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Dance 45 Final - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:DANCE 45 - HIST & APPREC DANCE
Subject:Dance
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2011
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Tsar
  • Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers.
  • he loved ballet & funded it --> they all served him & always showed respect
  • ballet was entirely dependent in Imperial Russian ballet
  • on him ballet was under control of a court member appointed by and answerable to Tsar
Jean Baptiste Lande
  • Jean-Baptiste Lande (died 26 February 1748) was a French ballet dancer, active in Sweden, Denmark and Russia.
  • French dancing master
  • Opened ballet school at Winter Palace (12 girls, 12 boys)
St. Petersburg [to Leningrad, to St. Petersburg]
  • capital was changed to Leningrad after the Russian Revolution, then changed back to St. Petersburg after the fall of the Soviet Union
Maryinsky Theater to Kirov Theater
  • now Kirov Theater
  • ballet in St. Petersburg, Russia
  • academic & classical
  • name changed after the Russian Revolution
  • premiered Tchaikovsky
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Moscow, Bolshoi Theater
  • in Moscow
  • very flamboyant & expressive (opposite of Kirov Theater)
Charles Didelot
  • French dancer and choreographer.
  • most important figure in Russia
  • improved repertory & teaching raises standards
  • 20 ballets
Marius Petipa
  • French ballet dancer, teacher, and choreographer.
  • staged revivals of ballets
  • principal assistant to Arthur St. Leon
  • concocted Pharaoh's Daughter in six weeks
  • created Don Quixote & La Bayadere
  • chief ballet master in 1970 for 30 years (40 ballets)
  • pleased the Tsar
  • classical ballet choreographer
    - The Nutcracker
    - Sleeping Beauty

  • 4 styles of movement
Daughter of the Pharoah, 1861
  • Inspired by Gautier's novel "The Story of the Mummy"
  • Very complicated, spectacular, successful ballet
  • English Lord in sand storm goes into tomb & gets put into an opium dream where he becomes Tahor & saves Aspica from a lion --> Aspica is the daughter
  • Aspica falls in love with Tahor even though she's already engaged to a king, jumps into the Nile river where the spirits come entertain her, returns to land to get permission to marry Tahor but then he wakes up from his opium dream
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Divertissement
  • a plot structure of Petipa
  • random “fluff” dancing that adds nothing to the plot
  • During the 17th and 18th century, the term implied incidental aspects of an entertainment (usually involving singing and dancing) that might be inserted in an opera or ballet or other stage performance.

Grand Pas de Deux
  • French for "big dance for two"
  • usually consists:
    - Entrée
    - Adagio duet
    - Male solo
    - Female solo
    - Coda
    (plot structure of Petipa)
Entrée
  • beginning of the Grand Pas de Deux
  • typically a short number which serves as an introduction for the suite
  • can also mean a number in which the lead character or characters of a ballet make their initial appearance on stage
Adagio duet
  • Slow and sustained
  • In ballet, it means slow, enfolding movements
  • Typically the outward movement of the Grand Pas where the female dancer is partnered by the lead male dancer and/or one or more suitors.
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Male solo Big jumps and leaps to show off the Male lead & let Female rest
Female solo Pointe work, small and fast movement to show off Female while Male rests
Coda Flashy finale of Grand Pas de Deux with partner work
4 Styles of movement:
  • Petipa's styles of movements 
  • Classical
  • Character
  • Demi character
  • Mime
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Classical
  •  Hero - Petipa style of movement
Character
  •  Folk - Petipa style of movement
Demi
  • Character
  • lively, faster, young adults
  • danced by peasants and regular people
  • costume allows for more movement
  • Petipa style of movement
Mime
  • codified (everyone would know) - Petipa style of movement
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Children on stage
  • Plot structure of Petipa
  • Wanted children on stage to breed future ballerinas
  • Petipa always had children on stage
The Sleeping Beauty, 1890
  • Written by Marius Petipa gave details to 
  • choreographer - Tchaikovsky
  • End of Act I - Rose Adagio (famous part & very difficult to perform, Aurora partnered with 4 men, must balance on point & change partners) 
  • Act II - Prince & Aurora find each other
  • Act III - Prince & Aurora's wedding, Divertissement, Grand Pas A Deux (Bluebirds Pas De Deux)
Tchaikovsky
  • Composed music for:
    - Sleeping Beauty
    - Swan Lake
    - Nutcracker 
  • Given very detailed instructions by Petipa
  • And several of his other works
Rose Adagio
  • Centrepiece of Petipa's The Sleeping Beauty
  • Princess Aurora is presented to her four suitors in Act I
  • Aurora has to balance unsupported on one leg and on pointe between taking each of her Princes' hands

