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Comm 101 Midterm - Flashcards

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Class:COMM 101 - Introduction To Communication
Subject:Communication
University:Santa Barbara City College
Term:Fall 2013
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Reappropriation Reappropriation is when a group reclaims a term that was used by others to degrade its members and then make that term a positive self-description.


ex. Some gay men and lesbians have reappropriated the term queer to be a positive statement.
Proxemics Proxemics is a nonverbal communication that involves space and how we use it.


ex. every culture has different norms for using space. The U.S. is 4 to 12 feet but comfortable 18inches or less between us and friends or romantic partners.
Prototype Prototype is an ideal, or best example of a category.


ex. I have a prototype of what a ideal teacher is or a prototype of what a ideal friend is.
Personal Construct Personal Construct is a mental yardstick that allows us to measure a person or situation along a bipolar dimension of judgement.


ex. Intelligent-not intelligent, kind-not kind
ex. Personal construct of a date attractive-not attractive, fun-not fun
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Perception
Perception is the active process of SELECTING, ORGANIZING, and INTERPRETING people, objects, events, situations, and activities.


ex. If you perceive a co-worker as hostile, your likely to notice only his or her unfriendly behaviors and to communicate defensively or to minimize interaction.
Expectancy Violation Theory A theory claiming that when our expectations are violated, we become more cognitively alert as we struggle to understand and cope with unexpected behaviors or events.

3 aspects of a violation of expectations
1) Whether violation is positive or negative 
ex. Someone gives you a gift unexpectedly
2) Extent that the behavior deviates from expected behavior
ex. if your boss never criticizes you then does it violates expectancy
3) Impact of violation on a relationship ex: Ex dating your best friend 

Self-Serving Bias Self-Serving Bias is when we attribute our positive actions/success to internal influences we control and attribute negative actions/failure to external influences we can't control

ex. We attribute getting an A to being a smart person(internal, stable)

ex. We blame a F on the teacher(external) 
       He put a lot of tricky questions on the test(unstable)
Kinesics Kinesics refers to body position and motions, including those of the face, that may be used to communicate or may be interpreted as communicating.

ex. Someone who stands erect and appears confident announces self-assurance
ex. someone who slouches and shuffles may seem to say, "I'm not very sure of myself."
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Interpersonal Confirmation Interpersonal Confirmation is the expressed valuing of another person. 

ex. We all want to feel valued by colleagues in our workplace or by our significant other. When other confirm us we feel appreciated and respected.

*Scholars identified 3 levels of confirmation:
Recognition, Acknowledgement, and Endorsement 
Haptics Haptics is any form of nonverbal communication involving physical touch.

ex. when a parent pushes a child away or handles them harshly it's nonverbally signaling rejection. 


Evidence Evidence is material used to interest, move, inform or persuade people: statistics, examples, comparisons and quotations. 

1) used to make ideas clearer, more compelling, and more dramatic.

2) Evidence strengthens a speaker's opinions which are seldom sufficient to persuade intelligent listeners.

3) Evidence increases a speakers credibility.
Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one way of life is normal and superior to other ways of life.

ex. someone who says "It's always disrespectful to be late" reveals insensitivity to societies that are less time conscious than the United States. 

Generated by Koofers.com
Endorsement Endorsement is the highest level of interpersonal confirmation.
Endorsement is accepting a person's feelings or thoughts as valid, it doesn't necessarily mean agreeing with their thoughts or feelings but just excepting them as real for that person.

ex. You could endorse the friend who is worried about the LSAT by saying, "It's natural to be worried about the LSAT when you have so much riding on it."
Credibility
Credibility is based on listeners perceptions of a speaker's position, authority, knowledge(expertise), dynamism, and trustworthiness

Initial Credibility- based on previous experiences and achievements that are known to listeners before they hear the speech
Derived Credibility- expertise and trustworthiness given to a speaker by listeners as a result of how the speaker communicates during a presentation. 
Terminal Credibility- Cumulative of initial and derived. It may be greater or less than initial credibility 
Conflict Conflict exists when people who depend on each other have different views, interests, values, responsibilities, or objectives and perceive their differences as incompatible. 

