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Heroes - Flashcards

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Class:CLASS 40 - GREEK MYTHOLOGY
Subject:Classics
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Fall 2010
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Io was a priestess of Hera in Argos,[1] a nymph who was seduced by Zeus, who changed her into a heifer to escape detection. Her mistress Hera set ever-watchful Argus Panoptes to guard her, but Hermes was sent to distract the guardian and slay him. Heifer Io was loosed to roam the world, stung by a maddening gadfly sent by Hera, and wandered to Egypt, thus placing her descendant Belus in Egypt; his sons Cadmus and Danaus would thus "return" to mainland Greece.
Perseus King Acrisius of Argos was warned by an oracle that he would be killed in time by a son born to his daughter Danae. So he promptly locked Danae up in a tower and threw away the key. But the god Zeus got in, disguised as a shower of gold, with the result that Perseus was born.
Cadmus Cadmus or Kadmos (), in Greek, Roman and Phoenician mythologies, was a Phoenician prince, the son of king Agenor and queen Telephassa of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix and Europa. He was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she was abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus.[2] Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes, the acropolis of which was originally named Cadmeia in his honor.
Oedipus Oedipus ( in American English and in British English; Greek: Oidpous meaning "swollen-footed") was a mythical Greek king of Thebes. He fulfilled a prophecy that said he would kill his father and marry his mother, and thus brought disaster on his city and family.
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Agenor Zeus saw Agenor's daughter Europa gathering flowers and immediately fell in love with her. Zeus transformed himself into a white bull and carried Europa away to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true identity and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Agenor, meanwhile, sent Europa's brothers, Cadmus and Cilix in search of her, telling them not to return without her. Cadmus consulted the oracle of Delphi and was advised to travel until encountering a cow. He was to follow this cow and to found a city where the cow would lie down; this city became Thebes.
Cretes Crete was the center of the Minoan civilization
Minos king of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa. insult to the gods eventuated in the birth of the Minotaur. When challenged to prove his right to the Cretan throne, Minos asked the gods to send him a sign. The deities instantly obliged, causing a beautiful white bull to emerge from the sea. Minos was so delighted that he decided not to offer the bull for sacrifice as was expected. Instead he substituted another bull from his herd. This displeased the sea god Poseidon so much that he made Minos' wife fall in love with the bull from the sea. The Minotaur was born as a result.
Laius Laios of Thebes was a divine hero and key personage in the Theban founding myth. Son of Labdacus, he was raised by the regent Lycus after the death of his father. After the rape of Chrysippus, Laius married Jocasta or Epicasta, the daughter of Menoeceus, a descendant of the Spartoi. Laius received an oracle from Delphi which told him that he must not have a child with his wife, or the child would kill him and marry her. One night, however, Laius was drunk and fathered Oedipus
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Jocasta She was the wife of Laius. Wife and mother of Oedipus by Laius, and both mother and grandmother of Antigone, Eteocles, Polynices and Ismene by Oedipus. She was also sister of Creon.
Sphinx the Sphinx sat outside of Thebes and asked this riddle of all travelers who passed by. If the traveler failed to solve the riddle, then the Sphinx killed him/her. And if the traveler answered the riddle correctly, then the Sphinx would destroy herself. The riddle: What goes on four legs in the morning, on two legs at noon, and on three legs in the evening? Oedipus solved the riddle, and the Sphinx destroyed herself.
Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. His wife was Argea. His father, Oedipus, was discovered to have killed his father and married his mother, and was expelled from Thebes, leaving his sons Eteocles and Polynices to rule.
Eteocles When Oedipus killed his father Laius and married his mother, he was expelled from Thebes. The rule passed to his sons Eteocles and Polynices. However, because of a curse from their father, the two brothers did not share the rule peacefully. Eteocles was succeeded by his uncle, Creon.
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Antigone Antigone is a daughter of the accidentally incestuous marriage between King Oedipus of Thebes and his mother Jocasta. She is the subject of a popular story in which she attempts to secure a respectable burial for her brother Polyneices, even though he was a traitor to Thebes. stole the body of Polynices and secretly buried him against the prohibition of Creon And for that deed she was put to death.
Creon the ruler of Thebes in the legend of Oedipus.