  • Four princes to court Aurora
  • She is en pointe while the princes switch in
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The Nutcracker, 1892
  • Music by Tchaikovsky 
  • Choreographed by Petipa
  • Was not successful at the time it came out
  • No trace of sensible dramatic action
Ivanov
  • Petipa's assistant that takes over
  • Choreographs Snowflakes Act I of the Nutcracker
  • Dies in 1901
  • Didn't produce anything more of importance except Swan Lake
Tchaikovsky, dies 1893
  • Right before Swan Lake came out
  • Petipa & Ivanov choreographed the ballet
  • Swan Lake dedicated to his memory on February 17, 1894
Swan Lake, 1895
  • choreographed by Petipa & Ivanov
  • Because death of Tchaikovsky Ivanov was allowed to choreograph with music
  • Odette (under a spell) & Odile look alike
  • Prince Siegfried (Odette saves other swans & tells him her tale)
  • his mother throws a ball for him to find a wife
  • Odile shows up as Odette & Prince commits his love to her
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Black Swan Pas de Deux
  • Odile looks like Odette, but is the daughter of the sorcerer, and she dances with Siegfried when Odette was supposed to 
  • 3rd scene from Swan Lake by Marius Petipa
  • Music by Tchaikovsky
  • Scene where Odile shows up to the ball & dances with Prince Siegfried
  • Very famous dance
Petipa Acts I and III
  • Choreographed Acts I and II of Swan Lake
Ivanov Acts II and IV
  • Choreographed Acts II and IV of Swan Lake
Odette/Odile
  • Swan lake characters
  • Odette: princess turned into Swan by evil sorseror (Odile)
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Prince Siegfried Prince in Swan Lake
Russian Revolution 1917
  • Ballet had been for the Czar, but overthrew him
  • Ballet russe could not go back to Russia
  • Russian stars not allowed to leave Russia
  • Ballet russe is pre-revolution time
  • Time of change in Russia --> Communists come to power
  • Leningard went back to the name St. Petersburg
  • Ballet russe became a separate company & could not go back to Russia (were not allowed in country or else they coulnd't leave until the Soviet Union fell) 
Anna Pavlova
  • Famous ballerina
  • Own company
  • Toured around world
  • Famous for portraying birds, insects, plants
  • Brought ballet (aristocratic art) to common person (high schools, etc)
  • Was in Ballet Russe
The Dying Swan, 1905
  • Choreographed by Fokine in 1905 for Anna Pavlova
  • Composer was Camille Saint Saenz
  • Two minute solo (her dying), very expressive, on pointe the entire time
  • Torso=non classical
  • No pantomime
  • Movement was expressive enough
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Ballet Russes
  • ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev
  • Brought ballet into the 20th century
  • Members originated from Tsar's Imperial
  • Took stars (Nijinsky) from imperial Russian ballet to france during summer vacation (1909)
  • Broke tradition
    - Revolutionary dancers came out of this company
    - Women’s movements
    - Avant-garde art form
Diaghilev
  • Russian impresario/Creative director of Ballet russe
  • Brought ballet to Paris
  • responsible for collaboration of great composers: Stravinski & Debussy
  • Artists: Bakst, Benois & Picasso, Matisse, Cocteau
  • Designer: Coco Chanel 
  • Launched careers of 5 great choreographers: Fakine, Nijinsky, Massine, Nijinska, Balanchine
  • always encouraged new & different - movement in modern art
Leon Bakst
  • Visual artist/costume & set designer who did much of the scenery for Ballet Russe, 
  • Set (stage) design of "Schenhevazade"
  • Designed costumes and set of "Afternoon of a Faune"
  • Worked with Diaghilev's productions
Pablo Picasso
  • Avant-garde artist
  • Artist who worked with the Ballet Russes
  • Worked with Diaghilev to make sets and costumes
  • Did sets and costumes for Massine's two major plays: "Parade" 1917 and "Three Cornered Hat" 1919

