Koofers

5 Canons - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:CMST 2060 - PUBLIC SPEAKING
Subject:Communication Studies
University:Louisiana State University
Term:Spring 2013
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Rhetorical Public Speaking The art of addressing public concerns by employing deliberate persuasive strategies before a public audience at a specific occasion in order to transform some aspect of a problematic situation by encouraging new forms of thought and action
3 Forms of Communication
  1. Written speech - for information (communication) that is timeless
  2. Online communication - breaking news/information that is spread out quickly
  3. Public speech/oral communication
5 Canons
  1. Invention
  2. Arrangement
  3. Style 
  4. Memory
  5. Delivery
Invention The devising of matter true or plausible, that would make the case convincing
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Invention Calls On A Speaker to Determine:
  • The nature of the rhetorical situation
  • Relationship between speaker and audience
  • Motivations of audience
  • Logical and emotional proofs that best appeal to audience
Types of Invention
  • Definition - clarifies the speakers position
  • Division - breaking up the terms into different parts
  • Comparison - similarities and differences
  • Relationship - cause and effect
  • Circumstances - future possibilities
  • Values - good and bad
Invention: Evidence
  • Testimony
  • Examples
  • Statistics 
Invention: Thesis
  • Needs to be specific
  • Focus on a single topic
  • Be audience centered
  • Make a clear claim
  • Present reasons and details
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Arrangement The capacity to put things in order
Arrangement: Introduction
  • Capture the audience's attention
  • Previews main points
  • Thesis statement
  • Set the mood
  • Provides transition sentence to the main body
Arrangement: Strategies for the Introduction
  • Ask a question
  • Quote
  • Joke 
  • Fact
  • Perform demonstration
  • Story
  • Creation of suspense
  • Refer to current event
Arrangement: Main Points
  • Transition
  • Internal previews
  • Sign posting
  • Internal summaries
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Arrangement: Strategies For Crafting Main Points
  • Chronological
  • Geographical (world tour)
  • Cause and effect
  • Pro-con
  • Topical (traditional 5 paragraph essay)
  • Problem-solution
  • Comparative advantage
Arrangement: Conclusions
  • Summarize the main points
  • Help the audience to remember
  • Leave with a call to action
  • Clearly end speech
  • End on a positive note
Arrangement: Strategies For The Conclusion
  • Startle your audience
  • Challenge the audience
  • Come full circle
  • Visualize a positive/negative future
  • Ask a question
  • Quote
  • Tell story
  • Humor
Style How to express ideas
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Figurative Style Parts of the speech to give clarity
Four Different Types of Meaning
  • Denotative
  • Connotative
  • Associative 
  • Practical
Denotative Meaning Literal meaning