Epigoni are the sons of the Argive heroes who had fought and been killed in the first Theban war, the subject of the Greek Thebaid, in which Polynices and six allies (the Seven Against Thebes) attacked Thebes because Polynices' brother, Eteocles, refused to give up the throne as promised. The second Theban war, also called the war of the Epigoni, occurred ten years later, when the Epigoni, wishing to avenge the death of their fathers, attacked Thebes.
Alcmena was the mother of Heracles. According to Apollodorus, Alcmene went with Amphitryon to Thebes, where he was purified by Creon for accidentally killing Electryon. Alcmene refused to marry Amphitryon until he had avenged the death of her brothers.[4] However, during Amphitryon's expedition against the Taphians and Teleboans,[5] Zeus visited Alcmene disguised as Amphitryon. Extending one night into three, Zeus slept with Alcmene
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Heracles Hero who was later turned into a God A major factor in the well-known tragedies surrounding Heracles is the hatred that the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus, had for him
12 labors for Eurystheus 1. To kill the Nemean lion. 2. To destroy the Lernaean Hydra. 3. To capture the Ceryneian Hind. 4. To capture the Erymanthian Boar. 5. To clean the Augean Stables. 6. To kill the Stymphalian Birds. 7. To capture the Cretan Bull. 8. To round up the Mares of Diomedes. 9. To steal the Girdle of Hippolyte. 10. To herd the Cattle of Geryon. 11. To fetch the Apples of Hesperides. 12. To capture Cerberus.
Omphale Heracles second wife
Deianira best-known for being Heracles' third wife and, in the late Classical story, unwittingly killing him with the Shirt of Nessus.
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Shirt of Nessus it is the shirt (chiton) daubed with the tainted blood of the centaur Nessus that Deianeira, Hercules' wife, naïvely gave Hercules, burning him, and driving him to throw himself onto a funeral pyre.
Iole was the daughter of Eurytus, king of Oechalia. Iole was claimed by Heracles for a bride, but Eurytus refused her hand in marriage. Iole was indirectly the cause of Heracles's death because of his wife's jealousy of her
How Lole caused Heracle death Deianira feared she would lose Heracles to the younger and more beautiful Iole.Years earlier, the centaur Nessus had ferried her across the river Evenus and attempted to rape her when on the other side. Heracles saved her from Nessus by shooting him with poisoned arrows.She had kept some of Nessus' blood, because he had told her with his dying breath that if she were to give Heracles a cloak (chiton) soaked in his blood that it would be a love charm. prom to win him back from Iole, the foreign concubine. The cloak was delivered to Heracles and when he put it on the poison went into his body.[10] Deianira had unwittingly poisoned her husband with this purported love potion because of her jealousy of Iole. Upon realizing the mistake she had made, she ultimately killed herself.[7] Because of his love for Iole, Heracles asked that his eldest son, Hyllus, marry her so that she would be well taken care of.[2] Iole and Hyllus had a son called Cleodaeus, being the grandson of Heracles.
THeseus son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, both of whom Aethra lay with in one night.
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Story of Minotaur King Minos of Crete had waged war with the Athenians, succesful. at nine-year intervals, seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls were to be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth created by Daedalus. Theseus volunteered to slay the monster. He took the place of one of the youths and set off with a black sail, promising to his father, Aegeus, that if successful he would return with a white sail. After decapitating the beast, Theseus used the string to escape the Labyrinth and managed to escape with all of the young Athenians and Ariadne - and her little sister Phaidra too. On the return journey Theseus abandoned Ariadne on the island of Naxos
Hippolyte Hippolyta first appears in myth when she encounters Theseus, king of Athens, who was accompanying Heracles on his quest against the Amazons. Though Hippolyta gave birth to a son, Hippolytus, to Theseus, she was cast off when Theseus courted Phaedra
Phaedra Though married to Theseus, Phaedra fell in love with Hippolytus, Her stepson Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him as a punishment.[1] He rejected her. Alternatively, Phaedra's nurse told Hippolytus of her love, and he swore he would not reveal her as a source of information. In revenge, Phaedra wrote Theseus a letter that claimed Hippolytus raped her. Theseus believed her and cursed Hippolytus with one of the three curses he had received from Poseidon
Jason was a late ancient Greek mythological hero, famous as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcus. He was married to the sorceress Medea. HIs uncle was Pelias, the King Iolcus
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Reason Jason Sent in quest of Golden Fleece When Jason entered Iolcus he was announced as a man wearing one sandal. Jason, knowing that he was the rightful king, told Pelias that and Pelias said, "To take my throne, which you shall, you must go on a quest to find the Golden Fleece." Jason happily accepted the quest.