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Fokine
  • First major Russian choreographer/dancer of the Ballet Russe (Le Spectre de la Rose)
  • Reformed Russian Ballet
    Moved from classical ballet to Ballet russe
  • Choreographed "Dying Swan" 1905 for Anna Povlova (2 minutes long)
  • Accused of being influenced by Isadora Duncan
  • Teacher & choreographer rather than a refined dancer
Fokine’s 5 major principles
  • Published in London Times 1914
  • Want to make "ballet a fully expressive art that mirrored life"
  • New movement for each dance
  • No mime (Petipa used so that the audience always understood)
  • Use entire body (to be expressive)
  • No divertissement (no "fluff")
  • Unity amongst the art
Les Sylphides
  • Choreographed by Fokine 1909, earned him success while he was a choreographer in Paris
  • no plot line, expressive
  • an abstract ballet
  • Music by Chopin.
Scheherazade, 1910
  • Fokine 1910
  • Nijinsky dances as a golden slave
  • Arabian night tale about martial infidelity, 
  • He is favored slave, dances with chief's wifekilled by the sultan, wife kills herself.
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Cleopatre, 1909
  • Fokine 1909
  • danced by Ida Rubienstein
  • example of narrative adult theme (typical Fokine) wears see-through outfit
  • will have sex with commoner if he is killed the next morning (says yes)
Petrouchka, 1911 NOT SURE YET!
  • choreographed by Fokine. Music by Stavinsky, idea comes from Stravinsky. 
  • Fokine - starred Nijinsky - about a sad puppet who wanted his soul to come to life - belonged to evil sorcerer
  • Fokine 1911, dramatic element, not an emphasis on technique (for techniques sake) Najinsky’s feet turned in. 3 puppets: same choreography stylized three different ways to convey character and emotion, music by Stravinsky, narrative designed in response to musical
Le Spectre de la Rose, 1911
  • Choreographed by Fokine
  • Starred Nijinsky
  • Ballet based on poem by Gautier
  • Debutante falls asleep after her first ball, she dreams of dancing w/ the rose that she had been holding in her hand, her dream ends when the rose escapes through the window
Nijinsky
  • greatest male ballet dancer of 20th century
  • premier danseur
  • Was the star of Le Spectre de la Rose
  • famous for leaping
  • had a short career because he was dismissed by Diaghilev when he married a girl (even though he was his best dancer & chief choreographer) and the he was overcome by Schizophrenia
  • jeux, rite of spring
 
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Schizophrenia
  • Nijinsky became ill will this when he was 29, ends his career as a ballet dancer
  • Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness.
Afternoon of a Faune, 1912
  • 1st ballet choreographed by Nijinsky for Ballet Russe
  • wanted a dance whose meaning was contained in the movement itself. 
  • Faune is half man half animal inspiration = ancient friezes
  • two-dimensional appearance (profile) portrayal of masturbation à Freud & natural human sexuality
  • he danced main part himself
  • music by Debussy
Debussy
  • composer for Diaghilev & Nijinsky
  • composer of Afternoon of a Faune and Jeux
  • wrote a poem about Afternoon of a Faun
Jeux, 1913
  • Created/choreographed by Nijinsky based off of suggestion by wife, tennis match. Dance as a sexual metaphor and a flirtatious game
  • About a trio (2 women, 1 man) - relief sexual tension through tennis
  • "Games" last work for Debussy
  • Choreographed for Ballet Russe by Nijinsky

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Rite of Spring, 1913
  • Choreographed by Nijinsky
  • composer Stravinsky
  • About rite of prehistoric tribe; sacrificing a virgin having her dance herself to death, very scandalous at the time, feet turned in rigid arms
Stravinsky
  • Russian composer for Ballet russes
  • Composed for Diaghilev
  • Wrote the music for Rite of Spring
  • Worked with the Ballet Russe and Ballanchine
  • Composed Petrouchika
Rudolph Nureyev
  • Danced for Joffrey Ballet - Tatar ballet dancer
  • Regarded as one of the greatest male dancers alongside Nijinsky and Baryshnikov
  • Recreated Petrouchka
  • Performed in "Afternoon of a Faune"
  • soloist in Kurov ballet
  • Died of AIDs
Defected from Russia
  • Dancers defected from Russia to escape Soviet Union in the 1960s through dance
  • Companies from the Soviet Union would travel with secret police to make sure they would come home from traveling
  • Sneak away while traveling
  • escaped at Paris airport
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Political Asylum
  • an ancient juridical notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times)

  • When someone defected from Russia, they had to ask for politcal asylum from the other country so they could stay there. Only granted if you can prove the country you come from is denying your freedom
Robert Joffrey
  • American dancer, teacher, producer, choreographer
  • Formed company: Joffrey Ballet
  • Reconstructed pieces of ballet russes in America
  • Recreated Petrouchka
  • Died of AIDS
Joffrey Ballet
  • Headed by Robert Joffrey
  • Did reconstruction of Nijinsky's choreography
  • Performed Digalehiv and Nuryev ballets
Massine
  • Russian choreographer and ballet dancer
  • Choreographed Parade & Three-Cornered Hat
  • known for symphonic ballet, comedy satire, character dancing, and color
  • He studied at the Bolshoi Theatre
  • Choreographed at Ballet Russe

