Koofers

Final study guide - Flashcards

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Class:COM 353 - Small Group Communication
Subject:Communication & Dramatic Arts
University:Central Michigan University
Term:Fall 2011
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      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Norms

an unstated informal rule; governs the behavior of small group 

members; reflects cultural beliefs about what is/isn’t appropriate


Implicit norm

implied; joke about arriving late to a meeting


explicit norm

explicit: stated clearly; what the group hopes will become normative

Cohesiveness {TASK}

Task: initiating/orienting; info giving/seeking; clarifying/ elaborating; evaluating; summarizing; coordinating; consensus testing; recording


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cohesiveness {relationship}

relationship: 

Feedback: good feedback should be present; timed right and appropriate Descriptive to receiver emotional needs


Descriptive, Evaluative, Prescriptive

Descriptive: describes behavior and impact of behavior, person cannot argue, reduces conflict

Evaluative: “you’re responsible” 

Prescriptive: “you need to be more responsible”


Leadership (Traits)

Traits:leaders are born, not made - taller, more attractive, higher IQs. This is generally false appropriate leadership behavior (not traits) are shared by a groups needs


Leadership (Transformational)

Transformational: Use creative and dramatic messages to craft a powerful and inspirational vision

-communicates vision (through words and actions)

-give individual attention to group members, are charismatic, intellectually stimulating


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Leadership (Contingency)
Contingency: different situations require different styles of leadership
-you cannot change a persons leadership style easily so place specific types of leaders in situations that call for them

Leadership (Situational)

Situational: assumes people are flexible, and can adapt to meet the needs of many groups


Leadership (Styles)

democratic, autocratic, laissez-faire 

Democratic: encourage participation in group decision making 

Autocratic: tries to dominate and control a group

Laissez-Faire: a do-nothing designated leader who     provides minimal service to the group

Designated

Designated: a person appointed or elected to a position as leader of group


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Emergent

Emergent: member of an initially leaderless group who, rises from within the group, to enact leadership functions and is viewed as the leader by all or most of the group

Stage 1: one or more members eliminated within first meeting

Stage 2: ongoing throughout group process -> contenders and lieutenants, leader will emerge based on his/her effective communication, garners support of members

Analyzing the problem first step

Analyzing the problem

Felt difficulty: If we feel as if something is off, we must 1st frame the problem by asking an open-ended questions (ex: what needs to be done?)

Analyzing the problem {Tests of information}

Tests of information: tests of recency, tests of context, test for external consistency

Criteria

Criteria 

Definition: standard that provides a measurement tool for the evaluation of alternatives


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Criteria How it is developed

How it is developed

nature of the decision question: what kind of decision is it?

groups analysis of the problem

limitations of group

the group members preferences: identify common preferences


Criteria Difficulties faced (communicate thoroughly about criteria)

Difficulties faced (communicate thoroughly about criteria) 

limitations of authority

values of the larger system

limitations of resources

prior decisions


What can it function to do for groups that are deciding among solutions?

criteria are a starting point for thorough analysis and decisions to ensure: a solution avoids negative outcomes   and a solution promises positive outcomes


Brainstorming (rules)

quantity, not quality

freewheeling is encouraged (crazier idea = better)

piggybacking is encouraged (submarine story)

record all ideas

refrain from criticism


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PERT Process
  1. identify final event
  2. brainstorm list of events before final event can be realized (not chronological
  3. put events in chronological order
  4. generate list of activities resources, resources and materials needed for each step
  5. estimate total of time needed for each step, then add all estimates for total time
  6. compare total time w/ deadlines and adjust as necessary
  7. determine who is responsible for each step
Decision-making (strengths/weaknesses)

Decision-making (strengths/weaknesses)

By consensus: a choice that all group members agree is the best one that they all can accept

By leader: determines the functions or behaviors most needed for a group, then supplies or encourages them to do so.

By majority vote: decision made by vote, with the winning alternative receiving more than half te votes of the members

Managing meetings

Agenda setting rules/guidelines

Rules

  1. rules of halves: send agenda items to planner
  2. rules of 3/4: distribute agenda to members
  3. rule of thirds: most important business in middle 3rd of meeting
Guidelines
  1. Establish minutes taker
  2. establish agenda setter
  3. establish meeting time
  4. co-construct tentative agenda for next meeting
  5. does agenda follow rule of thirds?
  6. create group code word for maintaining agenda integrity



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Conflict

Definition of conflict, elements of definition 

conflict is an expressed struggle between at least 2 interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals


The good, the bad, the ugly (groupthink)

good: better understanding of issues/ppl; increased motivation; produces better decisions; increased cohesive

bad: hurt feelings, splitting group apart, low cohesiveness

ugly: socioemotional cohesiveness, interpersonal attraction, task-oriented cohesion, pressure to achieve consensus, time pressues


distributive

win/lose


integrative

win-win

****integration is not possible if members do not believe in it


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Types of conflict (affective, procedural, substantive)

substantive: over what to do; task related disagreements; is basis for good decision making

affective: represents the who in small group conflict, likes and dislikes associated with personality, power struggles, im better, detrimental to group functioning

procedural: disagreement about the how of group interactions; consensus vs. majority rule, maybe used to mask affective or substantive conflict


Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Norms

an unstated informal rule; governs the behavior of small group 

members; reflects cultural beliefs about what is/isn’t appropriate


 Implicit norm

implied; joke about arriving late to a meeting


 explicit norm

explicit: stated clearly; what the group hopes will become normative

 Cohesiveness {TASK}

Task: initiating/orienting; info giving/seeking; clarifying/ elaborating; evaluating; summarizing; coordinating; consensus testing; recording


 cohesiveness {relationship}

relationship: 

Feedback: good feedback should be present; timed right and appropriate Descriptive to receiver emotional needs


 Descriptive, Evaluative, Prescriptive

Descriptive: describes behavior and impact of behavior, person cannot argue, reduces conflict

Evaluative: “you’re responsible” 

Prescriptive: “you need to be more responsible”


 Leadership (Traits)

Traits:leaders are born, not made - taller, more attractive, higher IQs. This is generally false appropriate leadership behavior (not traits) are shared by a groups needs


 Leadership (Transformational)

Transformational: Use creative and dramatic messages to craft a powerful and inspirational vision

-communicates vision (through words and actions)

-give individual attention to group members, are charismatic, intellectually stimulating


 Leadership (Contingency)
Contingency: different situations require different styles of leadership
-you cannot change a persons leadership style easily so place specific types of leaders in situations that call for them

 Leadership (Situational)

Situational: assumes people are flexible, and can adapt to meet the needs of many groups


 Leadership (Styles)

democratic, autocratic, laissez-faire 

Democratic: encourage participation in group decision making 

Autocratic: tries to dominate and control a group

Laissez-Faire: a do-nothing designated leader who     provides minimal service to the group

 Designated

Designated: a person appointed or elected to a position as leader of group


 Emergent

Emergent: member of an initially leaderless group who, rises from within the group, to enact leadership functions and is viewed as the leader by all or most of the group

Stage 1: one or more members eliminated within first meeting

Stage 2: ongoing throughout group process -> contenders and lieutenants, leader will emerge based on his/her effective communication, garners support of members

 Analyzing the problem first step

Analyzing the problem

Felt difficulty: If we feel as if something is off, we must 1st frame the problem by asking an open-ended questions (ex: what needs to be done?)

 Analyzing the problem {Tests of information}

Tests of information: tests of recency, tests of context, test for external consistency

 Criteria

Criteria 

Definition: standard that provides a measurement tool for the evaluation of alternatives


 Criteria How it is developed

How it is developed

nature of the decision question: what kind of decision is it?

groups analysis of the problem

limitations of group

the group members preferences: identify common preferences


 Criteria Difficulties faced (communicate thoroughly about criteria)

Difficulties faced (communicate thoroughly about criteria) 

limitations of authority

values of the larger system

limitations of resources

prior decisions


 What can it function to do for groups that are deciding among solutions?

criteria are a starting point for thorough analysis and decisions to ensure: a solution avoids negative outcomes   and a solution promises positive outcomes


 Brainstorming (rules)

quantity, not quality

freewheeling is encouraged (crazier idea = better)

piggybacking is encouraged (submarine story)

record all ideas

refrain from criticism


 PERT Process
  1. identify final event
  2. brainstorm list of events before final event can be realized (not chronological
  3. put events in chronological order
  4. generate list of activities resources, resources and materials needed for each step
  5. estimate total of time needed for each step, then add all estimates for total time
  6. compare total time w/ deadlines and adjust as necessary
  7. determine who is responsible for each step
 Decision-making (strengths/weaknesses)

Decision-making (strengths/weaknesses)

By consensus: a choice that all group members agree is the best one that they all can accept

By leader: determines the functions or behaviors most needed for a group, then supplies or encourages them to do so.

By majority vote: decision made by vote, with the winning alternative receiving more than half te votes of the members

Managing meetings

 Agenda setting rules/guidelines

Rules

  1. rules of halves: send agenda items to planner
  2. rules of 3/4: distribute agenda to members
  3. rule of thirds: most important business in middle 3rd of meeting
 Guidelines
  1. Establish minutes taker
  2. establish agenda setter
  3. establish meeting time
  4. co-construct tentative agenda for next meeting
  5. does agenda follow rule of thirds?
  6. create group code word for maintaining agenda integrity



 Conflict

Definition of conflict, elements of definition 

conflict is an expressed struggle between at least 2 interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving their goals


 The good, the bad, the ugly (groupthink)

good: better understanding of issues/ppl; increased motivation; produces better decisions; increased cohesive

bad: hurt feelings, splitting group apart, low cohesiveness

ugly: socioemotional cohesiveness, interpersonal attraction, task-oriented cohesion, pressure to achieve consensus, time pressues


 distributive

win/lose


 integrative

win-win

****integration is not possible if members do not believe in it


 Types of conflict (affective, procedural, substantive)

substantive: over what to do; task related disagreements; is basis for good decision making

affective: represents the who in small group conflict, likes and dislikes associated with personality, power struggles, im better, detrimental to group functioning

procedural: disagreement about the how of group interactions; consensus vs. majority rule, maybe used to mask affective or substantive conflict


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