalt (II), Cobalt (III)
Different Iron ions Iron (II) (ferrous), Iron (III) (ferric)
Different ions for manganesse Manganese (II), Manganese (III)
Different ions for Tin tin (II) (stannous), tin (IV) (stannic)
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Different ions for Lead Lead (II), Lead (IV)
Different ions for Mercury Mercury (I) (mercurous), Mercury (II) (mercuric)
Monoprotic Acids gives off one hydrogen
Diprotic Acids acids that give off 2 Hydrogens
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Triprotic Acids Acids that give off 3 hydrogens
Naming binary acids name hydrogen with Hydro- and name nonmetal with an -ic ending
What is a binary acid? a hydrogen and a nonmental forming an acid (NO OXYGENS)
Oxyacids an acid that contains hydrogen, a nonmetal, and oxygen
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Naming Oxyacids acid ending is changed to either -ic or -ous
HClO4 Perchloric Acid
HClO3 Chloric Acid
HNO3 Nitric Acid
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HC2H3O2 acetic acid
H2CO3 Carbonic Acid
H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid
H3PO4 Phosphoric Acid
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HClO2 Chlorous Acid
HClO Hypochlorous Acid
HNO2 Nitrous Acid
H2SO3 Sulfurous Acid
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Avogadro's Number 6.03 X 10^23 things
How to determine the Molecular Formula of a Compound divide the actual molar mass of the compound by the molar mass found from the empirical formula (the quotient is the number of EMPIRICAL UNITS).  Multiply this number by each subscript in the molecule's empirical formula to find the molecular formula
Product-Favored Reactions reactants are completely or mainly converted to products at equilibrium
Reactant-Favored Reactions reactants are converted only slightly to products at equilibrium
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Strong Acids HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Strong Bases LiOH,  NaOH,  KOH, Ba(OH)2
Bronsted-Lowry Definitions for Acids and Bases Acid-base reactions involve the transfer of H+ from one species to another; acid-base reactions in terms of equilibria.   ACIDS=proton donoer BASES=proton acceptor
What does a strong acid do according to Bronsted-Lowry? donate H+ to water: products favored
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What does a weak acid do according to Bronsted-Lowry Donates H+ to water; reactants are favored
Oxidation Number the charge the atom has or appears to have.
Guidelines for assigning Oxidation Numbers Pure elements have ONs of 0; monoatomic ions=charge on ion; Fluorine ALWAYS has ON of 1; oxygen= -2 EXCEPT with fluorine; Cl, Br, and I= -1 EXCEPT with F or O; Hydrogen= +1 EXCEPT with metals forming binary compounds; 
Common Oxidizing Agents O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, HNO3, Cr2O7 2-, MnO4 -, 
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Common Reducing Agents H2, metals, Carbon
Percent Yield Equation (actual yield / theoretical yield) X 100%
Percent Mass Equation (grams of solute / grams of solution) X 100%
Dilute Concentration Equation Vc X Mc = Vd X Md   (Vc=volume of concentrated solution, Mc=mass of concentrated solution, Vd=volume of diluted solution, Md=mass of diluted solution)
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 Compounds that are always solubleNH4+, K+, Na+, NO3-, ClO3-, ClO4-, CH3CO2-
 Compounds that are soluble EXCEPT with Ag+, Hg2+, Pb2+Cl-, Br-, I-
 Soluble EXCEPT with Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+F-
 Soluble EXCEPT with Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+SO4 2-
 Always insoluble EXCEPT with an always soluble compoundCO3 2-, PO4 3-, C2O4 2-, CrO4 2-, S 2-, 
 Most metal hydroxides and oxides are....Insoluble except with an always soluble compound, alkali metals, and BaOH2 is an exception
 Density Equationd= mass / volume (g/ml)
 Law of Definite CompositionThe percentage by mass of the elements in a compound is always the same no matter how the compound is created.
 Isotopesvariations of an element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons thus creating a different atomic mass.
 What is 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom?1 amu
 Atomic Mass of isotopesAtomic Weight = (%abundance of isotope 1 / 100)(mass isotope 1) + (%abundance isotope 2 / 100)(mass isotope 2) +.........
 Molecular FormulaDescribes the number of atoms of each element in a molecule but gives no structural information about how the atoms are connected.