Argo the ship on which Jason and the Argonauts sailed from Iolcus to retrieve the Golden Fleece.
Argonauts were a band of heroes in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece.
Colchis Jason arrived in Colchis to claim the fleece as his own. King Aeetes of Colchis promised to give it to him only if he could perform three certain tasks
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Three Tasks at Colchis First, Jason had to plow a field with fire-breathing oxen, the Khalkotauroi, that he had to yoke himself. Medea provided an ointment that protected him from the oxen's flames. Then, Jason sowed the teeth of a dragon into a field. The teeth sprouted into an army of warriors. Medea had previously warned Jason of this and told him how to defeat this foe. Before they attacked him, he threw a rock into the crowd. Unable to discover where the rock had come from, the soldiers attacked and defeated one another. His last task was to overcome the sleepless dragon which guarded the Golden Fleece.
COnclusion of 3 tasks Jason sprayed the dragon with a potion, given by Medea, distilled from herbs. The dragon fell asleep, and Jason was able to seize the Golden Fleece. He then sailed away with Medea. Medea distracted her father, who chased them as they fled, by killing her brother Apsyrtus and throwing pieces of his body into the sea
Medea KIng Aeetes' daughter. Fell in love with Jason.
King Aeetes KIng of colchis
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Jason and Medea Jason abandoned Medea for the king's daughter, Glauce. Medea took her revenge by sending Glauce a dress and golden coronet, covered in poison. This resulted in the deaths of both the princess and the king, Creon, when he went to save her. According to the tragic poet Euripides, Medea continued her revenge, murdering her two children by Jason.
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 Iowas a priestess of Hera in Argos,[1] a nymph who was seduced by Zeus, who changed her into a heifer to escape detection. Her mistress Hera set ever-watchful Argus Panoptes to guard her, but Hermes was sent to distract the guardian and slay him. Heifer Io was loosed to roam the world, stung by a maddening gadfly sent by Hera, and wandered to Egypt, thus placing her descendant Belus in Egypt; his sons Cadmus and Danaus would thus "return" to mainland Greece.
 PerseusKing Acrisius of Argos was warned by an oracle that he would be killed in time by a son born to his daughter Danae. So he promptly locked Danae up in a tower and threw away the key. But the god Zeus got in, disguised as a shower of gold, with the result that Perseus was born.
 CadmusCadmus or Kadmos (), in Greek, Roman and Phoenician mythologies, was a Phoenician prince, the son of king Agenor and queen Telephassa of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix and Europa.
He was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she was abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus.[2] Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes, the acropolis of which was originally named Cadmeia in his honor.
 OedipusOedipus ( in American English and in British English; Greek: Oidpous meaning "swollen-footed") was a mythical Greek king of Thebes.
He fulfilled a prophecy that said he would kill his father and marry his mother, and thus brought disaster on his city and family.
 AgenorZeus saw Agenor's daughter Europa gathering flowers and immediately fell in love with her. Zeus transformed himself into a white bull and carried Europa away to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true identity and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Agenor, meanwhile, sent Europa's brothers, Cadmus and Cilix in search of her, telling them not to return without her.
Cadmus consulted the oracle of Delphi and was advised to travel until encountering a cow. He was to follow this cow and to found a city where the cow would lie down; this city became Thebes.
 CretesCrete was the center of the Minoan civilization
 Minosking of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
insult to the gods eventuated in the birth of the Minotaur.
When challenged to prove his right to the Cretan throne, Minos asked the gods to send him a sign. The deities instantly obliged, causing a beautiful white bull to emerge from the sea. Minos was so delighted that he decided not to offer the bull for sacrifice as was expected. Instead he substituted another bull from his herd. This displeased the sea god Poseidon so much that he made Minos' wife fall in love with the bull from the sea. The Minotaur was born as a result.