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Parade, 1917
  • Choreographed by Massine
  • Costumes and sets designed by Picasso
  • vivid elements of cubism
Three-Cornered Hat, 1919
  • Choreographed by Massine
  • set designed by Picasso - aesthetic unity
  • one of his story ballets - parable about freedom
Nijinska

leading dancer & choreo for Diaghilev, went w/ him to Paris, sister of Njinsky, studied at St. Petersburg School, invented new dance movement
Sleeping Beauty, 1921
  • unsuccessful revival 
  • Ballet Russes lose money
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Les Noces, 1923
  • created by Nijinska in 1923
  • the most striking of her major works
Le Train Bleu, 1924
  • created by Nijinska in 1924
  • spoof on Persians trying to be like Americans
  • spoof on Prince of Wales and Suzanne Linglor
  • Coco Chanel designed costumes
Anton Dolin
  • British star
  • acrobatic
  • sports movement
Coca Chanel designed for Diaghilev during the Ballet Russes
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Prince of Wales
  • Le Train Bleu was a spoof on him because he wiggled when he golfed
Suzanne Linglor
  • Le Train Bleu was a spoof on her, tennis player
Milhaud Made music for Le Train Bleu
George Balanchine
  • Greatest influence on ballet in America
  • Went to Imperial School of Ballet in 1914
  • many opposed his work for being sexual
  • left Russia for a tour of Germany with a group known as the Soviet State Dancers
  • was the ballet master when he replaced Nijinska
  • created Apollo and The Prodigal Son, has a knee injury in 1927
  • established NYCB, did modern, broke myth that blacks can't do ballet, neo-classical, fast/speed, abstract
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Apollo, 1928
  • choreographed by Balanchine
  • reached out to African, Asian, and Oceanic vocabularies
  • first of his collaborations wit Igor Stravinsky
  • turning point in his career
  • high kicks and pelvic thrusts
Agon, 1957
  • music by Stravinsky
  • Ancient Greek contest/debate between opposing forces, Africanist, by Balanchine
Four Temperaments, 1946 (melancholic, sanguine, phlegmatic, and choleric)
  • music by Hindemith
  • no sets, relied on movement, solo guy in black pants and white shirt, Africanist, Balanchine
Africanist aesthetic/European aesthetic
  • embrace, conflict/juxtaposition, polyrhythmic, pelvic off-center, poor vitality, cool, detachment, improvisation, call-and-response, forward torso

