Koofers

final exam - Flashcards

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Class:COMM 1310 - FUND OF HUMAN COM
Subject:Communication Studies
University:Texas State University - San Marcos
Term:Fall 2011
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the 8 steps involved in the audience-centered model of the public speaking process 1. Select and narrow topic
2. Identify purpose
3. Develop central idea
4. generate main ideas
5. father supporting material
6. organize presentation
7. rehearse presentation
8. deliver presentation
*always while considering the audience
An audience-centered public speaker someone who considers and adapts to the audience at every stage of the presentational speaking process
managing speaker anxiety: Know how to develop a presentation learning about the public speaking process, just knowing what you need to do to develop a presentation can boost your confidence
managing speaker anxiety: Be Prepared be well prepared
follow the recommended steps for preparing a speech:
  • develop logical outline
  • select appropriate topic
  • research topic thoroughly
  • Rehearse presentation   
Generated by Koofers.com
managing speaker anxiety: Focus on your audience
  • be audience-centered
  • adapted your message to how you think the audience will respond
  • focus on connecting to audience
  • the more you focus on your audience, the less you attend to your own nervousness
managing speaker anxiety: Focus on your message
  • keeps you from thinking about how nervous you are
  • focus on the message you want to relay 


Habituation: the process of becoming more comfortable as you speak

managing speaker anxiety: give yourself a mental pep talk make a conscious effort to think positively
managing speaker anxiety: use deep-breathing techniques take a few, slow deep breaths before and try to relax your body. This will increase your oxygen
Generated by Koofers.com
managing speaker anxiety: take advantage of opportunities to speak as you gain experience you will feel more in control of your nervousness- take opportunities to speak publicly
managing speaker anxiety: seek professional help if the above strategies aren't enough.
  • Systematic desensitization: an anxiety management strategy that includes general relaxation techniques and visualization of success
  • Performance visualization: an anxiety management strategy that involves viewing a videotape of a successful presentation and imagining oneself delivering that presentation
guidelines for selecting and narrowing a speech topic
  1. Who is the audience? -college classmates interested in topics such as college loans and the job market, older adults more interested in topics over the cost of prescription's and investment tax credits
  2. What is the occasion?- Veteran's Day address= topics of patriotism and service to ones country
  3. What are my interest and experiences?- exploring your own interest, attitudes and experiences=topics you know about/ feel passionately about
General Purpose the broad reason for giving a presentation: to inform, to persuaded, or to entertain and audience
Generated by Koofers.com
Specific Purpose a concise statement of what listeners should be able to do by the time the speaker finishes the presentation
  • guides you as you prepare your presentation
Central Idea a definitive point about a topic, focuses on the contenet of the speech
  • guide the audience as they listen to the presentation
the 6 criteria for evaluating internet sites
  1. Accountability- what organization/individual is responsible for the website. Examine the domain
  2. accuracy- sources of facts should be documented on websites. free of errors in grammatical usage
  3. Objectivity- consider philosophies and biases.The more OBJECTIVE, the more credible
  4. Date- the more recent, the better
  5. Usability- consider the practical efficiency of the site
  6. Sensitivity to diversity- diversity sensitive website will be free of bias
Different Library sources
  1. Periodical: a popular magazine or professional journal
  2. Newspaper
  3. Reference resources: encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, almanacs, yearbooks
  4. Government documents: material published by the government, including records of official proceedings, pamphlets and brochures and statistical data
Generated by Koofers.com
Supporting material verbal or visual material that clarifies, amplifies, and provides evidence to support the main ideas of a presentation.