Conflict is a sign that people are involved w/ each other

ex. Co-workers argue b/c they care about issues that affect all of em
ex. Roommates experience conflict if they disagree about the time we should kick people out of the room
Communication Apprehension Communication Apprehension is a detrimental level of anxiety associated w/ real or anticipated communication encounters. It is common and can be constructive.

ex. Many people feel anxious in advance of communication situations; they worry, imagine difficulties, and dread the occasion long before the communication occurs. 
Generated by Koofers.com
Chronemics Chronemics refers to how we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction. 

ex. In some cultures, people saunter whereas in others they dash from place to place.

ex. In Western societies, there seems to be a unwritten cultural rule that people w/ high status can keep people with less status waiting.
Monitoring Monitoring is the observation and regulation of one's own communication 

ex. Monitor the tendency to explain away your failures as not your fault and to take personal credit for accomplishments that were helped by luck or situational factors.

*Also just as we tend to judge ourselves generously, we may judge others harshly.
Mind Reading Mind Reading is the assumption that we understand what another person thinks or how another person perceives something. 

ex. In a relationship if a spouse tries mind reading and says "He doesn't care about me anymore" this can cause problems b/c he never said that and its not necessarily true
Loaded Language Loaded Language is words that slant perceptions, and thus meanings, exceedingly. 

ex. Terms such as "geezer" and "old fogey" incline us to regard older people w/ contempt or pity. Alternatives such as "senior citizen" and "elder" reflect more respectful attitudes.
Generated by Koofers.com
Judgement Judgement is a belief or opinion based on observations, feelings, assumptions, or other phenomena that are not facts.

ex. (Taylor shows up late for class) the teacher might judge that "Taylor is an irresponsible student."  judging Taylor as irresponsible goes beyond the facts.
Inference Inference is an interpretation that goes beyond the facts known but is believed to logically follow from them.

ex. Saying something like "this person seems rude" or "this person may be rude"
Brute Facts Institutional Facts
Brute Facts are objective, concrete phenomena and activities.
Institutional Facts are the meanings of Brute facts based on human interpretation.

ex. During a football game a brute fact is that periodically people gather into roughly circular clusters called the huddle. The institutional fact is that the players are planning their next play.
Hypothetical Thoughts Hypothetical Thoughts is to think about experiences and ideas that do not exist or are not present to the senses. 

ex. B/c we can think hypothetically, we can plan, dream, remember, set goals, consider alternative courses of actions, and imagine possibilities. 


Generated by Koofers.com
Enviromental Factors Enviromental Factors are elements of a settings that affects how we think, feel, act, and communicate.

ex. We feel more relaxed in rooms w/ comfortable chairs than in rooms with stiff, formal furniture.

ex. Candlelit dining tables may promote more romantic feelings etc.

Constructivism Cognitive Schemata Constructivism is a theory that states that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called cognitive schemata.


Cognitive Schemata is the mental structures people use to organize and interpret experience. Four schemata have been indentified: Prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.
Cognitive Complexity Cognitive Complexity is the number of personal constructs              (fun-not fun) used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions.

ex. For kids they focus more on concrete constructs(tall-not tall) rather than abstract psychological ones (Secure-not secure).

Many adults have greater cognitive complexity, which affects the accuracy of perceptions. A 60yr old has a more complex fund of experiences on which to draw compared to a 20yr old
Bracketing Bracketing is Identifying and setting aside(bracketing) for later discussion the issues peripheral to a current conflict.

ex. During conflict, multiple issues often surface. If we try to deal w/ each one as it arises, we get sidetracked from the immediate or main issue. Bracketing other concerns for later discussion lets us keep conflict focused productively. 
Generated by Koofers.com
Acknowledgement Acknowledgement is communicating that you hear and understand anothers expressed feelings and thoughts.

Nonverbally- Acknowledge by nodding our heads or making eye contact to show we are listening.
Verbally-Acknowledgments are direct responses to others
ex. If a friend says "I'm really worried that I blew the LSAT exam," you could acknowledge that by responding "So the exam made you anxious, huh?"







*2nd of 3 levels of interpersonal confirmation
Attribution Attribution is an explanation of why things happen and why people act as they do; not necessarily correct interpretations of others and their motives.

