Koofers

5 Principles of Communication - Flashcards

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Class:COMM 1310 - FUND OF HUMAN COM
Subject:Communication Studies
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2013
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3 criteria to assess someones communication competence: 1. Message should be UNDERSTOOD
       -Should create clarity between cultures
2. Should ACHIEVE ITS INTENDED EFFECT
3. Should be ETHICAL
      - beliefs, values, & moral principles by which we determine what            is right from wrong
What are the Components of the Communication Process? 1. Source: Encoding/ Creating
2. Receiver: Decoding/ Interpreting
3. Channel: Pathway traveled
      -sight, sound, touch, taste, smell
4. Noise: Interference/ What gets in the way
      -literal & psychological
5. Context: Physical, Historical, & Psychological Environment
6. Feedback Loop: the response given

What are the 3 models of Communication? 1. Action: message transfer (NO FEEDBACK ex. memo)
2. Interaction: message exchange (DELAYED FEEDBACK                               ex. email/text)
3. Transaction: message creation/ interaction (FACE TO FACE)
What are the 5 Characteristics of Communication? 1. Inescapable
2. Irreversible
3. Complicated
4. Context & Relationship Oriented
5. Governed by Rules (what is acceptable)

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What are the 5 Communication Principles? 1. AWARE: to be self aware of communication with self and others
2. VERBAL: effectively use & interpret 
3. NONVERBAL: use and interpret
4. LISTEN & RESPOND
5. ADAPT: adapt your message to others
Interpersonal Communication Context occurs between two people who mutually attempt to manipulate one another
Group Communication Context 3-15 people who share common goals/interests and try to influence one another

ex. club or organization
Presentation Communication Context speaker addresses a gathering of people to inform, persuade or entertain them

ex. large lecture
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Self- Concept our own subjective view of how we see ourselves (family/culture/religion) 
Self- Esteem an assessment of our worth and values (Social comparison/ expectations
What are the 3 Components of Self- Concept? 1. ATTITUDE: learned predisposition to respond favorably/                              unfavorably towards something
         ex. ice cream/ video games/ free music downloads
2. BELIEF: way in which you structure reality
         ex. you believe that your parents love you
3. VALUE: enduring concept of right and wrong
        ex. you value honesty and truth
4 Factors that affect the development of Self- Concept 1. OTHERS
2. GROUPS you associate with
3. ROLES we assume
4. through SELF LABELS
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Gender/ social comparison/ self expectations/ self fulfilling prophecy examples: 1. gender- culture
2. Social comparison- famous people
3. self expectations- realistic/ how well you preform
4. self fulfilling prophecy- "if you believe in something it will come true"
self talk/ visualization/ re-framing techniques 1. Self talk- positive communications with self
2. visualization- imagining you are preforming positively
3. re-framing- redefining events from a different point of view
What are the three stages of perception 1.. selecting and attending
      choosing a particular stimuli and then acting on it
2. organization (understandable patterns)
      -closure(filling in missing info)
      -similarity
3. interpretation- appply meaning
how to improve ability to form accurate perceptions 1. Increase awareness- pay attention
2. avoid stereotypes
3. perception checking
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indirect perception checking seek out additional information in a positive way (look for cues)
direct perception checking 1. describe behavior (verbal/nonverbal)
2. offer 2 possible interpretations
3. request clarification
4 factors effecting self esteem 1. gender
2. social comparison
3. self expectation
4. self fulfilling prophecy
what is the Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis? -human language and thought are so interrelated that thought is rooted in and controlled by language
- language shapes our perception
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bypassing language when the same word has multiple meanings