  • Verbal support includes illustrations, explanations, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions;
  • visual support includes objects, charts, graphs, posters, maps, models and computer generated graphics
1. Illustration a story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem that speaker is discussing
2. Description a word picture
3. Explanation a statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present or past form
Generated by Koofers.com
4. Definition a statement of what something means
5. analogy a comparison between two ideas, things, or situations that demonstrates how something unfamiliar is similar to something the audience already understands
6. Statistics numerical data that summarizes examples
7. Opinions a speaker can use three types of opinions: Expert testimony (the opinion of someone who is an acknowledged expert in the field under discussion), lay testimony (opinion of one who experienced an event or situation firsthand), and literary quotations (a citation from a work of fiction or nonfiction, a poem, or another speech)
Generated by Koofers.com
5 principles for communication
  1. be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  2. effectively use and interpret verbal messages
  3. effectively use and interpret nonverbal messages
  4. listen and respond carefully to others
  5. appropriately adapt messages to others
the 5 methods of organizing your main ideas
  1. Chronological- organization by time or sequence
  2. topical- arbitrary arrangement of topics or organizations according to recency, primacy, or complexity
  3. spatial- organization according to location or position
  4. cause-and-effect: organization by discussing a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
  5. problem-and-solution: organization by discussing a problem and then various solutions
6 methods of organizing your supporting material
  1. chronology: organization by time or sequence
  2. recency: most important material last
  3. primacy: most convincing or least controversial material first
  4. complexity: from simple to more complex material
  5. specificity: from specific info to general overview or from general overview to specific info
  6. "soft" to "hard" evidence: from hypothetical illustrations and opinion (soft) to facts and statistics (hard)
signpost a verbal or nonverbal organization signal
Generated by Koofers.com
Preview a statement of what is to come
Initial preview first statement of the main ideas of a presentation, usually presented with or near the central idea
internal preview a preview within the speech that introduces ideas still to come
transition a word, phrase, or nonverbal cue that indicates movement from one idea to the next or the relationship between ideas
Generated by Koofers.com
verbal transition a word or phrase that indicates the relationship between two ideas
nonverbal transition a facial expression, vocal cue, or physical movement that indicates a speaker is moving from one idea to the next
Summary a recap of what has been said
internal summary a recap within the presentation of what has been said so far
Generated by Koofers.com
final summary a recap of all the main points of a presentation, usually occurring just before or during the conclusion
the 5 functions of a introduction
  1. gaining attention
  2. introducing a topic
  3. creating reason to listen
  4. establishing credibility
  5. previewing main ideas
4 functions of a conclusion
  1. summarizing the presentation
  2. reemphasizing central idea
  3. motivating an audience response
  4. providing closure
preparation outline V speaking notes
  • preparation outline: a detailed outline of a presentation that includes the central idea, main ideas, and supporting materials, and may also include specific purpose, introduction, and conclusion
  • speaking notes: should provide all the info you will need to make your presentation as you planned without as much detail
Generated by Koofers.com
suggestions for developing speaking notes
  1. use note cards
  2. include your intro and conclusion in abbreviated form
  3. include supporting materials and signposts
  4. do not include your purpose statement
  5. use standard outline form
  6. include your purpose statement
  7. use standard outline form
  8. unclude delivery cues
4 methods of speech delivery
  1. Manuscript speaking: reading a presentation from a written text
  2. memorized speaking: delivering a presentation word for word from memory w/o using notes
  3. impromptu speaking: delivering a presentation w/o advance preparation
  4. Extemporaneous speaking: speaking from a written or memorized outline w/o having memorized the exact wording of the presentation
words that enhance verbal delivery: Concrete word word that refers to an individual member of a general class
  • ex- the word poodle instead of dog
words that enhance verbal delivery: unbiased word a word that doesn't stereotype, discriminate against, or insult either gender or any racial cultural, or religious group
ex- member of congress instead of congressman
Generated by Koofers.com
words that enhance verbal delivery: Vivid word a colorful word
ex- distressed oak table instead of table
words that enhance verbal delivery: Simple word a short word known to most people who speak the language

words that enhance verbal delivery: correct word a word that means what the speaker intends and is grammatically correct in the phrase or sentence in which it appears

Figurative language lang that deviates from the ordinary, expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable
  • Metaphor: an implied comparison between 2 things
  • simile: making an overt comparison between 2 things using the words LIKE or AS
  • personification: attributing human qualities to nonhuman things or ideas
Generated by Koofers.com
Drama phrasing something in a way that differs from the way the audience expects