4 Dimensions: internal-external locus, stability, specificity, control

Artifacts Artifacts are personal objects we use to announce our identities and to personalize our enviroments.

Women are more likely to wear more make-up, jewelry, form-fitting clothes and high-heeled shoes.
Men typically wear less jewelry, clothes w/ less adornment, and functional shoes. 
Physical Appearance (as nonverbal comm) Physical Appearance is a form of nonverbal comm; how we look, including the cultural meanings, values, and expectations associated with looks.


Generated by Koofers.com
Paralanguage Paralanguage is communication that is vocal but not verbal. Paralanguage includes accent, inflection, volume, pitch, and sounds such as murmurs and gasps.

ex. Vocal cues signal others to interpret what we say as a joke, a threat, a statement of fact, a question, and so forth.
Olfactics Olfacts is a term for our perception of odors and scents 

Smell is a form of nonverbal communication.

ex. The smell of freshly baked bread or cookies often makes us feel happy (and hungry!). Also scents we choose to wear can be personal signatures
Totalizing Totalizing is responding to a person as if one label totally represents that person. 

We fix on one symbol to define someone and fail to recognize many other aspects of the person.

ex. Some people totalize gay men and lesbians by noticing only their sexual orientation.
Silence Lack of sound, can be nonverbal communication.
Though silence is quiet, it can communicate powerful messaages.

"I'm not speaking to you" followed by silence can speak volumes!

Content- when intimates are so comfortable they don't need to talk.

Awkwardness- trouble making conversation on a first date


Generated by Koofers.com
Stereotypes Stereotypes are a predictive generalization about people or situations.


ex. A lot of people stereotype girls in sororities as being sluts 
Script A script is a sequence of activities that spells out how we and others are expected to act in a specific situation 


ex. If you run into a friend who is with someone you don't know, and your friend says "Hi, this Brittany," you don't have to think about what your going to say your meeting-new-person script tells you that you should say, "Hi, I'm Jordan" and offer a handshake or smile.
Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication is all forms of communication other than words themselves! includes vocal qualities, shrugs, blushing, eye movements etc.
Recognition Recognition is the expression of awareness of another person's existence.
Most basic form of interpersonal confirmation

ex. recognize people by nonverbal behavior(a smile, a handshake, looking up when someone enters your room) or by verbal communication ("hello," "good to meet you")
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Regulative vs. Constitutive Rules Regulative rules specifies when, how, where, and with whom to communicate. 
while Constitutive rules define what the communication means. 

Regulative- Whether you can say something, where you can, who to etc.

Constitutive-  rudeness(talking over others), comm. counted as friendship(sharing confidences, defending friends when others criticize them)
Linear Models vs. Interactive Models of Communication(hint:feedback) Linear model describes communication as a one-way process. From a sender to a receiver.
where as the
Interactive model realized listeners respond to senders, so they added feedback to their models.. the feedback can be verbal or nonverbal.

Assertive vs. Aggressive vs. Deferential Assertive- is not aggressive, it simply expresses the speakers thoughts, feelings, preferences, and goals w/out harm to anyone
Aggressive- occurs when one puts themselves ahead of others or derides others thought, feelings, goals, or actions.

Aggressive-I demand that we spend time together.
Assertive- I'd like to create more time for us.
Deferential- If you don't want us to spend time with each other, that's okay with me.
Mediator vs. Arbitrator Mediator- works with people in conflict to help communicate more productively and get the parties to reach a decision.
Arbitrator- Also facilitates discussion of conflict issues.

Difference
Mediators have no power to make a decision but Arbitrators do.
Generated by Koofers.com
Overt Conflict vs. Covert Conflict Overt- When people express differences in a straight forward manner. Might express different points of view or argue heatedly about ideas but DIFFERENCES ARE OUT IN THE OPEN.
Covert- when people express differences indirectly. For instance, if your annoyed your roommate left the kitchen a mess, you might play the stereo loud when he is sleeping.


Culture vs. Social Community Culture- consists of beliefs, values, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that a number of people share.
Social Communities- Part of a overall society(America) but also distinct from overall society in that they hold values, understandings, and practices that aren't shared by people outside the group.

