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Chap 11-15 - Flashcards

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Class:COMM 1310 - FUND OF HUMAN COM
Subject:Communication Studies
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2013
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5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation

1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others

 

2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
 
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
 
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation 3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
~remember that nonverbal indicator of speaker anxiety are rarely visible to an audience. 
~consider the accountability, accuracy, objective, date, usability, and sensitivity to diversity of pictures and graphics you find on web.
~use visual aids to make statistics more readily understandable to your listeners.
5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation 4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others

  • to increase your confidence when speaking in public, seek out information about your listeners and how they are likely to respond to your message
 
  • listen for topic ideas in the course of casual conversations with friends.
5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation 5. Appropriately adapt messages to others
~as you learn more about your audience you can revise idea or strategies for your presentation at any point in your preparation process. 
~be centered on your audience to increase your confidence 
~be sensitive to and adapt to the diversity of your audience 
~consider your audiences interest and expectations as you select the topic for you presentation 
~keep in mind your audiences knowledge, interests, and expectations as you self supporting material. 
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5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation 1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  • understand that speaker anxiety results from your body working to help you perform better
  • give yourself a pep talk before getting up to speak
  • consider your own interest and experiences when selecting a topic
  • remember that the best supporting material offen draws on your own knowledge and experience.
5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~focus on your message to help you become a more confident speaker
~search for topics on the internet, in the media, and in books
~word your specific purpose in terms of your audience to help you keep your focus on them
~make sure that your central idea reflects a single topic, is a complete declarative sentence, and uses specific purpose.
 
5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline 1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  • be aware of the skills, talents, and experiences, you have that can enhance your credibility with your listeners

  • use a preparation outline to demonstrate to yourself that your main ideas are clearly related to your central idea and are logically and adequately supported. 
5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~ to communicate your verbal message effectively, organize your presentation logically. 
~use verbal transitions to show relationships between central ideas in your presentation
~introduce your topic and preview your main ideas in your introduction. 
~use stories, examples, illustrations, statistics, and quotations, or other techniques to capture your listeners attention when you begin your talk
~in your conclusion, summarize your presentation and reemphasize your main idea in a memorable way
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5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
  • use nonverbal transitions- pauses, facial expressions, altered vocal pitch or speaking rate, and movement- to indicate when you are moving from one idea to the next
  • use nonverbal cues- pausing, slowing your rate of speech, and letting your vocal inflection fall- to signal closure in the final sentence or two of your conclusion
  • add delivery cues and reminders to your final speaking notes.
5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
  • as you listen to presentations, consider that their organization may reflect patters considered appropriate in cultures other than your own.

5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline

5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

~investigate and consider using the customary organizational strategy of your audiences culture 