EXAMPLE:  ethanol = C2H6O
 Condensed FormulaIndicates how atoms are grouped together (which elements are bonded to each other).

EXAMPLE: ethanol= CH3CH2OH
 Structural FormulaShows how all the atoms are attached in a molecule.  Lines Represent chemical bonds.

EXAMPLE:  O=C-O (CO2)
 Monoatomic IonsAn ion that is formed from a single atom. EXAMPLE: P + 3e-  ->  P3-
 Different Copper IonsCopper(I) (cuprous) ; Copper(II) (cupric) 
 Different Cobalt IonsCobalt (II), Cobalt (III)
 Different Iron ionsIron (II) (ferrous), Iron (III) (ferric)
 Different ions for manganesseManganese (II), Manganese (III)
 Different ions for Tintin (II) (stannous), tin (IV) (stannic)
 Different ions for LeadLead (II), Lead (IV)
 Different ions for MercuryMercury (I) (mercurous), Mercury (II) (mercuric)
 Monoprotic Acidsgives off one hydrogen
 Diprotic Acidsacids that give off 2 Hydrogens
 Triprotic AcidsAcids that give off 3 hydrogens
 Naming binary acidsname hydrogen with Hydro- and name nonmetal with an -ic ending
 What is a binary acid?a hydrogen and a nonmental forming an acid (NO OXYGENS)
 Oxyacidsan acid that contains hydrogen, a nonmetal, and oxygen
 Naming Oxyacidsacid ending is changed to either -ic or -ous
 HClO4Perchloric Acid
 HClO3Chloric Acid
 HNO3Nitric Acid
 HC2H3O2acetic acid
 H2CO3Carbonic Acid
 H2SO4Sulfuric Acid
 H3PO4Phosphoric Acid
 HClO2Chlorous Acid
 HClOHypochlorous Acid
 HNO2Nitrous Acid
 H2SO3Sulfurous Acid
 Avogadro's Number6.03 X 10^23 things
 How to determine the Molecular Formula of a Compounddivide the actual molar mass of the compound by the molar mass found from the empirical formula (the quotient is the number of EMPIRICAL UNITS).  Multiply this number by each subscript in the molecule's empirical formula to find the molecular formula
 Product-Favored Reactionsreactants are completely or mainly converted to products at equilibrium
 Reactant-Favored Reactionsreactants are converted only slightly to products at equilibrium
 Strong AcidsHCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
 Strong BasesLiOH,  NaOH,  KOH, Ba(OH)2
 Bronsted-Lowry Definitions for Acids and BasesAcid-base reactions involve the transfer of H+ from one species to another; acid-base reactions in terms of equilibria.   ACIDS=proton donoer BASES=proton acceptor
 What does a strong acid do according to Bronsted-Lowry?donate H+ to water: products favored
 What does a weak acid do according to Bronsted-LowryDonates H+ to water; reactants are favored
 Oxidation Numberthe charge the atom has or appears to have.
 Guidelines for assigning Oxidation NumbersPure elements have ONs of 0; monoatomic ions=charge on ion; Fluorine ALWAYS has ON of 1; oxygen= -2 EXCEPT with fluorine; Cl, Br, and I= -1 EXCEPT with F or O; Hydrogen= +1 EXCEPT with metals forming binary compounds; 
 Common Oxidizing AgentsO2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, HNO3, Cr2O7 2-, MnO4 -, 
 Common Reducing AgentsH2, metals, Carbon
 Percent Yield Equation(actual yield / theoretical yield) X 100%
 Percent Mass Equation(grams of solute / grams of solution) X 100%
 Dilute Concentration EquationVc X Mc = Vd X Md   (Vc=volume of concentrated solution, Mc=mass of concentrated solution, Vd=volume of diluted solution, Md=mass of diluted solution)
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