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Speech Comm Midterm - Flashcards

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Class:COMM 1100 - INTRO PUBLIC SPEAK
Subject:
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2012
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Rhetorical Situation A situation in which people's understanding can be changed through messages.

Audience, speaker, occasion, speech
Occasion The place and event where a speech is given. It may be a community meeting, a classroom speech, a business presentation, a local fundraising reception, etc.

 
Ceremonial Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise 

Example: presenting or accepting an award, introducing someone, delivery a eulogy, or commemorating an event
Deliberative Speaking that focuses on the future and is usually concerned with what should be done

EX: Making an oral report, delivering a sales presentation, advocating a policy, refuting another person's argument.
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Forensic Speaking that focuses on the past and is usually concerned with justice. 

EX: Used in courts of law
Exigence A problem that cannot be avoided but that can be solved, or at least managed, through the development of an appropriate message.
Strategy A plan of action that will respond to the constraints and take advantage of the opportunities. 
Informing Provides listeners with new information or ideas
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Persuading Influences listeners' attitudes and behavior (either to strengthen existing beliefs or to support new ones)
Entertaining Stimulates a sense of community by celebrating common bonds among speaker and listeners 
5 Major Headings of Public Speaking Study 1) Invention
2) Arrangement
3) Style
4) Delivery
5) Memory
Invention The generation of materials for a speech. You produce these materials through a combination of analysis, research, and judgement.
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Arrangement The structuring of materials within the main ideas, the organization of main ideas within the body of the speech, and the overall structure of introduction, body, and conclusion
Style The distinctive character that may make a speech recognizable or memorable. This is achieved primarily through language, and it reflects the speaker's awareness of how language can be used both to "show" and to "tell"-both to evoke and to convey descriptive meaning. 
Delivery The presentation of the speech to an audience. Effective by use of voice, gesture, facial expression, physical movement, and visual aids. 
Memory Mental recall of the key ideas and the basic structure of the speech. 
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Ethos The speaker's character as perceived by the audience 
Extemporaneous A mode of presentation in which the main ideas and structure have been worked out in advance but specific wording has not been developed.
Preparation Outline An outline used in developing a speech; main ideas and supporting material are usually set forth in complete sentences. 
Presentation Outline An outline used while presenting a speech; typically consists of key words written on an index card. You will use this during the actual speech. 
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Introduction The beginning of the speech designed to get the audience's attention, to state the thesis, and to preview the development of the speech.
Body The largest portion of the speech; includes the development of supporting materials to prove the thesis and any subsidiary claims. 
Conclusion The ending of the speech draws together the main ideas and provides a note of finality
Supporting Materials All forms of evidence that lend weight to the truth of a claim. 

Examples: Experience, narratives (stories), data, opinions
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Thesis The main idea of the speech, usually stated in one or two sentences. 
Organizational Problems 1) Absent or inadequate thesis
2) Weak introduction
3) Faulty development
Support Problems 1) Insufficient support
2) Irrelevant support
3) Gratuitous visual aids
4) Inadequate definitions 
Topic The subject area of the speech 
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Appropriateness of Scope A speaker has to cover the topic to an appropriate degree within the time available. A topic that includes a very large number of points can be covered only superficially. Similarly, a very narrow topic that can be covered in a very short amount of time should also be avoided.
Appropriateness of Oral Delivery Sometimes, a topic can be developed better in an essay than a speech. Because readers proceed at their own pace, they can reread any passage that is difficult to understand. But a speech is delivered in real time and at the same pace to all listeners, some of whom will not be able to recall it after delivery. Still, if a speaker's main ideas and examples are panned carefully and presented clearly, even technical and complex topics can be understood by a nonspecialist audience. 
Brainstorming A mental free-association exercise in which one identifies, without evaluation, the first thoughts that come to mind when one is presented with a given term or category.

Similar to conducting a personal inventory 
General Purpose Statement Statement of the overall goal of the speech: providing new information or perspective, agenda setting, creating positive or negative feeling, strengthening commitment, weakening commitment, conversation, or inducing a specific action
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Specific Purpose Statement Statement of the particular outcome sought from the audience: a more specific version of a general purpose 
Thesis The central idea or claim made by the speech, usually stated in a single sentence. 
Narrowing the Topic Means sharpening your focus so you concentrate on only some part of a broad topic. It is like pouring the topic through a funnel: What goes into the large end is too much to mange, but what comes out the small end can be focused effectively. 
Common Knowledge The beliefs and values that members of a society or culture generally share. 
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Presumption The assumption that a statement or claim is true until shown otherwise. 
Direct Observation The heart of the scientific method. Usually results from a deliberate decision to gather evidence that might support your point, but occasionally it is powerful because you saw something by accident-such as the act of a crime- while you were doing something else

When a speaker uses supportive material that is directly seen or heard
Brief Example Not developing your examples used in detail; 
Hypothetical Example You ask listeners to imagine themselves in a particular situation.