ex. chick, grass, late, hot
connotative personal or subjective meaning
denotative literal/dictionary meaning of a word
concrete language something that can be perceived with one of the senses
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abstract language something that cannot be perceived with one of the senses
5 ways to have power 1. create and label experiences
2. reflect our attitudes and culture
3. to communicate feelings
4. make and break relationships
5. impact thoughts and actions
descriptive verbal messages i hear you talking behind his back and it bothers me
evaluate verbal messages thats an idiotic thing to say about him
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problem solving verbal messages im having a problem with the way things are are happening between us lately. can you please help me figure out what to do?
controlling verbal messages you have a problem and you better figure it out
what is gunny sacking? a form of attacking that drags up someones past mistakes/problems and relates them to the current situation
what are the 6 functions of nonverbal communication 1. subsitute (use nonverbal instead of verbal)
2. accent (nonverbal on one word to reinforce)
3. repeat (say 4 o'clock then holding up the number 4)
4. regulate
5. complement (using nonverbal at same time as verbal)
6. contradict
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what is the nature of nonverbal communication 1. culture bound- shift from culture to culture
2. rule governed
3. ambiguous- not concrete/interpretation
4. continuous
5. non linguistic- not based on verbals
6. multi channeled- jestures/ voice pitches
7 nonverbal codes and supcodes 1. appearance (clothes/artifacts/attractiveness)
2. kinesics (human movements, gestures, and posture)
3. eye contact
4. facial expressions
5. haptics (human touch)
6. vocalic
7. proximites (space and territory)
5 different forms of kinesics 1. Emblems- substitute words with body movements
2. illistrators- compliment accen
3. regulators
4. adaptors- ways to calm nerves (bouncing leg)
5. affect displays- emotional movement
4 different proxemics 1. intimate space (0-1.5 ft)
2. personal (1.5-4 ft)
3. social (4-12 ft)
4. public (12+ ft)
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what is the difference between hearing and listening? hearing is the physical process while listen requires you to hear, receive and respond
what is the 5 step process of listening? 1. selecting- focus on one sound
2. attending- sustain focus on message
3. understanding- assign meaning to message
4. remembering- recall info
5. respond- confirm understaning of message
what are the 4 listening styles? 1. relational - listen to emotions and feelings
2. analytical - listen for faces & with hold judgement (see all sides)
3. critical - evaluate info (look for accuracy and errors)
4. task oriented - focus on the outcome
what are the 3 listening barriers 1. Self 
   - self focus: shift back to self
   - emotional noise: things in head
   - criticism: message not same as messanger
2. info processing
   - rate, overload, attention shift, culture
3. context
   - time, place
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3 steps to improve listening 1. stop- turn off competing messages (physical and in head)
2. look- observe nonverbal cues
3. listen- do not interupt
how to respond with empathy - understand partners feelings
- ask appropriate questions
- paraphrase the content
- paraphrase emotions
4 forms of human diversity 1. sexual orientation - way you were born
2. ethnicity - what you were taught
3. age
4. gender- not born, how you learn
   - masculine
   - feminine
   - adrogynous
androgunuous individuals tend to communicate from high levels of both instrumental and expressive orientations (masculine/feminine)
Generated by Koofers.com
high context - rely on non-verbals
- rely on context to interpret messages
low context - rely on verbals
- use fewer context cues to intemperate info


masculine instrumental/ competitive/ facts
feminine expressive/ emotional.
Generated by Koofers.com
barriers to bridging differences & adapting to others - assuming superiority (racism)
- assuming similarity (minimizing differences/ all the same)
- assuming differences (have nothing in common)
- stereotyping & prejudice (putting all people into categories)
6 behavioral stages 1. denial - dont realize other cultures exist
2. defense - other cultures are wrong
3. minimization - different backgrounds but all the same
4. acceptance - okay with other cultures
5. adaptation
6. integration - float in and out of cultures
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 3 criteria to assess someones communication competence:1. Message should be UNDERSTOOD
       -Should create clarity between cultures
2. Should ACHIEVE ITS INTENDED EFFECT
3. Should be ETHICAL
      - beliefs, values, & moral principles by which we determine what            is right from wrong
 What are the Components of the Communication Process?1. Source: Encoding/ Creating
2. Receiver: Decoding/ Interpreting
3. Channel: Pathway traveled
      -sight, sound, touch, taste, smell
4. Noise: Interference/ What gets in the way
      -literal & psychological
5. Context: Physical, Historical, & Psychological Environment
6. Feedback Loop: the response given

 What are the 3 models of Communication?1. Action: message transfer (NO FEEDBACK ex. memo)
2. Interaction: message exchange (DELAYED FEEDBACK                               ex. email/text)
3. Transaction: message creation/ interaction (FACE TO FACE)
 What are the 5 Characteristics of Communication?1. Inescapable
2. Irreversible
3. Complicated
4. Context & Relationship Oriented
5. Governed by Rules (what is acceptable)

 What are the 5 Communication Principles?1. AWARE: to be self aware of communication with self and others
2. VERBAL: effectively use & interpret 
3. NONVERBAL: use and interpret
4. LISTEN & RESPOND
5. ADAPT: adapt your message to others
 Interpersonal Communication Contextoccurs between two people who mutually attempt to manipulate one another
 Group Communication Context3-15 people who share common goals/interests and try to influence one another

ex. club or organization
 Presentation Communication Contextspeaker addresses a gathering of people to inform, persuade or entertain them