  • fixed steps, repeatable patterns, erect torso, couple dancing (embrace)
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Lincoln Kirstein 1907-1996, wealthy man, doesn't dance or choreograph, called the American Diaghilev, interested in making American ballet
New York City Ballet (NYCB)
  • established in 1948 by Balanchine, not state-supported and cheap tickets attracted a large new audience, it was artistically successful and financially poor, competed with the Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo, gained game when Balanchine was invited to London by director of a British Ballet Company in 1950, had many US leading dancers, gained the US its first international recognition for ballet and enhanced its prestige, it was primarily a showcase of Balanchine's choreography
Arthur Mitchell
  • hired by Balanchine in 1955
  • started the Dance Theater in Harlem because of MLK's assasination in 1969
Dance Theater of Harlem
  • founded by Mitchell after MLK was killed to provide role models and professional goals for aspiring dancers, 
  • it was a predominantly black, 
  • mixed modern with ballet
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American Ballet Theater (ABT)
  • not state-supported, developed as an outgrowth of the Mordkin Ballet which was founded in 1937
  • Richard Pleasant was the general manager whose plan was to create a producing organization that would perform existing works of all periods and national sources, traveled widely, tried to develop glamour and encourage ticket sales, suffered from a lack of clear-cut artistic direction, renamed ABT in 1957
Isadora Duncan influence Diaghlev's 5 major choreographers, early modern dance pioneer at turn of 20th century, valued expression rather than technique, her dance is American and influenced by nature so she rediscovered  the glory of natural movement, danced bare foot, danced in unadorned recitals accompanied only by a pianist, very avante-garde
Loie Fuller primarily an actress and singer who began to perform solo movement pieces, did the "serpentine dance" with a piece of cloth given to her by a friend, experimented with body movement, fabric, shape, color, and light.
Ruth St. Denis
  • vaudeville performer meant she was one of 7 or more independent touring acts, confined to commerial theater, married Ted Shawn, tried to emulate East Indian dance through a sort of trance for "oriental authenticity," dreamer's art
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Ted Shawn
  • St. Denis' dance partner & former theology student
  • Added opportunities for greater commercial success by bringing in theatrical visions, started a school with wife called Denishawn
  • very good business man and huband of Ruth Denis
Denishawn
  • St. Denis and Ted Shawn's company that helps spread the gospel of dance from the constraints of ballet
  • opened a school in Los Angeles
  • brought dance to the middle class by supporting good health and virginal spirituality
19th Constitutional Amendment vote
  • 1920
  • women get the right to vote
  • dance reflects civil rights movement of the time
Margaret Sanger
  • Founder of Planned Parenthood
  • Advocated birth control
  • Flees country to Paris to avoid arrest
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Louis Horst
Martha Graham
Acts of Light, 1981
Pelvic contraction and release
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Percussive movement
Doris Humphrey
Fall & Recovery
The Art of Making Dances, 1959
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Charles Weidman
Jose Limon
Rudolph Laban
Mary Wigman
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Hanya Holm
Alvin Ailey
Paul Taylor
Avant-Garde
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Duet, 1957 & Aureole, 1962
Merce Cunningham
John Cage
Robert Ellis Dunn
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Postmodern Dance
Judson Church
Twyla Tharp
Alwin Nikolais
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Tensile Involvement, 1953
Pilobolus
Monkshood Farewell, 1974
HIV+
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AIDS
Choreographers who died from AIDS
Bill T. Jones
D-Man in the Water, 1989
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Still/Here, 1994
Joe Goode
Deeply There, 1998
African-American modern dance choreographers from video—Gus Solomon, Jr., Eleo Pomare, Talley Beatty, Katherine Dunham, Ulysses Dove, Alvin Ailey, Bill T. Jones, hip-hop, Ronald Brown, Donald McKayle
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Mikhail Baryshnikov
Garth Fagan
Lion King, 1998
Vandekeybus
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Ballroom dance
Savoy Ballroom
Harlem
Lindy Hop
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Jitterbug
Buddy Dean Show
Buddy Dean Show
Busby Berkeley
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Ruby Keeler
Fred Astaire & Ginger Rogers
Tap Dance
Nicholas Brothers
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Shirley Temple & Bill “Bojangles” Robinson
Chain Dance
Contemporary social dance of UCSB Dance 45 Students
Christianity & Nigeria & dance
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Yoruba tradition in Nigeria & dance
Egungun
River Goddess Osun
Snake Dance in India
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Pullavas caste
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 Tsar
  • Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers.
  • he loved ballet & funded it --> they all served him & always showed respect
  • ballet was entirely dependent in Imperial Russian ballet
  • on him ballet was under control of a court member appointed by and answerable to Tsar
 Jean Baptiste Lande
  • Jean-Baptiste Lande (died 26 February 1748) was a French ballet dancer, active in Sweden, Denmark and Russia.
  • French dancing master
  • Opened ballet school at Winter Palace (12 girls, 12 boys)
 St. Petersburg [to Leningrad, to St. Petersburg]
  • capital was changed to Leningrad after the Russian Revolution, then changed back to St. Petersburg after the fall of the Soviet Union
 Maryinsky Theater to Kirov Theater
  • now Kirov Theater
  • ballet in St. Petersburg, Russia
  • academic & classical
  • name changed after the Russian Revolution
  • premiered Tchaikovsky
 Moscow, Bolshoi Theater
  • in Moscow
  • very flamboyant & expressive (opposite of Kirov Theater)
 Charles Didelot
  • French dancer and choreographer.
  • most important figure in Russia
  • improved repertory & teaching raises standards
  • 20 ballets
 Marius Petipa
  • French ballet dancer, teacher, and choreographer.
  • staged revivals of ballets
  • principal assistant to Arthur St. Leon
  • concocted Pharaoh's Daughter in six weeks
  • created Don Quixote & La Bayadere
  • chief ballet master in 1970 for 30 years (40 ballets)
  • pleased the Tsar
  • classical ballet choreographer
    - The Nutcracker
    - Sleeping Beauty

  • 4 styles of movement
 Daughter of the Pharoah, 1861
  • Inspired by Gautier's novel "The Story of the Mummy"
  • Very complicated, spectacular, successful ballet
  • English Lord in sand storm goes into tomb & gets put into an opium dream where he becomes Tahor & saves Aspica from a lion --> Aspica is the daughter
  • Aspica falls in love with Tahor even though she's already engaged to a king, jumps into the Nile river where the spirits come entertain her, returns to land to get permission to marry Tahor but then he wakes up from his opium dream
 Divertissement
  • a plot structure of Petipa
  • random “fluff” dancing that adds nothing to the plot
  • During the 17th and 18th century, the term implied incidental aspects of an entertainment (usually involving singing and dancing) that might be inserted in an opera or ballet or other stage performance.