Difference
Culture is something a number of people share while social community is only that specific group.
Lose-lose vs. win-win vs. win-lose conflict orientations lose-lose: presumes that conflict cannot produce positive outcomes.

win-lose: One person wins but at the expense of the other, tends to undermine relationships b/c someone has to lose.

win-win: view of conflict assumes that there are usually ways to resolve differences so that everyone gains. usually willing to make accommodations and often find solutions that neither had thought of previously.

Superiority vs. Equality Comm. Superiority: is when people act as if they are better than you, "I know a lot more about this than you" "is this the best you could do?"

Equality: more relaxed and comfortable communicating w/ people who treat us as equals even if they are a expert in a certain field. expressed equality communicates respect.


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Evaluative vs. Descriptive Comm. Evaluative comm. evaluates us and we tend to feel defensive when others evaluate us, particularly in a negative way. 
Descriptive comm. doesn't evaluate but better yet describes behavior w/o passing judgement

Evaluative-- This report is done poorly

Descriptive-- This report doesn't include background information
Certainty vs. Provisionalism comm. Certainty-- language suggests there is only one valid answer, point of view, or course of action. There's no point in talking to these people.

Provisionalism-- shows openness to other points of view. the tentative communication reflects an open mind, which is why it invites continued conversation.
Strategy vs. Spontaneity Comm. Strategy-- Strategic comm. aims at manipulating a person or group for the benefit of the person manipulating. Nonverbal behaviors may also convey strategy, as when a speaker takes a long pause before answering or refuses eye contact w/ listeners

Spontaneity-- Spontaneous communication is open, honest, and not manipulative. To be ethical spontaneous comm. must not be used against others. The better way to go about getting help just ask for a favor straightforward, "Would you help me?"
Neutrality vs. Empathy Comm. Neutral-- people tend to be defensive when others act in a neutral manner, it implies indifferences to others and what they say .

Empathy-- Confirms the worth of others and shows concern for their thoughts and feelings. 
ex. "I can understand why you feel that way"

*Empathy doesn't mean you agree with them but it merely conveys respect for others and what they think/feel
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Control vs. Problem Orientation Comm. Control-- Attempts to persuade people and others often feel defensive, and respond w/ resentment or even rebellion. To this person winning an argument or having the last word is more important than finding the best solution. 
Problem Orientation-- Rather than imposing a preference problem-oriented communication focuses on resolving tensions and problems. The goal of this communication is to work collaboratively to come up with something that everyone finds acceptable.
Content level of meaning vs. Relationship level of meaning Content level of meaning-- Contains the literal message. 
ex. Someone knocks on your door and asks, "May I come in?" the content-level meaning is that the person is asking your permission to enter.
Relationship level of meaning-- Expresses the relationship between communicators. 
Specific Purpose vs. Thesis Statement Specific Purpose-- Is exactly what you hope to accomplish.
ex. Im gonna get 25% of the audience to sign up for Volunteering
Specific purpose is the behavioral response the speaker seeks

Thesis Statement-- Single most important sentence in a speech. Is the main idea and guides an effective speech:
Exit vs. Neglect vs. Voice vs. Loyalty responses to conflict Exit-- Involves leaving a relationship, either by walking out or by psychologically withdrawing "I don't want to talk about it"
Neglect-- occurs when a person denies or minimizes problems. Neglect can be destructive b/c it evades difficulties, and it is passive b/c it doesn't actively promote discussion.
Loyalty responses-- Is staying committed to a relationship despite differences; Loyalty involves hoping that things will get better on their own. passive b/c loyalty is silent allegiance
Voice-- Is potentially the most active, constructive response to conflict b/c it deals directly w/ problems and helps to manage differences
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Impromptu vs. Extemporaneous vs. Manuscript vs. Memorized delivery of speeches Impromptu-- involves little or no preparation. It can be effective for speakers who know their material thoroughly.
Extemporaneous-- *most commonly used. involves substantial preparation and practice. conduct research etc.
Manuscript-- Involves presenting a speech from a complete, written text. Whether on paper or the teleprompter

