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Final exam - Flashcards

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Class:CONE 2300 - Construction Materials and Blueprint Reading
Subject:Construction Engineering
University:Texas Tech University
Term:Fall 2014
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What are the 3 components of concrete?
  1. Sand
  2. Cement
  3. Water
What are the 6 benefits of concrete?
  • High workability
  • Economic
  • recyclable
  • High strength 
  • Non-combustible
  • Durable
What is the manufacturing process of portland cement?
  1. Selected elements crushed, ground, proportioned, and blended
  2. Burned in a rotating kiln @ 2600-3000 degrees to make CLINKER
  3. After cooling, GYPSUM is added
  4. Clinker is made into powder
Type I Cement Normal portland cement.

General purpose
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Type II Cement Moderate-sulfate-resistant and low-heat-of-hydration portland cement
Type III Cement High early strength

Used when high strength is desired at very early periods

EX: Cold regions
Type IV Cement Low heat of hydration

Heat generation must be kept to a minimum
Type V Cement High resistance to sulfate attach

Used where water has a high concentration of sulfate

EX: Bridges
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Type IA, IIA, IIIA Cement Used to make air-entrained concrete
Air-entrained Cement Added ingredients to cause air bubbles in the concrete

Improves workability

Relieves pressure during freezing

EX: Pavement & exposed concrete in cold regions
Size Gradation Coarse and fine aggregates uniformly graded and properly proportioned
Fine Aggregate Generally sand

95% passes through a #4 sieve
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Coarse Aggregates 95% retained on a #4 sieve

Crushed stone or gravel

What is the strength of normal-weight concrete? 130-155 (pcf)
What is the strength of lightweight concrete? 85-115 (pcf)
Which concrete costs more? (light or normal weight) Lightweight
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What is a benefit of using lightweight concrete? Lighter structure by reducing dead loads
What are admixtures? Ingredients added to enhance the properties of concrete
Air-entraining Admixtures Increases workability, and reduces freeze-thaw damage

Lightweight, non-structural
Water-reducing Admixtures (Plasticizers) Allows a reduction in water needed while retaining the same workability

higher-strength concrete
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Fly Ash A waste product from coal-fired power plants

Fills voids in portland cement

Increases: strength, sulfate resistance

Decreases: permeability, temp during curing, water needed
Silica Fume (Microsilica) Waste product from silicon industry

100x finer than portland cement

Extremely high strength with low permeability
High-Strength Concrete Used for high-rise buildings

Compressive Strength > 6000 psi

Admixtures used:
  • Water reducing mixtures
  • High-range water reducers
  • Fly ash
  • Silica fume
What is the formula for water-cement ratio? R = W/C

Ratio = Water/Cement
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What is the feeding order for mass produced concrete?
  1. Water
  2. Aggregates
  3. Portland cement
What is the volume of a ready-mix truck? 10-13 cubic yards
What does a slump test measure? Workability of concrete

What equipment is needed to perform a slump test?
  • Fresh concrete
  • Trunicated Cone
  • Rod
  • Measuring stick
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What are the 4 steps in doing a slump test?
  1. Hollow metal cone filled with concrete (3, 4 inch layers)
  2. Each layer tamped with the rod (25 times)
  3. Cone lifted off slowly after striking off the top concrete
  4. Slump measured in inches
What is a slump? Distance from top of concrete to tamping rod
What are the test procedures to test the compressive strength of concrete?
  1. Concrete cylinders cast at job site and kept for 24 hours. (covered with plastic)
  2. Transported to lab and placed in moist chamber
  3. Removed from chamber after 28 days
  4. Crushed to determine strength
What is the definition of curing concrete through hydration? Chemical process in which elements from cement combine with water to form solid crystals
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Concrete becomes hard and strong through the process of _____? Hydration
Compressive Stress When a compressive force is being exerted on something
Tensile Stress When a pulling or tensile force is applied to something
Intensity of stress formula? F = P/A

PSI = Force/Area
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What is strain? A deformation caused by stress.