ex. large lecture
 Self- Conceptour own subjective view of how we see ourselves (family/culture/religion) 
 Self- Esteeman assessment of our worth and values (Social comparison/ expectations
 What are the 3 Components of Self- Concept?1. ATTITUDE: learned predisposition to respond favorably/                              unfavorably towards something
         ex. ice cream/ video games/ free music downloads
2. BELIEF: way in which you structure reality
         ex. you believe that your parents love you
3. VALUE: enduring concept of right and wrong
        ex. you value honesty and truth
 4 Factors that affect the development of Self- Concept1. OTHERS
2. GROUPS you associate with
3. ROLES we assume
4. through SELF LABELS
 Gender/ social comparison/ self expectations/ self fulfilling prophecy examples:1. gender- culture
2. Social comparison- famous people
3. self expectations- realistic/ how well you preform
4. self fulfilling prophecy- "if you believe in something it will come true"
 self talk/ visualization/ re-framing techniques1. Self talk- positive communications with self
2. visualization- imagining you are preforming positively
3. re-framing- redefining events from a different point of view
 What are the three stages of perception1.. selecting and attending
      choosing a particular stimuli and then acting on it
2. organization (understandable patterns)
      -closure(filling in missing info)
      -similarity
3. interpretation- appply meaning
 how to improve ability to form accurate perceptions1. Increase awareness- pay attention
2. avoid stereotypes
3. perception checking
 indirect perception checkingseek out additional information in a positive way (look for cues)
 direct perception checking1. describe behavior (verbal/nonverbal)
2. offer 2 possible interpretations
3. request clarification
 4 factors effecting self esteem1. gender
2. social comparison
3. self expectation
4. self fulfilling prophecy
 what is the Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis?-human language and thought are so interrelated that thought is rooted in and controlled by language
- language shapes our perception
 bypassing languagewhen the same word has multiple meanings

ex. chick, grass, late, hot
 connotativepersonal or subjective meaning
 denotativeliteral/dictionary meaning of a word
 concrete languagesomething that can be perceived with one of the senses
 abstract languagesomething that cannot be perceived with one of the senses
 5 ways to have power1. create and label experiences
2. reflect our attitudes and culture
3. to communicate feelings
4. make and break relationships
5. impact thoughts and actions
 descriptive verbal messagesi hear you talking behind his back and it bothers me
 evaluate verbal messagesthats an idiotic thing to say about him
 problem solving verbal messagesim having a problem with the way things are are happening between us lately. can you please help me figure out what to do?
 controlling verbal messagesyou have a problem and you better figure it out
 what is gunny sacking?a form of attacking that drags up someones past mistakes/problems and relates them to the current situation
 what are the 6 functions of nonverbal communication1. subsitute (use nonverbal instead of verbal)
2. accent (nonverbal on one word to reinforce)
3. repeat (say 4 o'clock then holding up the number 4)
4. regulate
5. complement (using nonverbal at same time as verbal)
6. contradict
 what is the nature of nonverbal communication1. culture bound- shift from culture to culture
2. rule governed
3. ambiguous- not concrete/interpretation
4. continuous
5. non linguistic- not based on verbals
6. multi channeled- jestures/ voice pitches
 7 nonverbal codes and supcodes1. appearance (clothes/artifacts/attractiveness)
2. kinesics (human movements, gestures, and posture)
3. eye contact
4. facial expressions
5. haptics (human touch)
6. vocalic
7. proximites (space and territory)
 5 different forms of kinesics1. Emblems- substitute words with body movements
2. illistrators- compliment accen
3. regulators
4. adaptors- ways to calm nerves (bouncing leg)
5. affect displays- emotional movement
 4 different proxemics1. intimate space (0-1.5 ft)
2. personal (1.5-4 ft)
3. social (4-12 ft)
4. public (12+ ft)
 what is the difference between hearing and listening?hearing is the physical process while listen requires you to hear, receive and respond
 what is the 5 step process of listening?1. selecting- focus on one sound
2. attending- sustain focus on message
3. understanding- assign meaning to message
4. remembering- recall info
5. respond- confirm understaning of message
 what are the 4 listening styles?1. relational - listen to emotions and feelings
2. analytical - listen for faces & with hold judgement (see all sides)
3. critical - evaluate info (look for accuracy and errors)
4. task oriented - focus on the outcome
 what are the 3 listening barriers1. Self 
   - self focus: shift back to self
   - emotional noise: things in head
   - criticism: message not same as messanger
2. info processing
   - rate, overload, attention shift, culture
3. context
   - time, place
 3 steps to improve listening1. stop- turn off competing messages (physical and in head)
2. look- observe nonverbal cues
3. listen- do not interupt
 how to respond with empathy- understand partners feelings
- ask appropriate questions
- paraphrase the content
- paraphrase emotions
 4 forms of human diversity1. sexual orientation - way you were born
2. ethnicity - what you were taught
3. age
4. gender- not born, how you learn
   - masculine
   - feminine
   - adrogynous
 androgunuousindividuals tend to communicate from high levels of both instrumental and expressive orientations (masculine/feminine)
 high context- rely on non-verbals
- rely on context to interpret messages
 low context- rely on verbals
- use fewer context cues to intemperate info


 masculineinstrumental/ competitive/ facts
 feminineexpressive/ emotional.
 barriers to bridging differences & adapting to others- assuming superiority (racism)
- assuming similarity (minimizing differences/ all the same)
- assuming differences (have nothing in common)
- stereotyping & prejudice (putting all people into categories)
 6 behavioral stages1. denial - dont realize other cultures exist
2. defense - other cultures are wrong
3. minimization - different backgrounds but all the same
4. acceptance - okay with other cultures
5. adaptation
6. integration - float in and out of cultures
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