  • Omission: leaving out a word or phrase the audience expects to hear- "more money, less news"
  • Inversion: reversing the normal word order of a phrase or sentence- "this much we pledge"
  • Suspension: withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence- "at stake is nothing less than our nation's soul"
Cadence: the rhythm of language
  • parallelism: using the same grammatical structure for 2 or more clauses/sentences - "deliver health care services, support retirees, stimulate research and development, and harness new technologies"
  • Antithesis: contrasting the meanings of the 2 parts of a parallel structure- "indifference.. is not only a sin, it is a punishment"
  • Repetition: emphasizing a key word/phrase by using it more than once- ""we are virginia tech" (repeated)
  • Alliteration: the repetition of a consonant sound several times in a phrase/clause/sentence-"hour of change & challenge"
5 components that enhance the nonverbal delivery of a presentation
  1. eye contact- most important. lets audience know you are interested in them and ready to talk
  2. physical delivery-a person's gestures, movement, and posture. which influence how a message is interpreted
  3. facial expressions- communicate thoughts, emotions and attitudes
  4. vocal delivery- nonverbal voice cues- volume, pitch, rate, articulation
  5. appearance- should conform to what the audience expects
Presentation aids any tangible item used to help communicate ideas to an audience
  • Objects, models, people, drawings, photographs, maps, charts, graphs, videotapes, cd-rom and dvds, audiotapes and audio cds
Generated by Koofers.com
guidelines for preparing presentation aids
  1. select the right presentation aids
  2. make your presentation aids easy to see
  3. keep your presentation aids simple
  4. polish your presentation aids
guidelines for using presentation aids
  1. rehearse w/ your aid
  2. maintain eye contact w/ your audience, not with your aids
  3. explain your aids
  4. time the display of your aids to coincide w/ your discussion of them
  5. do not pass objects, pictures, or other small items among your audience
  6. use handouts effectively
  7. use small children & animals w/ caution
  8. use technology thoughtfully
Informative speaking to share info with others to enhance their knowledge or understanding of the info, concepts and ideas you present
Persuasive speaking the process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
Generated by Koofers.com
types of informative presentations
  1. presentations about objects: anything you can see or touch
  2. about procedures: discusses how something works/describe a process
  3. about people: someone famous or that you know personally
  4. about events: describe an actual event
  5. about ideas: more abstract than others
strategies for making your informative presentation clear
  1. Simplify ideas- get your ideas through to the audience, not cram as much info as possible into your speech
  2. pace your info flow: don't present too much new info too quickly
  3. Relate new info to old: help your audience associate your new idea with something that is familiar to them
strategies for making your informative presentation interesting to your audience
  1. relate to your listeners' interest
  2. use attention-catching supporting material
  3. establish a motive for your audience to listen to you
  4. use word pictures: vivid words that invite listeners to draw on their sense
  5. create interesting presentation aids
  6. use humor
strategies for making your presentation memorable
  1. build in redundancy
  2. use adult learning principles
  3. reinforce key ideas verbally
  4. reinforce key ideas non-verbally
Generated by Koofers.com
ways to motivate an audience
  1. motivating with dissonance: cognitive dissonance= the sense of mental disorganization/imbalance that may prompt one to change when new info conflicts w/ previous beliefs.
  2. with needs:one of best motivators. Hierarchy of needs= Maslow's theory that humans have 5 levels of needs, lower level needs must be met before people can be concerned about higher level needs
  3. with fear appeals: scare audience into compliance
  4. with positive appeals: good things will happen if speakers advice is followed
attitudes a learned predisposition to respond favorable/unfavorably to something; a like or a dislike
belief a sense of what is true or false
value an enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad
Generated by Koofers.com
proposition of fact a claim that something s or is not the case or that something did or did not happen
proposition of value a claim that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance or something
proposition of policy a claim advocating a specific action to change a regulation, procedure, or behavior
Credibility (ethos) an audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trustworthiness and dynamism. It's factors:
  • competence: an aspect that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as informed, skilled, knowledgeable
  • Trustworthiness: an aspect that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest 
  • Dynamism: an aspect that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as energetic
  • Charisma: talent, charm, and attractiveness
Generated by Koofers.com
Ethos the credibility or ethical character of a speaker
Proof (logos) evidence plus reasoning
  • Evidence: material used to support a point or premise
  • Reasoning: the process of drawing a conclusion from evidence
Logos logical arguments
Types of logical reasoning
  • inductive: using specific instances or examples to reach a probable general conclusion. -Use specific examples to explain why Honda's are good cars
  • Deductive: moving from a general statement/principle to reach a certain specific conclusion.- Syllogism (a 3 part argument, consists of a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion).