Memorized delivery of speeches-- Extension of the manuscript style of speaking. 
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 ReappropriationReappropriation is when a group reclaims a term that was used by others to degrade its members and then make that term a positive self-description.


ex. Some gay men and lesbians have reappropriated the term queer to be a positive statement.
 ProxemicsProxemics is a nonverbal communication that involves space and how we use it.


ex. every culture has different norms for using space. The U.S. is 4 to 12 feet but comfortable 18inches or less between us and friends or romantic partners.
 PrototypePrototype is an ideal, or best example of a category.


ex. I have a prototype of what a ideal teacher is or a prototype of what a ideal friend is.
 Personal ConstructPersonal Construct is a mental yardstick that allows us to measure a person or situation along a bipolar dimension of judgement.


ex. Intelligent-not intelligent, kind-not kind
ex. Personal construct of a date attractive-not attractive, fun-not fun
 Perception
Perception is the active process of SELECTING, ORGANIZING, and INTERPRETING people, objects, events, situations, and activities.


ex. If you perceive a co-worker as hostile, your likely to notice only his or her unfriendly behaviors and to communicate defensively or to minimize interaction.
 Expectancy Violation TheoryA theory claiming that when our expectations are violated, we become more cognitively alert as we struggle to understand and cope with unexpected behaviors or events.

3 aspects of a violation of expectations
1) Whether violation is positive or negative 
ex. Someone gives you a gift unexpectedly
2) Extent that the behavior deviates from expected behavior
ex. if your boss never criticizes you then does it violates expectancy
3) Impact of violation on a relationship ex: Ex dating your best friend 

 Self-Serving BiasSelf-Serving Bias is when we attribute our positive actions/success to internal influences we control and attribute negative actions/failure to external influences we can't control

ex. We attribute getting an A to being a smart person(internal, stable)

ex. We blame a F on the teacher(external) 
       He put a lot of tricky questions on the test(unstable)
 KinesicsKinesics refers to body position and motions, including those of the face, that may be used to communicate or may be interpreted as communicating.

ex. Someone who stands erect and appears confident announces self-assurance
ex. someone who slouches and shuffles may seem to say, "I'm not very sure of myself."
 Interpersonal ConfirmationInterpersonal Confirmation is the expressed valuing of another person. 

ex. We all want to feel valued by colleagues in our workplace or by our significant other. When other confirm us we feel appreciated and respected.

*Scholars identified 3 levels of confirmation:
Recognition, Acknowledgement, and Endorsement 
 HapticsHaptics is any form of nonverbal communication involving physical touch.

ex. when a parent pushes a child away or handles them harshly it's nonverbally signaling rejection. 


 EvidenceEvidence is material used to interest, move, inform or persuade people: statistics, examples, comparisons and quotations. 

1) used to make ideas clearer, more compelling, and more dramatic.

2) Evidence strengthens a speaker's opinions which are seldom sufficient to persuade intelligent listeners.

3) Evidence increases a speakers credibility.
 EthnocentrismEthnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one way of life is normal and superior to other ways of life.

ex. someone who says "It's always disrespectful to be late" reveals insensitivity to societies that are less time conscious than the United States. 

 EndorsementEndorsement is the highest level of interpersonal confirmation.
Endorsement is accepting a person's feelings or thoughts as valid, it doesn't necessarily mean agreeing with their thoughts or feelings but just excepting them as real for that person.

ex. You could endorse the friend who is worried about the LSAT by saying, "It's natural to be worried about the LSAT when you have so much riding on it."
 Credibility
Credibility is based on listeners perceptions of a speaker's position, authority, knowledge(expertise), dynamism, and trustworthiness

Initial Credibility- based on previous experiences and achievements that are known to listeners before they hear the speech
Derived Credibility- expertise and trustworthiness given to a speaker by listeners as a result of how the speaker communicates during a presentation. 
Terminal Credibility- Cumulative of initial and derived. It may be greater or less than initial credibility 
 ConflictConflict exists when people who depend on each other have different views, interests, values, responsibilities, or objectives and perceive their differences as incompatible. 