~in most cases, discuss last the idea that you most want your audience to remember
~if you know your audience members will be skeptical of some of your ideas, present first those ideas on which you can agree
~provide signposts as organizational cues for your audience.
~use your introduction and conclusion to help adapt your presentation to your audience. 
5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation 1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
~ if your subject is sensitive or your information classified, be cautious and noncommittal in any impromptu remarks you make
~as you become increasingly comfortable rehearsing an extemporaneous presentation, you can decrease your reliance on your notes.
~usage and articulation errors communicate a lack of preparation. if you are uncertain how to use or pronounce a word or phrase, look it up or ask someone.
~use a microphone if you need one- rehearse with it
~be aware of your speaking rate, adjust if necessary
~be certain that your presentation aids, especially those that use technology, contribute to your specific purpose
~pay attention to your nonverbal delivery when you rehearse your presentation.
~during rehearsal, record your presentation; objectively and critically observe your gestures, posture, eye  contact, facial expression, and vocal delivery, as well as your verbal message.
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5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~ when exact working is critical, you may want to deliver a manuscript or memorized presentation 
~do not try to memorize an extemporaneous presentation word for word; vary in ways in which you express ideas and information 
~phrase your ideas so that they will be clear, accurate, and memorable. 
~use words that are concrete, unbiased, vivid, simple, and correct
~make your presentation memorable with figurative images, drama, and cadence.
5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
~manuscript speech-try to look at an entire sentence at a time to maintain eye contact as you deliver your sentence.
~ dont read manuscript speech too rapidly; vary the rhythm, inflection, and pace of delivery so it doesnt sound like your reading it.
~memorized speech-at a moderate pace, avoid patters of vocal inflection that make the speech sound recited,
~use gestures and movement to add interst and emphasis 
~to heighten your credibility and increase your listeners learning, use eye contact.
~use gestures to reinforce your verbal message
~move during your presentation to signal the beginning of a new idea or major point or a signal of transition
~speak loudly
~vary the volume of your voice to emphasize ideas and keep interest
~vary your speaking rate to add interest to delivery, emphasize key ideas
~express your words clearly. 
5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
  • use eye contact to help you determine how your audience members are responding to you.
  • rehearse your presentation for someone and seekfeed back about your content and delivery. 
5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation 5. Appropriately adapt messages to others
~adapt your delivery to audiences of different sizes and from differenct cultures.
~ consider your audience members interest, expectations, and knowledge to make sure its centered on them.
~avoid language that might offend someone
~ adapt your gestures.
~adapt your movement
~adapt amount of eye contact. 
~keep facial expressions alert and friendly
~adapt the volume of your voice
~adapt your appearance to meet audience expectations.
~let your audiences interests, experiences, and knowledge guide your preparations and selection of presentation aids. 
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5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform 1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  • to determine how best to organize your message, be conscious of the type of informative message your are developing. 
                        ex.presentation about an object, a procedure, a  
                                  person, an event, or and idea. 
  • be mindful of strategies that will make your informative message clear, interesting, and memorable
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~ use supporting material such as stories, examples, and illustration to gain and maintain attention.
~use word pictures to make images and stories interesting and memorable
~pace the flow of the information your present to enhance messge clarity.
~relate new information to old information to increase clarity and retention
~to help make your message memorable, reinforce ideas verbally. 
~use simpler rather than complex ideas to make your message clear.
~build in message redundancy to enhance message retention.
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
 
  •  use presentation aids to make message clear, interesting, and memorable. 
 
  • observe the nonverbal behavior of your audience to help you determine whether your message has been communicated clearly.
  • non verbally reinforce idea to make your message memorable
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
  • before you deliver your presentation to an audience, talk and listen to audience members to help you customize your message for them. 
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5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform 5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

  • to enhance message clarity, adapt the structure and flow of your presentation to your listeners
  • to help gain and maintain interest and attention, adapt your examples and illustrations to your listeners. 
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade 1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
~know if the specific purpose is to change or reinforce an attitude, a belief, a value, or a behavior. 
~relate personal experience to make you seem a more competent and trustworthy speaker
~to enhance your initial credibility- have brief summary of your qualifications and accomplishments.
~to be a better informed consumer of a persuasive message, as well as a more ethical persuasive speaker, be aware and avoid using common logical fallacies. 
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~describe negative results if your solution is not implemented.
~describe positive results in your solution is implemented. 
~to select and narrow a topic stay current on important issues of the day by paying attention to print and media
 
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
~ maintain eye contact, use enthusiastic vocal inflection, and move and gesture purposefully to increase dynamic view
~dress appropriately to enhance your credibility
~to enhance your terminal credibility, maintain  eye contact through and after your closing sentence.
 ~use presentation aids to help evoke both positive and negative emotions and visualizations
~use gestures when talking to an unperceptive audience. 
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5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others

  • be prepared to answer questions after your presentation, regardless of whether this is a planned  question-and answer period.
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade

5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

~consider the background and cultural expectations of your listeners. 

~to motivate listeners- appeal to their basic needs
~if speaking to an audience that unaware of the problem emphasize the problem portion. 
~if speaking to an audience that unaware of the problem emphasize the problem portion. 
if speaking to an audience that aware of the problem emphasize the solution portion. 
~establish why your topic, problem, or issue should concern your listeners, convince audience it affects them directly 
~suggest a specific action to solve the problem
~knowledgeable- emphasize the satisfaction and action steps
~neutral- emphasize on attention, need, and visualization steps.
~establish common ground
~receptive- use emotional appeals
~to persuade neutral-appeal to universal beliefs and concerns. show how it effects them and their loved ones 
~unrealistic- focus on areas of agreement. advance your strongest arguments first. 
Sources of supporting material

  1. you
  2. the internet
  3. online datebases
  4. libraries
oral citation

 
  • the oral presentation of such information about a source as the author, title, and publication date.
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Topical organization
organization determined by the speakers discretion or by recency, primacy, or complexity.
~recency-arrangement of ideas from least important to most important or from weakest to strongest
 
~primacy- arrangement of ideas from mosy important to least important or from strongest to weakest.
 