  • Casual: relating 2 or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events cause the others- ex: you might argue that public inoculation programs during the 20 C eradicated smallpox
Generated by Koofers.com
Logical fallacy false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade w/o adequate evidence or w/ arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
casual fallacy making a faulty cause-and-effect connection between 2 things or events
bandwagon fallacy suggesting that because everyone believes something or does something, it must be valid, accurate or effective
either-or fallacy oversimplifying an issue as offering only 2 choices
Generated by Koofers.com
hasty generalization reaching a conclusion w/o adequate supporting evidence
personal attack attacking irrelevant personal characteristics of someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing the idea itself
red herring irrelevant facts or info used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
appeal to misplaced authority using someone w/o the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product
Generated by Koofers.com
non sequitur "it does not follow"
presenting an idea or conclusion that does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion
organizational patterns for persuasive messages
  1. problem-and-solution: organization by discussing 1st a problem and then its various solutions
  2. cause-and-effect: organization by discussing a situation and it's causes or a situation and its effects 
  3. refutation: organization according to objections your listeners may have to your ideas and arguments
  4. motivated sequence: Alan H. Monroe's 5 step plan for organizing a persuasive message: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization and action
Strategies for persuading receptive audiences audience supports your message
  • ID w/ your audience
  • emphasize common interest
  • provide a clear objective; tell your listeners what you want them to do
  • appropriately use emotional appeals
strategies for persuading neutral audiences
  • gain and maintain your audiences attention
  • refer to beliefs and concerns that are important to listeners
  • show how the topic affects people your listeners care about
  • be realistic about what you can accomplish
Generated by Koofers.com
strategies for persuading unreceptive audiences
  • don't tell listeners that you are going to try and convince them to support your position
  • present your strongest arguments first
  • acknowledge opposing points of view
  • don't expect a major sift in attitudes or behavior
Generated by Koofers.com

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 the 8 steps involved in the audience-centered model of the public speaking process1. Select and narrow topic
2. Identify purpose
3. Develop central idea
4. generate main ideas
5. father supporting material
6. organize presentation
7. rehearse presentation
8. deliver presentation
*always while considering the audience
 An audience-centered public speakersomeone who considers and adapts to the audience at every stage of the presentational speaking process
 managing speaker anxiety: Know how to develop a presentationlearning about the public speaking process, just knowing what you need to do to develop a presentation can boost your confidence
 managing speaker anxiety: Be Preparedbe well prepared
follow the recommended steps for preparing a speech:
  • develop logical outline
  • select appropriate topic
  • research topic thoroughly
  • Rehearse presentation   
 managing speaker anxiety: Focus on your audience
  • be audience-centered
  • adapted your message to how you think the audience will respond
  • focus on connecting to audience
  • the more you focus on your audience, the less you attend to your own nervousness
 managing speaker anxiety: Focus on your message
  • keeps you from thinking about how nervous you are
  • focus on the message you want to relay 


Habituation: the process of becoming more comfortable as you speak

 managing speaker anxiety: give yourself a mental pep talkmake a conscious effort to think positively
 managing speaker anxiety: use deep-breathing techniquestake a few, slow deep breaths before and try to relax your body. This will increase your oxygen
 managing speaker anxiety: take advantage of opportunities to speakas you gain experience you will feel more in control of your nervousness- take opportunities to speak publicly
 managing speaker anxiety: seek professional helpif the above strategies aren't enough.