Conflict is a sign that people are involved w/ each other

ex. Co-workers argue b/c they care about issues that affect all of em
ex. Roommates experience conflict if they disagree about the time we should kick people out of the room
 Communication ApprehensionCommunication Apprehension is a detrimental level of anxiety associated w/ real or anticipated communication encounters. It is common and can be constructive.

ex. Many people feel anxious in advance of communication situations; they worry, imagine difficulties, and dread the occasion long before the communication occurs. 
 ChronemicsChronemics refers to how we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction. 

ex. In some cultures, people saunter whereas in others they dash from place to place.

ex. In Western societies, there seems to be a unwritten cultural rule that people w/ high status can keep people with less status waiting.
 MonitoringMonitoring is the observation and regulation of one's own communication 

ex. Monitor the tendency to explain away your failures as not your fault and to take personal credit for accomplishments that were helped by luck or situational factors.

*Also just as we tend to judge ourselves generously, we may judge others harshly.
 Mind ReadingMind Reading is the assumption that we understand what another person thinks or how another person perceives something. 

ex. In a relationship if a spouse tries mind reading and says "He doesn't care about me anymore" this can cause problems b/c he never said that and its not necessarily true
 Loaded LanguageLoaded Language is words that slant perceptions, and thus meanings, exceedingly. 

ex. Terms such as "geezer" and "old fogey" incline us to regard older people w/ contempt or pity. Alternatives such as "senior citizen" and "elder" reflect more respectful attitudes.
 JudgementJudgement is a belief or opinion based on observations, feelings, assumptions, or other phenomena that are not facts.

ex. (Taylor shows up late for class) the teacher might judge that "Taylor is an irresponsible student."  judging Taylor as irresponsible goes beyond the facts.
 InferenceInference is an interpretation that goes beyond the facts known but is believed to logically follow from them.

ex. Saying something like "this person seems rude" or "this person may be rude"
 Brute Facts Institutional Facts
Brute Facts are objective, concrete phenomena and activities.
Institutional Facts are the meanings of Brute facts based on human interpretation.

ex. During a football game a brute fact is that periodically people gather into roughly circular clusters called the huddle. The institutional fact is that the players are planning their next play.
 Hypothetical ThoughtsHypothetical Thoughts is to think about experiences and ideas that do not exist or are not present to the senses. 

ex. B/c we can think hypothetically, we can plan, dream, remember, set goals, consider alternative courses of actions, and imagine possibilities. 


 Enviromental FactorsEnviromental Factors are elements of a settings that affects how we think, feel, act, and communicate.

ex. We feel more relaxed in rooms w/ comfortable chairs than in rooms with stiff, formal furniture.

ex. Candlelit dining tables may promote more romantic feelings etc.

 Constructivism Cognitive SchemataConstructivism is a theory that states that we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures called cognitive schemata.


Cognitive Schemata is the mental structures people use to organize and interpret experience. Four schemata have been indentified: Prototypes, personal constructs, stereotypes, and scripts.
 Cognitive ComplexityCognitive Complexity is the number of personal constructs              (fun-not fun) used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions.

ex. For kids they focus more on concrete constructs(tall-not tall) rather than abstract psychological ones (Secure-not secure).

Many adults have greater cognitive complexity, which affects the accuracy of perceptions. A 60yr old has a more complex fund of experiences on which to draw compared to a 20yr old
 BracketingBracketing is Identifying and setting aside(bracketing) for later discussion the issues peripheral to a current conflict.

ex. During conflict, multiple issues often surface. If we try to deal w/ each one as it arises, we get sidetracked from the immediate or main issue. Bracketing other concerns for later discussion lets us keep conflict focused productively. 
 AcknowledgementAcknowledgement is communicating that you hear and understand anothers expressed feelings and thoughts.

Nonverbally- Acknowledge by nodding our heads or making eye contact to show we are listening.
Verbally-Acknowledgments are direct responses to others
ex. If a friend says "I'm really worried that I blew the LSAT exam," you could acknowledge that by responding "So the exam made you anxious, huh?"







*2nd of 3 levels of interpersonal confirmation
 AttributionAttribution is an explanation of why things happen and why people act as they do; not necessarily correct interpretations of others and their motives.