~complexity- arranging ideas from simple to more complex.
specific word

 

 

a word that refers to an individual member of a general class



vocal delivery Volume-the softness or loudneess of a speakers voice
pitch-how high or low a speakers voice is
rate how fast or slow a speaker speaks
pause-a few second of silence during a presentation, used both to slow a fast pace and to signal a key idea
articulation-the production of a clear and distinct speech sounds
dialect- a consistent style of pronunciation and articulation that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region  
appearance- a speakers dress and grooming.
characteristics of effective nonverbal delivery
  • eye contact-should be established before you say anything and sustained as much as possible throughout your presentation.
  • gestures- should be relaxed, definite, varied, and appropriate to you audiences and the speaking situations
  • movement-should be purposeful and adapted to the audiences cultural expectations
  • posture-should natural and be appropriate to your topic, your audience, and the occasion
  • facial expressions- should be alert, friendly, and appropriate to you message
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Type of informative presentations identifying the type will help
1.select and narrow your topic
2.organize your message
3.select appropriate supporting material
types are presentations about
~objects
~procedures
~people
~events
~idea
About objects
Description-
present tangible things. anything you can see or touch

organizational patterns- 
topical-logical divisions(nuclear plant)
spatial-history and development 
chronological-physical layout

sample topics-cds, toys, phones, rosetta stone, 
Presentations about precedures
Description-review how something works or describe a process
rganizational pattern- chronological, topical,complexity
How to...
T-E-A-C-H
Tell-describe what you want your listeners to know
example-show them an example of how to perform the skill
apply-give opportunity to apple knowledge by performing skill
coach-provide positive coaching to encourage them
help-help then learn by correcting mistakes
about people
Description-describe either a famous person or a personal acquaintance
 
organizational patterns-chronological & topical
 
sample topics-
rosa park
your grandma
fav teacher
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about events describe an actual event

Organizational Patter -chronological, topical, complexity, spatial

cinco de mayo
about ideas present abstract imformation or information about principles, concepts, theories or issues.
 
topical- by logical subdivisions of the central idea
complexity-from simple ideas to more complex one

communism 
economic theory

strategies for making your informative presentation interesting to your audience

1. presenting information that relate to your listeners interest- activity and movement; issues and events close to an audience; conflict

2. use attention-catching supporting material- give definition, give big picture, and provide simple overview before detail

3.establish a motive for your audiences to listen to you-pique their interest with a question, capture their attention, and motivate them to listen.
 
strategies to make your presentation memorable 1. build in redundancy- repeat  yourself frequently,(intro) tell them what youre going to tell them,(body) tell them,(conclusion) tell them what you've told them. 
2. use adult learning principles- given info they an use immediately, to be involved in the learning process, connections between the new information and their life experiences. 
3.reinforce key ideas verbally- phrases like "this is the most important" or "be sure to remember this next point; its the most compelling one"
4.reinforce key ideas non-verbally- gestures, dramatic well placed pauses, movement, and raising your tone of voice can emphasize the importance of points. 
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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 5.physiological needs
4.safety needs
3.social needs
2.self-esteem needs
1.self- actualization needs
 
Largest-smallest
5-1
most important-least important
How Do I Use Credibility or Ethos to Persuade?
 Enhancing your credibility 
 
• Before you speak – Initial Credibility 
 
• As you speak – Derived Credibility 
 
• After you speak – Terminal Credibility 
How Do I Use Emotions or Pathos to Persuade?
 Find a way to “touch” or “reach” your 
audience on an emotional level. 
 