 Grand Pas de Deux
  • French for "big dance for two"
  • usually consists:
    - Entrée
    - Adagio duet
    - Male solo
    - Female solo
    - Coda
    (plot structure of Petipa)
 Entrée
  • beginning of the Grand Pas de Deux
  • typically a short number which serves as an introduction for the suite
  • can also mean a number in which the lead character or characters of a ballet make their initial appearance on stage
 Adagio duet
  • Slow and sustained
  • In ballet, it means slow, enfolding movements
  • Typically the outward movement of the Grand Pas where the female dancer is partnered by the lead male dancer and/or one or more suitors.
 Male soloBig jumps and leaps to show off the Male lead & let Female rest
 Female soloPointe work, small and fast movement to show off Female while Male rests
 CodaFlashy finale of Grand Pas de Deux with partner work
 4 Styles of movement:
  • Petipa's styles of movements 
  • Classical
  • Character
  • Demi character
  • Mime
 Classical
  •  Hero - Petipa style of movement
 Character
  •  Folk - Petipa style of movement
 Demi
  • Character
  • lively, faster, young adults
  • danced by peasants and regular people
  • costume allows for more movement
  • Petipa style of movement
 Mime
  • codified (everyone would know) - Petipa style of movement
 Children on stage
  • Plot structure of Petipa
  • Wanted children on stage to breed future ballerinas
  • Petipa always had children on stage
 The Sleeping Beauty, 1890
  • Written by Marius Petipa gave details to 
  • choreographer - Tchaikovsky
  • End of Act I - Rose Adagio (famous part & very difficult to perform, Aurora partnered with 4 men, must balance on point & change partners) 
  • Act II - Prince & Aurora find each other
  • Act III - Prince & Aurora's wedding, Divertissement, Grand Pas A Deux (Bluebirds Pas De Deux)
 Tchaikovsky
  • Composed music for:
    - Sleeping Beauty
    - Swan Lake
    - Nutcracker 
  • Given very detailed instructions by Petipa
  • And several of his other works
 Rose Adagio
  • Centrepiece of Petipa's The Sleeping Beauty
  • Princess Aurora is presented to her four suitors in Act I
  • Aurora has to balance unsupported on one leg and on pointe between taking each of her Princes' hands

  • Four princes to court Aurora
  • She is en pointe while the princes switch in
 The Nutcracker, 1892
  • Music by Tchaikovsky 
  • Choreographed by Petipa
  • Was not successful at the time it came out
  • No trace of sensible dramatic action
 Ivanov
  • Petipa's assistant that takes over
  • Choreographs Snowflakes Act I of the Nutcracker
  • Dies in 1901
  • Didn't produce anything more of importance except Swan Lake
 Tchaikovsky, dies 1893
  • Right before Swan Lake came out
  • Petipa & Ivanov choreographed the ballet
  • Swan Lake dedicated to his memory on February 17, 1894
 Swan Lake, 1895
  • choreographed by Petipa & Ivanov
  • Because death of Tchaikovsky Ivanov was allowed to choreograph with music
  • Odette (under a spell) & Odile look alike
  • Prince Siegfried (Odette saves other swans & tells him her tale)
  • his mother throws a ball for him to find a wife
  • Odile shows up as Odette & Prince commits his love to her
 Black Swan Pas de Deux
  • Odile looks like Odette, but is the daughter of the sorcerer, and she dances with Siegfried when Odette was supposed to 
  • 3rd scene from Swan Lake by Marius Petipa
  • Music by Tchaikovsky
  • Scene where Odile shows up to the ball & dances with Prince Siegfried
  • Very famous dance
 Petipa Acts I and III
  • Choreographed Acts I and II of Swan Lake
 Ivanov Acts II and IV
  • Choreographed Acts II and IV of Swan Lake
 Odette/Odile
  • Swan lake characters
  • Odette: princess turned into Swan by evil sorseror (Odile)
 Prince SiegfriedPrince in Swan Lake
 Russian Revolution 1917
  • Ballet had been for the Czar, but overthrew him
  • Ballet russe could not go back to Russia
  • Russian stars not allowed to leave Russia
  • Ballet russe is pre-revolution time
  • Time of change in Russia --> Communists come to power
  • Leningard went back to the name St. Petersburg
  • Ballet russe became a separate company & could not go back to Russia (were not allowed in country or else they coulnd't leave until the Soviet Union fell) 
 Anna Pavlova
  • Famous ballerina
  • Own company
  • Toured around world
  • Famous for portraying birds, insects, plants
  • Brought ballet (aristocratic art) to common person (high schools, etc)
  • Was in Ballet Russe
 The Dying Swan, 1905
  • Choreographed by Fokine in 1905 for Anna Pavlova
  • Composer was Camille Saint Saenz
  • Two minute solo (her dying), very expressive, on pointe the entire time
  • Torso=non classical
  • No pantomime
  • Movement was expressive enough
 Ballet Russes
  • ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev
  • Brought ballet into the 20th century
  • Members originated from Tsar's Imperial
  • Took stars (Nijinsky) from imperial Russian ballet to france during summer vacation (1909)
  • Broke tradition
    - Revolutionary dancers came out of this company
    - Women’s movements
    - Avant-garde art form
 Diaghilev
  • Russian impresario/Creative director of Ballet russe
  • Brought ballet to Paris
  • responsible for collaboration of great composers: Stravinski & Debussy
  • Artists: Bakst, Benois & Picasso, Matisse, Cocteau
  • Designer: Coco Chanel 
  • Launched careers of 5 great choreographers: Fakine, Nijinsky, Massine, Nijinska, Balanchine
  • always encouraged new & different - movement in modern art
 Leon Bakst
  • Visual artist/costume & set designer who did much of the scenery for Ballet Russe, 
  • Set (stage) design of "Schenhevazade"
  • Designed costumes and set of "Afternoon of a Faune"
  • Worked with Diaghilev's productions
 Pablo Picasso
  • Avant-garde artist
  • Artist who worked with the Ballet Russes
  • Worked with Diaghilev to make sets and costumes
  • Did sets and costumes for Massine's two major plays: "Parade" 1917 and "Three Cornered Hat" 1919