 LaiusLaios of Thebes was a divine hero and key personage in the Theban founding myth. Son of Labdacus, he was raised by the regent Lycus after the death of his father.
After the rape of Chrysippus, Laius married Jocasta or Epicasta, the daughter of Menoeceus, a descendant of the Spartoi. Laius received an oracle from Delphi which told him that he must not have a child with his wife, or the child would kill him and marry her. One night, however, Laius was drunk and fathered Oedipus
 JocastaShe was the wife of Laius. Wife and mother of Oedipus by Laius, and both mother and grandmother of Antigone, Eteocles, Polynices and Ismene by Oedipus. She was also sister of Creon.

 Sphinxthe Sphinx sat outside of Thebes and asked this riddle of all travelers who passed by. If the traveler failed to solve the riddle, then the Sphinx killed him/her. And if the traveler answered the riddle correctly, then the Sphinx would destroy herself. The riddle:

What goes on four legs in the morning, on two legs at noon, and on three legs in the evening?

Oedipus solved the riddle, and the Sphinx destroyed herself.
 Polyniceswas the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. His wife was Argea. His father, Oedipus, was discovered to have killed his father and married his mother, and was expelled from Thebes, leaving his sons Eteocles and Polynices to rule.
 EteoclesWhen Oedipus killed his father Laius and married his mother, he was expelled from Thebes. The rule passed to his sons Eteocles and Polynices. However, because of a curse from their father, the two brothers did not share the rule peacefully. Eteocles was succeeded by his uncle, Creon.
 AntigoneAntigone is a daughter of the accidentally incestuous marriage between King Oedipus of Thebes and his mother Jocasta. She is the subject of a popular story in which she attempts to secure a respectable burial for her brother Polyneices, even though he was a traitor to Thebes.
stole the body of Polynices and secretly buried him against the prohibition of Creon And for that deed she was put to death.
 Creon the ruler of Thebes in the legend of Oedipus.
 Epigoniare the sons of the Argive heroes who had fought and been killed in the first Theban war, the subject of the Greek Thebaid, in which Polynices and six allies (the Seven Against Thebes) attacked Thebes because Polynices' brother, Eteocles, refused to give up the throne as promised. The second Theban war, also called the war of the Epigoni, occurred ten years later, when the Epigoni, wishing to avenge the death of their fathers, attacked Thebes.
 Alcmenawas the mother of Heracles.
According to Apollodorus, Alcmene went with Amphitryon to Thebes, where he was purified by Creon for accidentally killing Electryon. Alcmene refused to marry Amphitryon until he had avenged the death of her brothers.[4] However, during Amphitryon's expedition against the Taphians and Teleboans,[5] Zeus visited Alcmene disguised as Amphitryon. Extending one night into three, Zeus slept with Alcmene
 HeraclesHero who was later turned into a God
A major factor in the well-known tragedies surrounding Heracles is the hatred that the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus, had for him
 12 labors for Eurystheus 1. To kill the Nemean lion.
2. To destroy the Lernaean Hydra.
3. To capture the Ceryneian Hind.
4. To capture the Erymanthian Boar.
5. To clean the Augean Stables.
6. To kill the Stymphalian Birds.
7. To capture the Cretan Bull.
8. To round up the Mares of Diomedes.
9. To steal the Girdle of Hippolyte.
10. To herd the Cattle of Geryon.
11. To fetch the Apples of Hesperides.
12. To capture Cerberus.
 OmphaleHeracles second wife
 Deianirabest-known for being Heracles' third wife and, in the late Classical story, unwittingly killing him with the Shirt of Nessus.
 Shirt of Nessusit is the shirt (chiton) daubed with the tainted blood of the centaur Nessus that Deianeira, Hercules' wife, naïvely gave Hercules, burning him, and driving him to throw himself onto a funeral pyre.
 Iolewas the daughter of Eurytus, king of Oechalia.