 Use vivid and descriptive language 

• Use emotional evidence i.e., stories, personal 
testimony 
• Use vivid visual aids 
• Use a dramatic nonverbal delivery 
 
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
 
• ELM: Indirect persuasion 
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Refutation
 
• An organizational strategy in which you identify likely 
objections to your proposition and then refute those 
objections with arguments and evidence 

Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
 A five step organizational plan that integrates the problem solution method with principles that have been confirmed by research and practical experience
 
characteristics of effective nonverbal delivery
  • volume-should be loud enough that you can be easily heard and be purposefully varied
  • pitch-should be varied so that the inflection in your voice helps sustain your audience interest.
  • rate-not too fast, not too slow. and can be bared to add interest and emphasize key ideas
  • articulation- should be clear and distinct
  • appearance-should conform to what the audience expects 
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
1.Attention: catch your audience’s attention 
2.Need: establishes cognitive dissonance and a “need” to solve a current problem 
3.Satisfaction: offer a plan to solve each facet of “need” step to 
reduce/eliminate dissonance 
4.Visualization: describe what happens if solution is accepted and if it’s not 
5.Action: tell audience what they can do to satisfy the need 
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strategies to make your presentation memorable
4.use word pictures- a lively description that helps listeners form a mental image by appealing one or more of their sense of sight, smell, touch, sound,and taste.
5.create interesting presentations aids- pictures, graphs, posters,computer generated graphics.
6.use humor- use humor to make a point, not just for a laugh. use humours quotes and cartoons. be the butt of the joke. 
5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~to get audience opinion cite evidence to support your ideas
~to enhance your terminal credibility, prepare a thoughtful conclusion
~provide logical proof(evidence and reasoning) to your arguments to avoid logical fallacies. 
~use emotion-arousing words and concrete illustrations and descriptions to appeal to an audience emotions.
~consider the accountability, accuracy, objective, date, usability, and sensitivity to diversity of verbal material you find on web
~make your illustrations vivid and specific.
~keep descriptions and explanations brief
~describe and explain in specific and concrete language. 
~make your definitions readily understandable and be certain that they accurately reflect how you use the word or phrase 
~round off large numbers to make them more understandable
~ cite unbiased authorities who represent prevailing opinions
~integrate oral citations of your sources into your presentations
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 5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation

1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others

 

2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
 
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
 
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

 5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
~remember that nonverbal indicator of speaker anxiety are rarely visible to an audience. 
~consider the accountability, accuracy, objective, date, usability, and sensitivity to diversity of pictures and graphics you find on web.
~use visual aids to make statistics more readily understandable to your listeners.
 5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others

  • to increase your confidence when speaking in public, seek out information about your listeners and how they are likely to respond to your message
 
  • listen for topic ideas in the course of casual conversations with friends.
 5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation5. Appropriately adapt messages to others
~as you learn more about your audience you can revise idea or strategies for your presentation at any point in your preparation process. 
~be centered on your audience to increase your confidence 
~be sensitive to and adapt to the diversity of your audience 
~consider your audiences interest and expectations as you select the topic for you presentation 
~keep in mind your audiences knowledge, interests, and expectations as you self supporting material. 
 5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  • understand that speaker anxiety results from your body working to help you perform better
  • give yourself a pep talk before getting up to speak
  • consider your own interest and experiences when selecting a topic
  • remember that the best supporting material offen draws on your own knowledge and experience.
 5 Principles of Communication when developing your presentation
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~focus on your message to help you become a more confident speaker
~search for topics on the internet, in the media, and in books
~word your specific purpose in terms of your audience to help you keep your focus on them
~make sure that your central idea reflects a single topic, is a complete declarative sentence, and uses specific purpose.
 
 5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  • be aware of the skills, talents, and experiences, you have that can enhance your credibility with your listeners

  • use a preparation outline to demonstrate to yourself that your main ideas are clearly related to your central idea and are logically and adequately supported. 
 5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~ to communicate your verbal message effectively, organize your presentation logically. 
~use verbal transitions to show relationships between central ideas in your presentation
~introduce your topic and preview your main ideas in your introduction. 
~use stories, examples, illustrations, statistics, and quotations, or other techniques to capture your listeners attention when you begin your talk
~in your conclusion, summarize your presentation and reemphasize your main idea in a memorable way
 5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
  • use nonverbal transitions- pauses, facial expressions, altered vocal pitch or speaking rate, and movement- to indicate when you are moving from one idea to the next
  • use nonverbal cues- pausing, slowing your rate of speech, and letting your vocal inflection fall- to signal closure in the final sentence or two of your conclusion
  • add delivery cues and reminders to your final speaking notes.
 5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
  • as you listen to presentations, consider that their organization may reflect patters considered appropriate in cultures other than your own.