  • Systematic desensitization: an anxiety management strategy that includes general relaxation techniques and visualization of success
  • Performance visualization: an anxiety management strategy that involves viewing a videotape of a successful presentation and imagining oneself delivering that presentation
 guidelines for selecting and narrowing a speech topic
  1. Who is the audience? -college classmates interested in topics such as college loans and the job market, older adults more interested in topics over the cost of prescription's and investment tax credits
  2. What is the occasion?- Veteran's Day address= topics of patriotism and service to ones country
  3. What are my interest and experiences?- exploring your own interest, attitudes and experiences=topics you know about/ feel passionately about
 General Purposethe broad reason for giving a presentation: to inform, to persuaded, or to entertain and audience
 Specific Purposea concise statement of what listeners should be able to do by the time the speaker finishes the presentation
  • guides you as you prepare your presentation
 Central Ideaa definitive point about a topic, focuses on the contenet of the speech
  • guide the audience as they listen to the presentation
 the 6 criteria for evaluating internet sites
  1. Accountability- what organization/individual is responsible for the website. Examine the domain
  2. accuracy- sources of facts should be documented on websites. free of errors in grammatical usage
  3. Objectivity- consider philosophies and biases.The more OBJECTIVE, the more credible
  4. Date- the more recent, the better
  5. Usability- consider the practical efficiency of the site
  6. Sensitivity to diversity- diversity sensitive website will be free of bias
 Different Library sources
  1. Periodical: a popular magazine or professional journal
  2. Newspaper
  3. Reference resources: encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, almanacs, yearbooks
  4. Government documents: material published by the government, including records of official proceedings, pamphlets and brochures and statistical data
 Supporting materialverbal or visual material that clarifies, amplifies, and provides evidence to support the main ideas of a presentation.
  • Verbal support includes illustrations, explanations, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions;
  • visual support includes objects, charts, graphs, posters, maps, models and computer generated graphics
 1. Illustrationa story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem that speaker is discussing
 2. Descriptiona word picture
 3. Explanationa statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present or past form
 4. Definitiona statement of what something means
 5. analogya comparison between two ideas, things, or situations that demonstrates how something unfamiliar is similar to something the audience already understands
 6. Statisticsnumerical data that summarizes examples
 7. Opinionsa speaker can use three types of opinions: Expert testimony (the opinion of someone who is an acknowledged expert in the field under discussion), lay testimony (opinion of one who experienced an event or situation firsthand), and literary quotations (a citation from a work of fiction or nonfiction, a poem, or another speech)
 5 principles for communication
  1. be aware of your communication with yourself and others
  2. effectively use and interpret verbal messages
  3. effectively use and interpret nonverbal messages
  4. listen and respond carefully to others
  5. appropriately adapt messages to others
 the 5 methods of organizing your main ideas
  1. Chronological- organization by time or sequence
  2. topical- arbitrary arrangement of topics or organizations according to recency, primacy, or complexity
  3. spatial- organization according to location or position
  4. cause-and-effect: organization by discussing a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects
  5. problem-and-solution: organization by discussing a problem and then various solutions
 6 methods of organizing your supporting material
  1. chronology: organization by time or sequence
  2. recency: most important material last
  3. primacy: most convincing or least controversial material first
  4. complexity: from simple to more complex material
  5. specificity: from specific info to general overview or from general overview to specific info
  6. "soft" to "hard" evidence: from hypothetical illustrations and opinion (soft) to facts and statistics (hard)
 signposta verbal or nonverbal organization signal
 Previewa statement of what is to come
 Initial previewfirst statement of the main ideas of a presentation, usually presented with or near the central idea
 internal previewa preview within the speech that introduces ideas still to come
 transitiona word, phrase, or nonverbal cue that indicates movement from one idea to the next or the relationship between ideas
 verbal transitiona word or phrase that indicates the relationship between two ideas
 nonverbal transitiona facial expression, vocal cue, or physical movement that indicates a speaker is moving from one idea to the next
 Summarya recap of what has been said
 internal summarya recap within the presentation of what has been said so far
 final summarya recap of all the main points of a presentation, usually occurring just before or during the conclusion
 the 5 functions of a introduction
  1. gaining attention
  2. introducing a topic
  3. creating reason to listen
  4. establishing credibility
  5. previewing main ideas
 4 functions of a conclusion
  1. summarizing the presentation
  2. reemphasizing central idea
  3. motivating an audience response
  4. providing closure
 preparation outline V speaking notes
  • preparation outline: a detailed outline of a presentation that includes the central idea, main ideas, and supporting materials, and may also include specific purpose, introduction, and conclusion