Example: "Suppose that year after year you spent more money than you took in. What would you have to do about that?"
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Document Primary sources that can establish a claim directly, without opinion or speculation.
Statistics Numbers recording the extent of something or the frequency with which it occurs. 
Testimony Information or an opinion expressed by someone other than the speaker. 

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Periodicals Published at regular intervals-usually weekly, monthly, or quarterly- and have the advantage of being more up-to-date than books.
Organization The selection of ideas and materials and their arrangement into a discernible and effective pattern. 
Spatial Arranges main ideas according to place or position. A speech might begin with the aspects of the topic that are nearest and then proceed to the aspects that are farther away. 
Chronological The passage of time is the organizing principle in this approach. The units of time (most often the past, present, and future) become the main ideas. 
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Categorical Each main idea that you identified in analyzing your topic becomes a major division for your speech. 
Cause-Effect An action or event will produce a certain response to the action in the form of another event 
Problem-Solution A speech using this pattern first lays out the dimensions of the problem and shows why it is serious; then it considers one or more potential solutions. 
Residue Arranging a speech by process of elimination. This pattern works well when there are a finite number of possibilities, none particularly desirable, and you want to argue that one of them represents "the least among the evils"
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Introduction The beginning of the speech, which affects listeners' first impressions of the speaker and prepares them for the speech. 
Purposes of Introduction 1) To gain the attention and interest of your audience
2) To influence the audience to view you and your topic favorably
3) To clarify the purpose or thesis of your speech
4) To preview the development of your topic
Conclusion The closing of the speech, which draws together what the speaker has said and indicates what the audience should believe or do in response to the speech. 
Coherence the main ideas of an outline should "hang together"
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Transitionse Because a speaker must provide connection  to bridge the gap between elements in a speech, it is important to include.....
Discretion Each main idea in an outline should address a separate idea so that the information does not overlap
Main Idea Claims that the address that issues in the thesis statement of the speech 
Subordination Designating the supporting materials for a main idea with the subordinate symbol and indentation system in an outline- for example, supporting materials, indicated by capital letters, indented under their main idea, indicated by Roman numerals
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Coordination Designating all ideas that are on the same level of importance with the same symbol series and level of indentation in an outline 
Discreteness Each element of the outline should express only one idea, so that you do not mix together themes that should be developed separately. 
Informative Strategies Approaches to preparing a speech in which the overall goal is to share ideas with the audience. They rely on the metaphor of the speaker as teacher and the speech as a lesson. The speaker is expected to be clear, accurate, and interesting. 
Agenda Setting Creating awareness about a subject that listeners did not know about or think about before. 
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Defining A strategy to clarify a term or concept that is vague or troublesome, or to introduce a new way of viewing the subject. 
Reporting A strategy to relate what happened with little analysis or interpretation 
Describing A strategy in which a cumulation of details characterizes, or evokes a mental image of, the subject. 
Explaining Beyond simply defining a term or making an idea precise, speakers sometimes want to share with the audience a deeper understanding of events, people, policies, or processes. This is done through explanation, which goes beyond reporting to consider different views of what happened, to ask how or why it happened, or to speculate about what it means or implies. 
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Demonstrating Used to describe/ show a seemingly mysterious or complicated procedure as a series of fairly simple steps are performed in particular order. OFten helps create a more positive feeling for listeners. 
Comparing The final informative strategy. Which seeks to clarify for listeners the similarities and differences between the items compared. It can be used to make things seem more similar than the audience had imagined
The Thesis and Main Points In preparing a full sentence outline, Lessl suggest one begins with:
A specific situation Public speaking occurs in response to
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Comparing The informative speech strategy is:
Selecting a Topic Conducting a personal inventory is a strategy for:
Values and beliefs that listeners in general presume to be true Common knowledge is type of supportive material that relies on: 
Hypothetical Which type of example asks the audience to imagine a situation that isn't true: 
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Simplicity Which of the following characteristic refers to the idea that the main points should be stated in single short sentences:
Signaling that the end is near Which element of the speech conclusion functions to tell the audience that the speech is coming to a close: 
2 Invaluable skills 1) Strategic planning
2) Critical thinking 
two advantages of a full sentence outline are: Ensures the speech is carefully organized and helps you to remember the basic organizational structure 
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 Rhetorical SituationA situation in which people's understanding can be changed through messages.