 5 Principles of Communication when organizing your outline

5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

~investigate and consider using the customary organizational strategy of your audiences culture 

~in most cases, discuss last the idea that you most want your audience to remember
~if you know your audience members will be skeptical of some of your ideas, present first those ideas on which you can agree
~provide signposts as organizational cues for your audience.
~use your introduction and conclusion to help adapt your presentation to your audience. 
 5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
~ if your subject is sensitive or your information classified, be cautious and noncommittal in any impromptu remarks you make
~as you become increasingly comfortable rehearsing an extemporaneous presentation, you can decrease your reliance on your notes.
~usage and articulation errors communicate a lack of preparation. if you are uncertain how to use or pronounce a word or phrase, look it up or ask someone.
~use a microphone if you need one- rehearse with it
~be aware of your speaking rate, adjust if necessary
~be certain that your presentation aids, especially those that use technology, contribute to your specific purpose
~pay attention to your nonverbal delivery when you rehearse your presentation.
~during rehearsal, record your presentation; objectively and critically observe your gestures, posture, eye  contact, facial expression, and vocal delivery, as well as your verbal message.
 5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~ when exact working is critical, you may want to deliver a manuscript or memorized presentation 
~do not try to memorize an extemporaneous presentation word for word; vary in ways in which you express ideas and information 
~phrase your ideas so that they will be clear, accurate, and memorable. 
~use words that are concrete, unbiased, vivid, simple, and correct
~make your presentation memorable with figurative images, drama, and cadence.
 5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
~manuscript speech-try to look at an entire sentence at a time to maintain eye contact as you deliver your sentence.
~ dont read manuscript speech too rapidly; vary the rhythm, inflection, and pace of delivery so it doesnt sound like your reading it.
~memorized speech-at a moderate pace, avoid patters of vocal inflection that make the speech sound recited,
~use gestures and movement to add interst and emphasis 
~to heighten your credibility and increase your listeners learning, use eye contact.
~use gestures to reinforce your verbal message
~move during your presentation to signal the beginning of a new idea or major point or a signal of transition
~speak loudly
~vary the volume of your voice to emphasize ideas and keep interest
~vary your speaking rate to add interest to delivery, emphasize key ideas
~express your words clearly. 
 5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
  • use eye contact to help you determine how your audience members are responding to you.
  • rehearse your presentation for someone and seekfeed back about your content and delivery. 
 5 Principles of Communication when delivering your presentation5. Appropriately adapt messages to others
~adapt your delivery to audiences of different sizes and from differenct cultures.
~ consider your audience members interest, expectations, and knowledge to make sure its centered on them.
~avoid language that might offend someone
~ adapt your gestures.
~adapt your movement
~adapt amount of eye contact. 
~keep facial expressions alert and friendly
~adapt the volume of your voice
~adapt your appearance to meet audience expectations.
~let your audiences interests, experiences, and knowledge guide your preparations and selection of presentation aids. 
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  • to determine how best to organize your message, be conscious of the type of informative message your are developing. 
                        ex.presentation about an object, a procedure, a  
                                  person, an event, or and idea. 
  • be mindful of strategies that will make your informative message clear, interesting, and memorable
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~ use supporting material such as stories, examples, and illustration to gain and maintain attention.
~use word pictures to make images and stories interesting and memorable
~pace the flow of the information your present to enhance messge clarity.
~relate new information to old information to increase clarity and retention
~to help make your message memorable, reinforce ideas verbally. 
~use simpler rather than complex ideas to make your message clear.
~build in message redundancy to enhance message retention.
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
 
  •  use presentation aids to make message clear, interesting, and memorable. 
 