4 Dimensions: internal-external locus, stability, specificity, control

 ArtifactsArtifacts are personal objects we use to announce our identities and to personalize our enviroments.

Women are more likely to wear more make-up, jewelry, form-fitting clothes and high-heeled shoes.
Men typically wear less jewelry, clothes w/ less adornment, and functional shoes. 
 Physical Appearance (as nonverbal comm)Physical Appearance is a form of nonverbal comm; how we look, including the cultural meanings, values, and expectations associated with looks.


 ParalanguageParalanguage is communication that is vocal but not verbal. Paralanguage includes accent, inflection, volume, pitch, and sounds such as murmurs and gasps.

ex. Vocal cues signal others to interpret what we say as a joke, a threat, a statement of fact, a question, and so forth.
 OlfacticsOlfacts is a term for our perception of odors and scents 

Smell is a form of nonverbal communication.

ex. The smell of freshly baked bread or cookies often makes us feel happy (and hungry!). Also scents we choose to wear can be personal signatures
 TotalizingTotalizing is responding to a person as if one label totally represents that person. 

We fix on one symbol to define someone and fail to recognize many other aspects of the person.

ex. Some people totalize gay men and lesbians by noticing only their sexual orientation.
 SilenceLack of sound, can be nonverbal communication.
Though silence is quiet, it can communicate powerful messaages.

"I'm not speaking to you" followed by silence can speak volumes!

Content- when intimates are so comfortable they don't need to talk.

Awkwardness- trouble making conversation on a first date


 StereotypesStereotypes are a predictive generalization about people or situations.


ex. A lot of people stereotype girls in sororities as being sluts 
 ScriptA script is a sequence of activities that spells out how we and others are expected to act in a specific situation 


ex. If you run into a friend who is with someone you don't know, and your friend says "Hi, this Brittany," you don't have to think about what your going to say your meeting-new-person script tells you that you should say, "Hi, I'm Jordan" and offer a handshake or smile.
 Nonverbal CommunicationNonverbal Communication is all forms of communication other than words themselves! includes vocal qualities, shrugs, blushing, eye movements etc.
 RecognitionRecognition is the expression of awareness of another person's existence.
Most basic form of interpersonal confirmation

ex. recognize people by nonverbal behavior(a smile, a handshake, looking up when someone enters your room) or by verbal communication ("hello," "good to meet you")
 Regulative vs. Constitutive RulesRegulative rules specifies when, how, where, and with whom to communicate. 
while Constitutive rules define what the communication means. 

Regulative- Whether you can say something, where you can, who to etc.

Constitutive-  rudeness(talking over others), comm. counted as friendship(sharing confidences, defending friends when others criticize them)
 Linear Models vs. Interactive Models of Communication(hint:feedback)Linear model describes communication as a one-way process. From a sender to a receiver.
where as the
Interactive model realized listeners respond to senders, so they added feedback to their models.. the feedback can be verbal or nonverbal.

 Assertive vs. Aggressive vs. DeferentialAssertive- is not aggressive, it simply expresses the speakers thoughts, feelings, preferences, and goals w/out harm to anyone
Aggressive- occurs when one puts themselves ahead of others or derides others thought, feelings, goals, or actions.

Aggressive-I demand that we spend time together.
Assertive- I'd like to create more time for us.
Deferential- If you don't want us to spend time with each other, that's okay with me.
 Mediator vs. ArbitratorMediator- works with people in conflict to help communicate more productively and get the parties to reach a decision.
Arbitrator- Also facilitates discussion of conflict issues.

Difference
Mediators have no power to make a decision but Arbitrators do.
 Overt Conflict vs. Covert ConflictOvert- When people express differences in a straight forward manner. Might express different points of view or argue heatedly about ideas but DIFFERENCES ARE OUT IN THE OPEN.
Covert- when people express differences indirectly. For instance, if your annoyed your roommate left the kitchen a mess, you might play the stereo loud when he is sleeping.


 Culture vs. Social CommunityCulture- consists of beliefs, values, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that a number of people share.
Social Communities- Part of a overall society(America) but also distinct from overall society in that they hold values, understandings, and practices that aren't shared by people outside the group.