Connotative Meaning Positive or negative attraction to a term
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Associative Meaning One word that brings terms, ideas, objects to thought
Practical Meaning What a word does, not what a word is
Tropes Words with more than one meaning
Metaphor (Trope) Comparing a similar quality of two distinct objects
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Synecdoche (Trope) Part stands in for the whole
Metonymy (Trope) Using a concrete term in place of an abstract term
Irony (Trope) Conveys the opposite meaning
Simile (Trope) Explicit comparison between two things of unlike nature using like or as
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Personification (Trope) A description of abstract or nonhuman objects as if they possessed human qualities
Hyperbole (Trope) Over-exaggeration 
Oxymoron (Trope) Places two words together that are contradictory
Paradox (Trope) Contradiction that has a kernel of truth
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Figures The rhythm/sound of words
Parallelism (Figure)
  • Rhythm through repetitive sequence
  • "They are laughing with me, not laughing at me"
Antithesis (Figure) Juxtaposition of contrasting sides
Alliteration (Figure) Repeating sounds at beginning of words
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Epistrophe (Figure) Repeating same phrase at the end of successive sentences
Repetition (Figure) Same phrase at the beginning of successive sentences
Grand Style
  • Smooth and ornate
  • Presidential speeches, graduation speeches
Middle Style
  • Common words in a sophisticated form
  • Meetings
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Plain Style Everyday language
Individual Memory Beliefs, experiences, opinions of the speaker
Group/Public Memory Common knowledge; shared experiences to develop relationships
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 Rhetorical Public SpeakingThe art of addressing public concerns by employing deliberate persuasive strategies before a public audience at a specific occasion in order to transform some aspect of a problematic situation by encouraging new forms of thought and action
 3 Forms of Communication
  1. Written speech - for information (communication) that is timeless
  2. Online communication - breaking news/information that is spread out quickly
  3. Public speech/oral communication
 5 Canons
  1. Invention
  2. Arrangement
  3. Style 
  4. Memory
  5. Delivery
 InventionThe devising of matter true or plausible, that would make the case convincing
 Invention Calls On A Speaker to Determine:
  • The nature of the rhetorical situation
  • Relationship between speaker and audience
  • Motivations of audience
  • Logical and emotional proofs that best appeal to audience
 Types of Invention
  • Definition - clarifies the speakers position
  • Division - breaking up the terms into different parts
  • Comparison - similarities and differences
  • Relationship - cause and effect
  • Circumstances - future possibilities
  • Values - good and bad
 Invention: Evidence
  • Testimony
  • Examples
  • Statistics 
 Invention: Thesis
  • Needs to be specific
  • Focus on a single topic
  • Be audience centered
  • Make a clear claim
  • Present reasons and details
 ArrangementThe capacity to put things in order
 Arrangement: Introduction
  • Capture the audience's attention
  • Previews main points
  • Thesis statement
  • Set the mood
  • Provides transition sentence to the main body
 Arrangement: Strategies for the Introduction
  • Ask a question
  • Quote
  • Joke 
  • Fact
  • Perform demonstration
  • Story
  • Creation of suspense
  • Refer to current event
 Arrangement: Main Points
  • Transition
  • Internal previews
  • Sign posting
  • Internal summaries
 Arrangement: Strategies For Crafting Main Points
  • Chronological
  • Geographical (world tour)
  • Cause and effect
  • Pro-con
  • Topical (traditional 5 paragraph essay)
  • Problem-solution
  • Comparative advantage
 Arrangement: Conclusions
  • Summarize the main points
  • Help the audience to remember
  • Leave with a call to action
  • Clearly end speech
  • End on a positive note
 Arrangement: Strategies For The Conclusion
  • Startle your audience
  • Challenge the audience
  • Come full circle
  • Visualize a positive/negative future
  • Ask a question
  • Quote
  • Tell story
  • Humor
 StyleHow to express ideas
 Figurative StyleParts of the speech to give clarity
 Four Different Types of Meaning
  • Denotative
  • Connotative
  • Associative 
  • Practical
 Denotative MeaningLiteral meaning

 Connotative MeaningPositive or negative attraction to a term
 Associative MeaningOne word that brings terms, ideas, objects to thought
 Practical MeaningWhat a word does, not what a word is
 TropesWords with more than one meaning
 Metaphor (Trope)Comparing a similar quality of two distinct objects
 Synecdoche (Trope)Part stands in for the whole
 Metonymy (Trope)Using a concrete term in place of an abstract term
 Irony (Trope)Conveys the opposite meaning
 Simile (Trope)Explicit comparison between two things of unlike nature using like or as
 Personification (Trope)A description of abstract or nonhuman objects as if they possessed human qualities
 Hyperbole (Trope)Over-exaggeration 
 Oxymoron (Trope)Places two words together that are contradictory
 Paradox (Trope)Contradiction that has a kernel of truth
 FiguresThe rhythm/sound of words
 Parallelism (Figure)
  • Rhythm through repetitive sequence
  • "They are laughing with me, not laughing at me"
 Antithesis (Figure)Juxtaposition of contrasting sides
 Alliteration (Figure)Repeating sounds at beginning of words
 Epistrophe (Figure)Repeating same phrase at the end of successive sentences
 Repetition (Figure)Same phrase at the beginning of successive sentences
 Grand Style
  • Smooth and ornate
  • Presidential speeches, graduation speeches
 Middle Style
  • Common words in a sophisticated form
  • Meetings
 Plain StyleEveryday language
 Individual MemoryBeliefs, experiences, opinions of the speaker
 Group/Public MemoryCommon knowledge; shared experiences to develop relationships
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