  • observe the nonverbal behavior of your audience to help you determine whether your message has been communicated clearly.
  • non verbally reinforce idea to make your message memorable
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others
 
  • before you deliver your presentation to an audience, talk and listen to audience members to help you customize your message for them. 
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to inform5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

  • to enhance message clarity, adapt the structure and flow of your presentation to your listeners
  • to help gain and maintain interest and attention, adapt your examples and illustrations to your listeners. 
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade1.Be aware of your communication with yourself and others
~know if the specific purpose is to change or reinforce an attitude, a belief, a value, or a behavior. 
~relate personal experience to make you seem a more competent and trustworthy speaker
~to enhance your initial credibility- have brief summary of your qualifications and accomplishments.
~to be a better informed consumer of a persuasive message, as well as a more ethical persuasive speaker, be aware and avoid using common logical fallacies. 
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~describe negative results if your solution is not implemented.
~describe positive results in your solution is implemented. 
~to select and narrow a topic stay current on important issues of the day by paying attention to print and media
 
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
3.Effectively use and interpret non-verbal messages
~ maintain eye contact, use enthusiastic vocal inflection, and move and gesture purposefully to increase dynamic view
~dress appropriately to enhance your credibility
~to enhance your terminal credibility, maintain  eye contact through and after your closing sentence.
 ~use presentation aids to help evoke both positive and negative emotions and visualizations
~use gestures when talking to an unperceptive audience. 
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
4.Listen & respond thoughtfully to others

  • be prepared to answer questions after your presentation, regardless of whether this is a planned  question-and answer period.
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade

5. Appropriately adapt messages to others

~consider the background and cultural expectations of your listeners. 

~to motivate listeners- appeal to their basic needs
~if speaking to an audience that unaware of the problem emphasize the problem portion. 
~if speaking to an audience that unaware of the problem emphasize the problem portion. 
if speaking to an audience that aware of the problem emphasize the solution portion. 
~establish why your topic, problem, or issue should concern your listeners, convince audience it affects them directly 
~suggest a specific action to solve the problem
~knowledgeable- emphasize the satisfaction and action steps
~neutral- emphasize on attention, need, and visualization steps.
~establish common ground
~receptive- use emotional appeals
~to persuade neutral-appeal to universal beliefs and concerns. show how it effects them and their loved ones 
~unrealistic- focus on areas of agreement. advance your strongest arguments first. 
 Sources of supporting material

  1. you
  2. the internet
  3. online datebases
  4. libraries
 oral citation

 
  • the oral presentation of such information about a source as the author, title, and publication date.
 Topical organization
organization determined by the speakers discretion or by recency, primacy, or complexity.
~recency-arrangement of ideas from least important to most important or from weakest to strongest
 
~primacy- arrangement of ideas from mosy important to least important or from strongest to weakest.
 
~complexity- arranging ideas from simple to more complex.
 specific word

 

 

a word that refers to an individual member of a general class



 vocal deliveryVolume-the softness or loudneess of a speakers voice
pitch-how high or low a speakers voice is
rate how fast or slow a speaker speaks
pause-a few second of silence during a presentation, used both to slow a fast pace and to signal a key idea
articulation-the production of a clear and distinct speech sounds
dialect- a consistent style of pronunciation and articulation that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region  
appearance- a speakers dress and grooming.
 characteristics of effective nonverbal delivery
  • eye contact-should be established before you say anything and sustained as much as possible throughout your presentation.
  • gestures- should be relaxed, definite, varied, and appropriate to you audiences and the speaking situations
  • movement-should be purposeful and adapted to the audiences cultural expectations
  • posture-should natural and be appropriate to your topic, your audience, and the occasion
  • facial expressions- should be alert, friendly, and appropriate to you message
 Type of informative presentationsidentifying the type will help
1.select and narrow your topic
2.organize your message
3.select appropriate supporting material
types are presentations about
~objects
~procedures
~people
~events
~idea
 About objects
Description-
present tangible things. anything you can see or touch

organizational patterns- 
topical-logical divisions(nuclear plant)
spatial-history and development 
chronological-physical layout

sample topics-cds, toys, phones, rosetta stone, 
 Presentations about precedures
Description-review how something works or describe a process
rganizational pattern- chronological, topical,complexity
How to...
T-E-A-C-H
Tell-describe what you want your listeners to know
example-show them an example of how to perform the skill
apply-give opportunity to apple knowledge by performing skill
coach-provide positive coaching to encourage them
help-help then learn by correcting mistakes
 about people
Description-describe either a famous person or a personal acquaintance
 
organizational patterns-chronological & topical
 
sample topics-
rosa park
your grandma
fav teacher
 about eventsdescribe an actual event