Audience, speaker, occasion, speech
 OccasionThe place and event where a speech is given. It may be a community meeting, a classroom speech, a business presentation, a local fundraising reception, etc.

 
 CeremonialSpeaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise 

Example: presenting or accepting an award, introducing someone, delivery a eulogy, or commemorating an event
 DeliberativeSpeaking that focuses on the future and is usually concerned with what should be done

EX: Making an oral report, delivering a sales presentation, advocating a policy, refuting another person's argument.
 ForensicSpeaking that focuses on the past and is usually concerned with justice. 

EX: Used in courts of law
 ExigenceA problem that cannot be avoided but that can be solved, or at least managed, through the development of an appropriate message.
 StrategyA plan of action that will respond to the constraints and take advantage of the opportunities. 
 InformingProvides listeners with new information or ideas
 PersuadingInfluences listeners' attitudes and behavior (either to strengthen existing beliefs or to support new ones)
 EntertainingStimulates a sense of community by celebrating common bonds among speaker and listeners 
 5 Major Headings of Public Speaking Study1) Invention
2) Arrangement
3) Style
4) Delivery
5) Memory
 InventionThe generation of materials for a speech. You produce these materials through a combination of analysis, research, and judgement.
 ArrangementThe structuring of materials within the main ideas, the organization of main ideas within the body of the speech, and the overall structure of introduction, body, and conclusion
 StyleThe distinctive character that may make a speech recognizable or memorable. This is achieved primarily through language, and it reflects the speaker's awareness of how language can be used both to "show" and to "tell"-both to evoke and to convey descriptive meaning. 
 DeliveryThe presentation of the speech to an audience. Effective by use of voice, gesture, facial expression, physical movement, and visual aids. 
 MemoryMental recall of the key ideas and the basic structure of the speech. 
 EthosThe speaker's character as perceived by the audience 
 ExtemporaneousA mode of presentation in which the main ideas and structure have been worked out in advance but specific wording has not been developed.
 Preparation OutlineAn outline used in developing a speech; main ideas and supporting material are usually set forth in complete sentences. 
 Presentation OutlineAn outline used while presenting a speech; typically consists of key words written on an index card. You will use this during the actual speech. 
 IntroductionThe beginning of the speech designed to get the audience's attention, to state the thesis, and to preview the development of the speech.
 BodyThe largest portion of the speech; includes the development of supporting materials to prove the thesis and any subsidiary claims. 
 ConclusionThe ending of the speech draws together the main ideas and provides a note of finality
 Supporting MaterialsAll forms of evidence that lend weight to the truth of a claim. 

Examples: Experience, narratives (stories), data, opinions
 ThesisThe main idea of the speech, usually stated in one or two sentences. 
 Organizational Problems1) Absent or inadequate thesis
2) Weak introduction
3) Faulty development
 Support Problems1) Insufficient support
2) Irrelevant support
3) Gratuitous visual aids
4) Inadequate definitions 
 TopicThe subject area of the speech 
 Appropriateness of ScopeA speaker has to cover the topic to an appropriate degree within the time available. A topic that includes a very large number of points can be covered only superficially. Similarly, a very narrow topic that can be covered in a very short amount of time should also be avoided.
 Appropriateness of Oral DeliverySometimes, a topic can be developed better in an essay than a speech. Because readers proceed at their own pace, they can reread any passage that is difficult to understand. But a speech is delivered in real time and at the same pace to all listeners, some of whom will not be able to recall it after delivery. Still, if a speaker's main ideas and examples are panned carefully and presented clearly, even technical and complex topics can be understood by a nonspecialist audience. 
 BrainstormingA mental free-association exercise in which one identifies, without evaluation, the first thoughts that come to mind when one is presented with a given term or category.

Similar to conducting a personal inventory 
 General Purpose StatementStatement of the overall goal of the speech: providing new information or perspective, agenda setting, creating positive or negative feeling, strengthening commitment, weakening commitment, conversation, or inducing a specific action
 Specific Purpose StatementStatement of the particular outcome sought from the audience: a more specific version of a general purpose 
 ThesisThe central idea or claim made by the speech, usually stated in a single sentence. 
 Narrowing the TopicMeans sharpening your focus so you concentrate on only some part of a broad topic. It is like pouring the topic through a funnel: What goes into the large end is too much to mange, but what comes out the small end can be focused effectively. 
 Common KnowledgeThe beliefs and values that members of a society or culture generally share. 
 PresumptionThe assumption that a statement or claim is true until shown otherwise. 
 Direct ObservationThe heart of the scientific method. Usually results from a deliberate decision to gather evidence that might support your point, but occasionally it is powerful because you saw something by accident-such as the act of a crime- while you were doing something else

When a speaker uses supportive material that is directly seen or heard
 Brief ExampleNot developing your examples used in detail; 
 Hypothetical ExampleYou ask listeners to imagine themselves in a particular situation.