Iole was claimed by Heracles for a bride, but Eurytus refused her hand in marriage. Iole was indirectly the cause of Heracles's death because of his wife's jealousy of her
 How Lole caused Heracle deathDeianira feared she would lose Heracles to the younger and more beautiful Iole.Years earlier, the centaur Nessus had ferried her across the river Evenus and attempted to rape her when on the other side. Heracles saved her from Nessus by shooting him with poisoned arrows.She had kept some of Nessus' blood, because he had told her with his dying breath that if she were to give Heracles a cloak (chiton) soaked in his blood that it would be a love charm. prom to win him back from Iole, the foreign concubine. The cloak was delivered to Heracles and when he put it on the poison went into his body.[10] Deianira had unwittingly poisoned her husband with this purported love potion because of her jealousy of Iole. Upon realizing the mistake she had made, she ultimately killed herself.[7] Because of his love for Iole, Heracles asked that his eldest son, Hyllus, marry her so that she would be well taken care of.[2] Iole and Hyllus had a son called Cleodaeus, being the grandson of Heracles.
 THeseusson of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, both of whom Aethra lay with in one night.
 Story of MinotaurKing Minos of Crete had waged war with the Athenians, succesful. at nine-year intervals, seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls were to be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth created by Daedalus.
Theseus volunteered to slay the monster. He took the place of one of the youths and set off with a black sail, promising to his father, Aegeus, that if successful he would return with a white sail. After decapitating the beast, Theseus used the string to escape the Labyrinth and managed to escape with all of the young Athenians and Ariadne - and her little sister Phaidra too. On the return journey Theseus abandoned Ariadne on the island of Naxos
 HippolyteHippolyta first appears in myth when she encounters Theseus, king of Athens, who was accompanying Heracles on his quest against the Amazons.
Though Hippolyta gave birth to a son, Hippolytus, to Theseus, she was cast off when Theseus courted Phaedra
 PhaedraThough married to Theseus, Phaedra fell in love with Hippolytus,
Her stepson
Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him as a punishment.[1] He rejected her. Alternatively, Phaedra's nurse told Hippolytus of her love, and he swore he would not reveal her as a source of information. In revenge, Phaedra wrote Theseus a letter that claimed Hippolytus raped her. Theseus believed her and cursed Hippolytus with one of the three curses he had received from Poseidon
 Jasonwas a late ancient Greek mythological hero, famous as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcus. He was married to the sorceress Medea.
HIs uncle was Pelias, the King Iolcus
 Reason Jason Sent in quest of Golden FleeceWhen Jason entered Iolcus he was announced as a man wearing one sandal. Jason, knowing that he was the rightful king, told Pelias that and Pelias said, "To take my throne, which you shall, you must go on a quest to find the Golden Fleece." Jason happily accepted the quest.
 Argothe ship on which Jason and the Argonauts sailed from Iolcus to retrieve the Golden Fleece.
 Argonautswere a band of heroes in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece.
 ColchisJason arrived in Colchis to claim the fleece as his own. King Aeetes of Colchis promised to give it to him only if he could perform three certain tasks
 Three Tasks at ColchisFirst, Jason had to plow a field with fire-breathing oxen, the Khalkotauroi, that he had to yoke himself. Medea provided an ointment that protected him from the oxen's flames. Then, Jason sowed the teeth of a dragon into a field. The teeth sprouted into an army of warriors. Medea had previously warned Jason of this and told him how to defeat this foe. Before they attacked him, he threw a rock into the crowd. Unable to discover where the rock had come from, the soldiers attacked and defeated one another. His last task was to overcome the sleepless dragon which guarded the Golden Fleece.
 COnclusion of 3 tasksJason sprayed the dragon with a potion, given by Medea, distilled from herbs. The dragon fell asleep, and Jason was able to seize the Golden Fleece. He then sailed away with Medea. Medea distracted her father, who chased them as they fled, by killing her brother Apsyrtus and throwing pieces of his body into the sea
 MedeaKIng Aeetes' daughter.
Fell in love with Jason.
 King AeetesKIng of colchis
 Jason and MedeaJason abandoned Medea for the king's daughter, Glauce. Medea took her revenge by sending Glauce a dress and golden coronet, covered in poison. This resulted in the deaths of both the princess and the king, Creon, when he went to save her. According to the tragic poet Euripides, Medea continued her revenge, murdering her two children by Jason.
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