  • Changes the length of the member
  • Tensile stress causes elongation
  • Compressive stress causes shortening
Formula for Strain? Change in length/Original length

(NO UNIT)
3 reasons to choose steel over concrete?
  1. Steel is protected from corrosion
  2. Concrete bonds strongly to steel
  3. Change dimensions at the same rate in response to temp
Simple beam reinforcement Bottom bar
Top bar
Stirrups
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Concrete cover Rebar fully embedded & protects from fire & corrosion
Chairs Individual parts

Bolster Continuous long chairs
What are the purposes of chairs and bolsters? To support steel while maintaining a concrete cover
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What materials is concrete formwork made from? Wood, Metal, or plastic
Formwork is a temporary structure that supports?
  • It's own weight
  • Steel Rebar
  • Freshly placed concrete
  • Live loads
What is form surface coating? Called form release compound

Prevents adhesion of concrete to the form
What are the 3 functions of mortar?
  1. Seals gaps between bricks for weatherproofing
  2. Adhering bricks to form a wall
  3. Improving appearance of the wall
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What are the components of mortar? Portland cement, hydrated lime, sand, water
What is the mortar proportion specs? Sand between 2.25-3 times the amount of cementitious compounds.


Volume of sand/Volume of PCL = 2.25-3
What are the 4 types of mortar? M, S, N, O
Portland cement ^^ Mortar strength ^^
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Lime ^^ Mortar Strength vv

Workability ^^
Type S Mortar Commonly recommended for exterior walls
Type M Mortar Strongest mortar
Type O Mortar Weakest Mortar
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What is the mortar area in a typical wall? 20% Mortar
80% Brick
What is the manufacturing process for bricks?
  1. Raw materials are dug up, crushed, ground, and screened.
  2. Materials are tempered w/ water to make homogeneous mix.
  3. Brick forming using soft or stiff mud process
  4. Brick setting (kiln cars)
  5. Bricks dried for 1-2 days
  6. Firing (burning) of bricks
  7. Cooling bricks
Soft Mud Process 20-30% water
Stiff Mud Process Most widely used method

12-15% water
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What are the 3 dimensions of masonry units? Specified
Actual
Nominal
Specified Dimensions Dimension the specifier has requested
Actual Dimension Dimension after manufacturing
Nominal Dimensions Specified dimension plus one mortar joint thickness

MJT: 3/8 in
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 What are the 3 components of concrete?
  1. Sand
  2. Cement
  3. Water
 What are the 6 benefits of concrete?
  • High workability
  • Economic
  • recyclable
  • High strength 
  • Non-combustible
  • Durable
 What is the manufacturing process of portland cement?
  1. Selected elements crushed, ground, proportioned, and blended
  2. Burned in a rotating kiln @ 2600-3000 degrees to make CLINKER
  3. After cooling, GYPSUM is added
  4. Clinker is made into powder
 Type I CementNormal portland cement.

General purpose
 Type II CementModerate-sulfate-resistant and low-heat-of-hydration portland cement
 Type III CementHigh early strength

Used when high strength is desired at very early periods

EX: Cold regions
 Type IV CementLow heat of hydration

Heat generation must be kept to a minimum
 Type V CementHigh resistance to sulfate attach

Used where water has a high concentration of sulfate

EX: Bridges
 Type IA, IIA, IIIA CementUsed to make air-entrained concrete
 Air-entrained CementAdded ingredients to cause air bubbles in the concrete

Improves workability

Relieves pressure during freezing

EX: Pavement & exposed concrete in cold regions
 Size GradationCoarse and fine aggregates uniformly graded and properly proportioned
 Fine AggregateGenerally sand

95% passes through a #4 sieve
 Coarse Aggregates95% retained on a #4 sieve

Crushed stone or gravel

 What is the strength of normal-weight concrete?130-155 (pcf)
 What is the strength of lightweight concrete?85-115 (pcf)
 Which concrete costs more? (light or normal weight)Lightweight
 What is a benefit of using lightweight concrete?Lighter structure by reducing dead loads
 What are admixtures?Ingredients added to enhance the properties of concrete
 Air-entraining AdmixturesIncreases workability, and reduces freeze-thaw damage

Lightweight, non-structural
 Water-reducing Admixtures (Plasticizers)Allows a reduction in water needed while retaining the same workability

higher-strength concrete
 Fly AshA waste product from coal-fired power plants

Fills voids in portland cement

Increases: strength, sulfate resistance

Decreases: permeability, temp during curing, water needed
 Silica Fume (Microsilica)Waste product from silicon industry