  • speaking notes: should provide all the info you will need to make your presentation as you planned without as much detail
 suggestions for developing speaking notes
  1. use note cards
  2. include your intro and conclusion in abbreviated form
  3. include supporting materials and signposts
  4. do not include your purpose statement
  5. use standard outline form
  6. include your purpose statement
  7. use standard outline form
  8. unclude delivery cues
 4 methods of speech delivery
  1. Manuscript speaking: reading a presentation from a written text
  2. memorized speaking: delivering a presentation word for word from memory w/o using notes
  3. impromptu speaking: delivering a presentation w/o advance preparation
  4. Extemporaneous speaking: speaking from a written or memorized outline w/o having memorized the exact wording of the presentation
 words that enhance verbal delivery: Concrete wordword that refers to an individual member of a general class
  • ex- the word poodle instead of dog
 words that enhance verbal delivery: unbiased worda word that doesn't stereotype, discriminate against, or insult either gender or any racial cultural, or religious group
ex- member of congress instead of congressman
 words that enhance verbal delivery: Vivid worda colorful word
ex- distressed oak table instead of table
 words that enhance verbal delivery: Simple worda short word known to most people who speak the language

 words that enhance verbal delivery: correct worda word that means what the speaker intends and is grammatically correct in the phrase or sentence in which it appears

 Figurative languagelang that deviates from the ordinary, expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable
  • Metaphor: an implied comparison between 2 things
  • simile: making an overt comparison between 2 things using the words LIKE or AS
  • personification: attributing human qualities to nonhuman things or ideas
 Dramaphrasing something in a way that differs from the way the audience expects
  • Omission: leaving out a word or phrase the audience expects to hear- "more money, less news"
  • Inversion: reversing the normal word order of a phrase or sentence- "this much we pledge"
  • Suspension: withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence- "at stake is nothing less than our nation's soul"
 Cadence: the rhythm of language
  • parallelism: using the same grammatical structure for 2 or more clauses/sentences - "deliver health care services, support retirees, stimulate research and development, and harness new technologies"
  • Antithesis: contrasting the meanings of the 2 parts of a parallel structure- "indifference.. is not only a sin, it is a punishment"
  • Repetition: emphasizing a key word/phrase by using it more than once- ""we are virginia tech" (repeated)
  • Alliteration: the repetition of a consonant sound several times in a phrase/clause/sentence-"hour of change & challenge"
 5 components that enhance the nonverbal delivery of a presentation
  1. eye contact- most important. lets audience know you are interested in them and ready to talk
  2. physical delivery-a person's gestures, movement, and posture. which influence how a message is interpreted
  3. facial expressions- communicate thoughts, emotions and attitudes
  4. vocal delivery- nonverbal voice cues- volume, pitch, rate, articulation
  5. appearance- should conform to what the audience expects
 Presentation aidsany tangible item used to help communicate ideas to an audience
  • Objects, models, people, drawings, photographs, maps, charts, graphs, videotapes, cd-rom and dvds, audiotapes and audio cds
 guidelines for preparing presentation aids
  1. select the right presentation aids
  2. make your presentation aids easy to see
  3. keep your presentation aids simple
  4. polish your presentation aids
 guidelines for using presentation aids
  1. rehearse w/ your aid
  2. maintain eye contact w/ your audience, not with your aids
  3. explain your aids
  4. time the display of your aids to coincide w/ your discussion of them
  5. do not pass objects, pictures, or other small items among your audience
  6. use handouts effectively
  7. use small children & animals w/ caution
  8. use technology thoughtfully
 Informative speakingto share info with others to enhance their knowledge or understanding of the info, concepts and ideas you present
 Persuasive speakingthe process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
 types of informative presentations
  1. presentations about objects: anything you can see or touch
  2. about procedures: discusses how something works/describe a process
  3. about people: someone famous or that you know personally
  4. about events: describe an actual event
  5. about ideas: more abstract than others
 strategies for making your informative presentation clear
  1. Simplify ideas- get your ideas through to the audience, not cram as much info as possible into your speech
  2. pace your info flow: don't present too much new info too quickly
  3. Relate new info to old: help your audience associate your new idea with something that is familiar to them
 strategies for making your informative presentation interesting to your audience
  1. relate to your listeners' interest
  2. use attention-catching supporting material
  3. establish a motive for your audience to listen to you
  4. use word pictures: vivid words that invite listeners to draw on their sense
  5. create interesting presentation aids
  6. use humor
 strategies for making your presentation memorable
  1. build in redundancy
  2. use adult learning principles
  3. reinforce key ideas verbally
  4. reinforce key ideas non-verbally
 ways to motivate an audience
  1. motivating with dissonance: cognitive dissonance= the sense of mental disorganization/imbalance that may prompt one to change when new info conflicts w/ previous beliefs.
