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Class:COMM 3064 - Persuasion
Subject:Communication
University:Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University
Term:Fall 2011
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dramatic evidence
  • narratives
  • testimony
  • anecdotes
  • participation and demonstration
rational evidence logical processes in nondramatic, intellectually oriented ways
relies on reasoning pattern

cause-to-effect if cause present, expect certain effects; if bad, try to remove cause
effect-to-cause less used and sometimes flawed
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reasoning from symptoms identify symptoms and try to conclude something from it
criteria-to-application persuaders establish seet of criteria of X and then offer X as something that meets the criteria
deductive reasoning reasoning from general to specific
inductive reasoning specifics before generalized conclusion
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statistics misused if...
  • not representative sample
  • use single instance as example of instances
  • biased sample
  • mode of presentation
testimony misused if...
  • person "testifying" might not report accurate info.
  • insignificant shifts in wording "leads" people on
comparison/analogy misused if... faulty analogies lead to wrong conclusion
fallacies
  • after this, therefore because of this
  • ad hominem "against the man"
  • ad populum (be in vogue)
  • undistributed middle- guilt by association
  • straw man
  • partial facts, substituting humor, appealing for sympathy, prejudices/stereotypes, appealing to tradition, evading the issue, using irrelevancy, false dilemma
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syllogisms
  • conditional- "if A then B" (major, minor, conclusion)
  • disjunctive- "either A is true or B is true"
  • categorical- parts and wholes or sets and subsets
eight hidden needs
  1. need for emotional security
  2. need for reassurance of worth
  3. need for ego gratification
  4. need for creative outlets
  5. need for love objects
  6. need for sense of power
  7. need for roots
  8. need for immortality
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 dramatic evidence
  • narratives
  • testimony
  • anecdotes
  • participation and demonstration
 rational evidencelogical processes in nondramatic, intellectually oriented ways
relies on reasoning pattern

 cause-to-effectif cause present, expect certain effects; if bad, try to remove cause
 effect-to-causeless used and sometimes flawed
 reasoning from symptomsidentify symptoms and try to conclude something from it
 criteria-to-applicationpersuaders establish seet of criteria of X and then offer X as something that meets the criteria
 deductive reasoningreasoning from general to specific
 inductive reasoningspecifics before generalized conclusion
 statistics misused if...
  • not representative sample
  • use single instance as example of instances
  • biased sample
  • mode of presentation
 testimony misused if...
  • person "testifying" might not report accurate info.
  • insignificant shifts in wording "leads" people on
 comparison/analogy misused if...faulty analogies lead to wrong conclusion
 fallacies
  • after this, therefore because of this
  • ad hominem "against the man"
  • ad populum (be in vogue)
  • undistributed middle- guilt by association
  • straw man
  • partial facts, substituting humor, appealing for sympathy, prejudices/stereotypes, appealing to tradition, evading the issue, using irrelevancy, false dilemma
 syllogisms
  • conditional- "if A then B" (major, minor, conclusion)
  • disjunctive- "either A is true or B is true"
  • categorical- parts and wholes or sets and subsets
 eight hidden needs
  1. need for emotional security
  2. need for reassurance of worth
  3. need for ego gratification
  4. need for creative outlets
  5. need for love objects
  6. need for sense of power
  7. need for roots
  8. need for immortality
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