100x finer than portland cement

Extremely high strength with low permeability
 High-Strength ConcreteUsed for high-rise buildings

Compressive Strength > 6000 psi

Admixtures used:
  • Water reducing mixtures
  • High-range water reducers
  • Fly ash
  • Silica fume
 What is the formula for water-cement ratio?R = W/C

Ratio = Water/Cement
 What is the feeding order for mass produced concrete?
  1. Water
  2. Aggregates
  3. Portland cement
 What is the volume of a ready-mix truck?10-13 cubic yards
 What does a slump test measure?Workability of concrete

 What equipment is needed to perform a slump test?
  • Fresh concrete
  • Trunicated Cone
  • Rod
  • Measuring stick
 What are the 4 steps in doing a slump test?
  1. Hollow metal cone filled with concrete (3, 4 inch layers)
  2. Each layer tamped with the rod (25 times)
  3. Cone lifted off slowly after striking off the top concrete
  4. Slump measured in inches
 What is a slump?Distance from top of concrete to tamping rod
 What are the test procedures to test the compressive strength of concrete?
  1. Concrete cylinders cast at job site and kept for 24 hours. (covered with plastic)
  2. Transported to lab and placed in moist chamber
  3. Removed from chamber after 28 days
  4. Crushed to determine strength
 What is the definition of curing concrete through hydration?Chemical process in which elements from cement combine with water to form solid crystals
 Concrete becomes hard and strong through the process of _____?Hydration
 Compressive StressWhen a compressive force is being exerted on something
 Tensile StressWhen a pulling or tensile force is applied to something
 Intensity of stress formula?F = P/A

PSI = Force/Area
 What is strain?A deformation caused by stress.

  • Changes the length of the member
  • Tensile stress causes elongation
  • Compressive stress causes shortening
 Formula for Strain?Change in length/Original length

(NO UNIT)
 3 reasons to choose steel over concrete?
  1. Steel is protected from corrosion
  2. Concrete bonds strongly to steel
  3. Change dimensions at the same rate in response to temp
 Simple beam reinforcementBottom bar
Top bar
Stirrups
 Concrete coverRebar fully embedded & protects from fire & corrosion
 ChairsIndividual parts

 BolsterContinuous long chairs
 What are the purposes of chairs and bolsters?To support steel while maintaining a concrete cover
 What materials is concrete formwork made from?Wood, Metal, or plastic
 Formwork is a temporary structure that supports?
  • It's own weight
  • Steel Rebar
  • Freshly placed concrete
  • Live loads
 What is form surface coating?Called form release compound

Prevents adhesion of concrete to the form
 What are the 3 functions of mortar?
  1. Seals gaps between bricks for weatherproofing
  2. Adhering bricks to form a wall
  3. Improving appearance of the wall
 What are the components of mortar?Portland cement, hydrated lime, sand, water
 What is the mortar proportion specs?Sand between 2.25-3 times the amount of cementitious compounds.


Volume of sand/Volume of PCL = 2.25-3
 What are the 4 types of mortar?M, S, N, O
 Portland cement ^^Mortar strength ^^
 Lime ^^Mortar Strength vv

Workability ^^
 Type S MortarCommonly recommended for exterior walls
 Type M MortarStrongest mortar
 Type O MortarWeakest Mortar
 What is the mortar area in a typical wall?20% Mortar
80% Brick
 What is the manufacturing process for bricks?
  1. Raw materials are dug up, crushed, ground, and screened.
  2. Materials are tempered w/ water to make homogeneous mix.
  3. Brick forming using soft or stiff mud process
  4. Brick setting (kiln cars)
  5. Bricks dried for 1-2 days
  6. Firing (burning) of bricks
  7. Cooling bricks
 Soft Mud Process20-30% water
 Stiff Mud ProcessMost widely used method

12-15% water
 What are the 3 dimensions of masonry units?Specified
Actual
Nominal
 Specified DimensionsDimension the specifier has requested
 Actual DimensionDimension after manufacturing
 Nominal DimensionsSpecified dimension plus one mortar joint thickness

MJT: 3/8 in
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