  2. with needs:one of best motivators. Hierarchy of needs= Maslow's theory that humans have 5 levels of needs, lower level needs must be met before people can be concerned about higher level needs
  3. with fear appeals: scare audience into compliance
  4. with positive appeals: good things will happen if speakers advice is followed
 attitudesa learned predisposition to respond favorable/unfavorably to something; a like or a dislike
 beliefa sense of what is true or false
 valuean enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad
 proposition of facta claim that something s or is not the case or that something did or did not happen
 proposition of valuea claim that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance or something
 proposition of policya claim advocating a specific action to change a regulation, procedure, or behavior
 Credibility (ethos)an audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trustworthiness and dynamism. It's factors:
  • competence: an aspect that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as informed, skilled, knowledgeable
  • Trustworthiness: an aspect that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest 
  • Dynamism: an aspect that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as energetic
  • Charisma: talent, charm, and attractiveness
 Ethosthe credibility or ethical character of a speaker
 Proof (logos)evidence plus reasoning
  • Evidence: material used to support a point or premise
  • Reasoning: the process of drawing a conclusion from evidence
 Logoslogical arguments
 Types of logical reasoning
  • inductive: using specific instances or examples to reach a probable general conclusion. -Use specific examples to explain why Honda's are good cars
  • Deductive: moving from a general statement/principle to reach a certain specific conclusion.- Syllogism (a 3 part argument, consists of a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion).
  • Casual: relating 2 or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events cause the others- ex: you might argue that public inoculation programs during the 20 C eradicated smallpox
 Logical fallacyfalse reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade w/o adequate evidence or w/ arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
 casual fallacymaking a faulty cause-and-effect connection between 2 things or events
 bandwagon fallacysuggesting that because everyone believes something or does something, it must be valid, accurate or effective
 either-or fallacyoversimplifying an issue as offering only 2 choices
 hasty generalizationreaching a conclusion w/o adequate supporting evidence
 personal attackattacking irrelevant personal characteristics of someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing the idea itself
 red herringirrelevant facts or info used to distract someone from the issue under discussion
 appeal to misplaced authorityusing someone w/o the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product
 non sequitur"it does not follow"
presenting an idea or conclusion that does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion
 organizational patterns for persuasive messages
  1. problem-and-solution: organization by discussing 1st a problem and then its various solutions
  2. cause-and-effect: organization by discussing a situation and it's causes or a situation and its effects 
  3. refutation: organization according to objections your listeners may have to your ideas and arguments
  4. motivated sequence: Alan H. Monroe's 5 step plan for organizing a persuasive message: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization and action
 Strategies for persuading receptive audiencesaudience supports your message
  • ID w/ your audience
  • emphasize common interest
  • provide a clear objective; tell your listeners what you want them to do
  • appropriately use emotional appeals
 strategies for persuading neutral audiences
  • gain and maintain your audiences attention
  • refer to beliefs and concerns that are important to listeners
  • show how the topic affects people your listeners care about
  • be realistic about what you can accomplish
 strategies for persuading unreceptive audiences
  • don't tell listeners that you are going to try and convince them to support your position
  • present your strongest arguments first
  • acknowledge opposing points of view
  • don't expect a major sift in attitudes or behavior
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