 Fokine
  • First major Russian choreographer/dancer of the Ballet Russe (Le Spectre de la Rose)
  • Reformed Russian Ballet
    Moved from classical ballet to Ballet russe
  • Choreographed "Dying Swan" 1905 for Anna Povlova (2 minutes long)
  • Accused of being influenced by Isadora Duncan
  • Teacher & choreographer rather than a refined dancer
 Fokine’s 5 major principles
  • Published in London Times 1914
  • Want to make "ballet a fully expressive art that mirrored life"
  • New movement for each dance
  • No mime (Petipa used so that the audience always understood)
  • Use entire body (to be expressive)
  • No divertissement (no "fluff")
  • Unity amongst the art
 Les Sylphides
  • Choreographed by Fokine 1909, earned him success while he was a choreographer in Paris
  • no plot line, expressive
  • an abstract ballet
  • Music by Chopin.
 Scheherazade, 1910
  • Fokine 1910
  • Nijinsky dances as a golden slave
  • Arabian night tale about martial infidelity, 
  • He is favored slave, dances with chief's wifekilled by the sultan, wife kills herself.
 Cleopatre, 1909
  • Fokine 1909
  • danced by Ida Rubienstein
  • example of narrative adult theme (typical Fokine) wears see-through outfit
  • will have sex with commoner if he is killed the next morning (says yes)
 Petrouchka, 1911 NOT SURE YET!
  • choreographed by Fokine. Music by Stavinsky, idea comes from Stravinsky. 
  • Fokine - starred Nijinsky - about a sad puppet who wanted his soul to come to life - belonged to evil sorcerer
  • Fokine 1911, dramatic element, not an emphasis on technique (for techniques sake) Najinsky’s feet turned in. 3 puppets: same choreography stylized three different ways to convey character and emotion, music by Stravinsky, narrative designed in response to musical
 Le Spectre de la Rose, 1911
  • Choreographed by Fokine
  • Starred Nijinsky
  • Ballet based on poem by Gautier
  • Debutante falls asleep after her first ball, she dreams of dancing w/ the rose that she had been holding in her hand, her dream ends when the rose escapes through the window
 Nijinsky
  • greatest male ballet dancer of 20th century
  • premier danseur
  • Was the star of Le Spectre de la Rose
  • famous for leaping
  • had a short career because he was dismissed by Diaghilev when he married a girl (even though he was his best dancer & chief choreographer) and the he was overcome by Schizophrenia
  • jeux, rite of spring
 
 Schizophrenia
  • Nijinsky became ill will this when he was 29, ends his career as a ballet dancer
  • Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of thought processes and of emotional responsiveness.
 Afternoon of a Faune, 1912
  • 1st ballet choreographed by Nijinsky for Ballet Russe
  • wanted a dance whose meaning was contained in the movement itself. 
  • Faune is half man half animal inspiration = ancient friezes
  • two-dimensional appearance (profile) portrayal of masturbation à Freud & natural human sexuality
  • he danced main part himself
  • music by Debussy
 Debussy
  • composer for Diaghilev & Nijinsky
  • composer of Afternoon of a Faune and Jeux
  • wrote a poem about Afternoon of a Faun
 Jeux, 1913
  • Created/choreographed by Nijinsky based off of suggestion by wife, tennis match. Dance as a sexual metaphor and a flirtatious game
  • About a trio (2 women, 1 man) - relief sexual tension through tennis
  • "Games" last work for Debussy
  • Choreographed for Ballet Russe by Nijinsky