Example: "Suppose that year after year you spent more money than you took in. What would you have to do about that?"
 DocumentPrimary sources that can establish a claim directly, without opinion or speculation.
 StatisticsNumbers recording the extent of something or the frequency with which it occurs. 
 TestimonyInformation or an opinion expressed by someone other than the speaker. 
  
 PeriodicalsPublished at regular intervals-usually weekly, monthly, or quarterly- and have the advantage of being more up-to-date than books.
 OrganizationThe selection of ideas and materials and their arrangement into a discernible and effective pattern. 
 SpatialArranges main ideas according to place or position. A speech might begin with the aspects of the topic that are nearest and then proceed to the aspects that are farther away. 
 ChronologicalThe passage of time is the organizing principle in this approach. The units of time (most often the past, present, and future) become the main ideas. 
 CategoricalEach main idea that you identified in analyzing your topic becomes a major division for your speech. 
 Cause-EffectAn action or event will produce a certain response to the action in the form of another event 
 Problem-SolutionA speech using this pattern first lays out the dimensions of the problem and shows why it is serious; then it considers one or more potential solutions. 
 ResidueArranging a speech by process of elimination. This pattern works well when there are a finite number of possibilities, none particularly desirable, and you want to argue that one of them represents "the least among the evils"
 IntroductionThe beginning of the speech, which affects listeners' first impressions of the speaker and prepares them for the speech. 
 Purposes of Introduction1) To gain the attention and interest of your audience
2) To influence the audience to view you and your topic favorably
3) To clarify the purpose or thesis of your speech
4) To preview the development of your topic
 ConclusionThe closing of the speech, which draws together what the speaker has said and indicates what the audience should believe or do in response to the speech. 
 Coherencethe main ideas of an outline should "hang together"
 TransitionseBecause a speaker must provide connection  to bridge the gap between elements in a speech, it is important to include.....
 DiscretionEach main idea in an outline should address a separate idea so that the information does not overlap
 Main IdeaClaims that the address that issues in the thesis statement of the speech 
 SubordinationDesignating the supporting materials for a main idea with the subordinate symbol and indentation system in an outline- for example, supporting materials, indicated by capital letters, indented under their main idea, indicated by Roman numerals
 CoordinationDesignating all ideas that are on the same level of importance with the same symbol series and level of indentation in an outline 
 DiscretenessEach element of the outline should express only one idea, so that you do not mix together themes that should be developed separately. 
 Informative StrategiesApproaches to preparing a speech in which the overall goal is to share ideas with the audience. They rely on the metaphor of the speaker as teacher and the speech as a lesson. The speaker is expected to be clear, accurate, and interesting. 
 Agenda SettingCreating awareness about a subject that listeners did not know about or think about before. 
 DefiningA strategy to clarify a term or concept that is vague or troublesome, or to introduce a new way of viewing the subject. 
 ReportingA strategy to relate what happened with little analysis or interpretation 
 DescribingA strategy in which a cumulation of details characterizes, or evokes a mental image of, the subject. 
 ExplainingBeyond simply defining a term or making an idea precise, speakers sometimes want to share with the audience a deeper understanding of events, people, policies, or processes. This is done through explanation, which goes beyond reporting to consider different views of what happened, to ask how or why it happened, or to speculate about what it means or implies. 
 DemonstratingUsed to describe/ show a seemingly mysterious or complicated procedure as a series of fairly simple steps are performed in particular order. OFten helps create a more positive feeling for listeners. 
 ComparingThe final informative strategy. Which seeks to clarify for listeners the similarities and differences between the items compared. It can be used to make things seem more similar than the audience had imagined
 The Thesis and Main PointsIn preparing a full sentence outline, Lessl suggest one begins with:
 A specific situationPublic speaking occurs in response to
 ComparingThe informative speech strategy is:
 Selecting a TopicConducting a personal inventory is a strategy for:
 Values and beliefs that listeners in general presume to be trueCommon knowledge is type of supportive material that relies on: 
 HypotheticalWhich type of example asks the audience to imagine a situation that isn't true: 
 SimplicityWhich of the following characteristic refers to the idea that the main points should be stated in single short sentences:
 Signaling that the end is nearWhich element of the speech conclusion functions to tell the audience that the speech is coming to a close: 
 2 Invaluable skills1) Strategic planning
2) Critical thinking 
 two advantages of a full sentence outline are:Ensures the speech is carefully organized and helps you to remember the basic organizational structure 
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