Difference
Culture is something a number of people share while social community is only that specific group.
 Lose-lose vs. win-win vs. win-lose conflict orientationslose-lose: presumes that conflict cannot produce positive outcomes.

win-lose: One person wins but at the expense of the other, tends to undermine relationships b/c someone has to lose.

win-win: view of conflict assumes that there are usually ways to resolve differences so that everyone gains. usually willing to make accommodations and often find solutions that neither had thought of previously.

 Superiority vs. Equality Comm.Superiority: is when people act as if they are better than you, "I know a lot more about this than you" "is this the best you could do?"

Equality: more relaxed and comfortable communicating w/ people who treat us as equals even if they are a expert in a certain field. expressed equality communicates respect.


 Evaluative vs. Descriptive Comm.Evaluative comm. evaluates us and we tend to feel defensive when others evaluate us, particularly in a negative way. 
Descriptive comm. doesn't evaluate but better yet describes behavior w/o passing judgement

Evaluative-- This report is done poorly

Descriptive-- This report doesn't include background information
 Certainty vs. Provisionalism comm.Certainty-- language suggests there is only one valid answer, point of view, or course of action. There's no point in talking to these people.

Provisionalism-- shows openness to other points of view. the tentative communication reflects an open mind, which is why it invites continued conversation.
 Strategy vs. Spontaneity Comm.Strategy-- Strategic comm. aims at manipulating a person or group for the benefit of the person manipulating. Nonverbal behaviors may also convey strategy, as when a speaker takes a long pause before answering or refuses eye contact w/ listeners

Spontaneity-- Spontaneous communication is open, honest, and not manipulative. To be ethical spontaneous comm. must not be used against others. The better way to go about getting help just ask for a favor straightforward, "Would you help me?"
 Neutrality vs. Empathy Comm.Neutral-- people tend to be defensive when others act in a neutral manner, it implies indifferences to others and what they say .

Empathy-- Confirms the worth of others and shows concern for their thoughts and feelings. 
ex. "I can understand why you feel that way"

*Empathy doesn't mean you agree with them but it merely conveys respect for others and what they think/feel
 Control vs. Problem Orientation Comm.Control-- Attempts to persuade people and others often feel defensive, and respond w/ resentment or even rebellion. To this person winning an argument or having the last word is more important than finding the best solution. 
Problem Orientation-- Rather than imposing a preference problem-oriented communication focuses on resolving tensions and problems. The goal of this communication is to work collaboratively to come up with something that everyone finds acceptable.
 Content level of meaning vs. Relationship level of meaningContent level of meaning-- Contains the literal message. 
ex. Someone knocks on your door and asks, "May I come in?" the content-level meaning is that the person is asking your permission to enter.
Relationship level of meaning-- Expresses the relationship between communicators. 
 Specific Purpose vs. Thesis StatementSpecific Purpose-- Is exactly what you hope to accomplish.
ex. Im gonna get 25% of the audience to sign up for Volunteering
Specific purpose is the behavioral response the speaker seeks

Thesis Statement-- Single most important sentence in a speech. Is the main idea and guides an effective speech:
 Exit vs. Neglect vs. Voice vs. Loyalty responses to conflictExit-- Involves leaving a relationship, either by walking out or by psychologically withdrawing "I don't want to talk about it"
Neglect-- occurs when a person denies or minimizes problems. Neglect can be destructive b/c it evades difficulties, and it is passive b/c it doesn't actively promote discussion.
Loyalty responses-- Is staying committed to a relationship despite differences; Loyalty involves hoping that things will get better on their own. passive b/c loyalty is silent allegiance
Voice-- Is potentially the most active, constructive response to conflict b/c it deals directly w/ problems and helps to manage differences
 Impromptu vs. Extemporaneous vs. Manuscript vs. Memorized delivery of speechesImpromptu-- involves little or no preparation. It can be effective for speakers who know their material thoroughly.
Extemporaneous-- *most commonly used. involves substantial preparation and practice. conduct research etc.
Manuscript-- Involves presenting a speech from a complete, written text. Whether on paper or the teleprompter

Memorized delivery of speeches-- Extension of the manuscript style of speaking. 
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