Organizational Patter -chronological, topical, complexity, spatial

cinco de mayo
 about ideaspresent abstract imformation or information about principles, concepts, theories or issues.
 
topical- by logical subdivisions of the central idea
complexity-from simple ideas to more complex one

communism 
economic theory

 strategies for making your informative presentation interesting to your audience

1. presenting information that relate to your listeners interest- activity and movement; issues and events close to an audience; conflict

2. use attention-catching supporting material- give definition, give big picture, and provide simple overview before detail

3.establish a motive for your audiences to listen to you-pique their interest with a question, capture their attention, and motivate them to listen.
 
 strategies to make your presentation memorable1. build in redundancy- repeat  yourself frequently,(intro) tell them what youre going to tell them,(body) tell them,(conclusion) tell them what you've told them. 
2. use adult learning principles- given info they an use immediately, to be involved in the learning process, connections between the new information and their life experiences. 
3.reinforce key ideas verbally- phrases like "this is the most important" or "be sure to remember this next point; its the most compelling one"
4.reinforce key ideas non-verbally- gestures, dramatic well placed pauses, movement, and raising your tone of voice can emphasize the importance of points. 
 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs5.physiological needs
4.safety needs
3.social needs
2.self-esteem needs
1.self- actualization needs
 
Largest-smallest
5-1
most important-least important
 How Do I Use Credibility or Ethos to Persuade?
 Enhancing your credibility 
 
• Before you speak – Initial Credibility 
 
• As you speak – Derived Credibility 
 
• After you speak – Terminal Credibility 
 How Do I Use Emotions or Pathos to Persuade?
 Find a way to “touch” or “reach” your 
audience on an emotional level. 
 

 Use vivid and descriptive language 

• Use emotional evidence i.e., stories, personal 
testimony 
• Use vivid visual aids 
• Use a dramatic nonverbal delivery 
 
 The Elaboration Likelihood Model
 
• ELM: Indirect persuasion 
 Refutation
 
• An organizational strategy in which you identify likely 
objections to your proposition and then refute those 
objections with arguments and evidence 

 Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
 A five step organizational plan that integrates the problem solution method with principles that have been confirmed by research and practical experience
 
 characteristics of effective nonverbal delivery
  • volume-should be loud enough that you can be easily heard and be purposefully varied
  • pitch-should be varied so that the inflection in your voice helps sustain your audience interest.
  • rate-not too fast, not too slow. and can be bared to add interest and emphasize key ideas
  • articulation- should be clear and distinct
  • appearance-should conform to what the audience expects 
 Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
1.Attention: catch your audience’s attention 
2.Need: establishes cognitive dissonance and a “need” to solve a current problem 
3.Satisfaction: offer a plan to solve each facet of “need” step to 
reduce/eliminate dissonance 
4.Visualization: describe what happens if solution is accepted and if it’s not 
5.Action: tell audience what they can do to satisfy the need 
 strategies to make your presentation memorable
4.use word pictures- a lively description that helps listeners form a mental image by appealing one or more of their sense of sight, smell, touch, sound,and taste.
5.create interesting presentations aids- pictures, graphs, posters,computer generated graphics.
6.use humor- use humor to make a point, not just for a laugh. use humours quotes and cartoons. be the butt of the joke. 
 5 Principles of Communication when speaking to persuade
2. Effectively use and interpret verbal messages
~to get audience opinion cite evidence to support your ideas
~to enhance your terminal credibility, prepare a thoughtful conclusion
~provide logical proof(evidence and reasoning) to your arguments to avoid logical fallacies. 
~use emotion-arousing words and concrete illustrations and descriptions to appeal to an audience emotions.
  
~consider the accountability, accuracy, objective, date, usability, and sensitivity to diversity of verbal material you find on web
~make your illustrations vivid and specific.
~keep descriptions and explanations brief
~describe and explain in specific and concrete language. 
~make your definitions readily understandable and be certain that they accurately reflect how you use the word or phrase 
~round off large numbers to make them more understandable
~ cite unbiased authorities who represent prevailing opinions
~integrate oral citations of your sources into your presentations
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