 Rite of Spring, 1913
  • Choreographed by Nijinsky
  • composer Stravinsky
  • About rite of prehistoric tribe; sacrificing a virgin having her dance herself to death, very scandalous at the time, feet turned in rigid arms
 Stravinsky
  • Russian composer for Ballet russes
  • Composed for Diaghilev
  • Wrote the music for Rite of Spring
  • Worked with the Ballet Russe and Ballanchine
  • Composed Petrouchika
 Rudolph Nureyev
  • Danced for Joffrey Ballet - Tatar ballet dancer
  • Regarded as one of the greatest male dancers alongside Nijinsky and Baryshnikov
  • Recreated Petrouchka
  • Performed in "Afternoon of a Faune"
  • soloist in Kurov ballet
  • Died of AIDs
 Defected from Russia
  • Dancers defected from Russia to escape Soviet Union in the 1960s through dance
  • Companies from the Soviet Union would travel with secret police to make sure they would come home from traveling
  • Sneak away while traveling
  • escaped at Paris airport
 Political Asylum
  • an ancient juridical notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times)

  • When someone defected from Russia, they had to ask for politcal asylum from the other country so they could stay there. Only granted if you can prove the country you come from is denying your freedom
 Robert Joffrey
  • American dancer, teacher, producer, choreographer
  • Formed company: Joffrey Ballet
  • Reconstructed pieces of ballet russes in America
  • Recreated Petrouchka
  • Died of AIDS
 Joffrey Ballet
  • Headed by Robert Joffrey
  • Did reconstruction of Nijinsky's choreography
  • Performed Digalehiv and Nuryev ballets
 Massine
  • Russian choreographer and ballet dancer
  • Choreographed Parade & Three-Cornered Hat
  • known for symphonic ballet, comedy satire, character dancing, and color
  • He studied at the Bolshoi Theatre
  • Choreographed at Ballet Russe

 Parade, 1917
  • Choreographed by Massine
  • Costumes and sets designed by Picasso
  • vivid elements of cubism
 Three-Cornered Hat, 1919
  • Choreographed by Massine
  • set designed by Picasso - aesthetic unity
  • one of his story ballets - parable about freedom
 Nijinska

leading dancer & choreo for Diaghilev, went w/ him to Paris, sister of Njinsky, studied at St. Petersburg School, invented new dance movement
 Sleeping Beauty, 1921
  • unsuccessful revival 
  • Ballet Russes lose money
 Les Noces, 1923
  • created by Nijinska in 1923
  • the most striking of her major works
 Le Train Bleu, 1924
  • created by Nijinska in 1924
  • spoof on Persians trying to be like Americans
  • spoof on Prince of Wales and Suzanne Linglor
  • Coco Chanel designed costumes
 Anton Dolin
  • British star
  • acrobatic
  • sports movement
 Coca Chaneldesigned for Diaghilev during the Ballet Russes
 Prince of Wales
  • Le Train Bleu was a spoof on him because he wiggled when he golfed
 Suzanne Linglor
  • Le Train Bleu was a spoof on her, tennis player
 MilhaudMade music for Le Train Bleu
 George Balanchine
  • Greatest influence on ballet in America
  • Went to Imperial School of Ballet in 1914
  • many opposed his work for being sexual
  • left Russia for a tour of Germany with a group known as the Soviet State Dancers
  • was the ballet master when he replaced Nijinska
  • created Apollo and The Prodigal Son, has a knee injury in 1927
  • established NYCB, did modern, broke myth that blacks can't do ballet, neo-classical, fast/speed, abstract
 Apollo, 1928
  • choreographed by Balanchine
  • reached out to African, Asian, and Oceanic vocabularies
  • first of his collaborations wit Igor Stravinsky
  • turning point in his career
  • high kicks and pelvic thrusts
 Agon, 1957
  • music by Stravinsky
  • Ancient Greek contest/debate between opposing forces, Africanist, by Balanchine
 Four Temperaments, 1946(melancholic, sanguine, phlegmatic, and choleric)
  • music by Hindemith
  • no sets, relied on movement, solo guy in black pants and white shirt, Africanist, Balanchine
 Africanist aesthetic/European aesthetic
  • embrace, conflict/juxtaposition, polyrhythmic, pelvic off-center, poor vitality, cool, detachment, improvisation, call-and-response, forward torso

  • fixed steps, repeatable patterns, erect torso, couple dancing (embrace)
 Lincoln Kirstein1907-1996, wealthy man, doesn't dance or choreograph, called the American Diaghilev, interested in making American ballet
 New York City Ballet (NYCB)
  • established in 1948 by Balanchine, not state-supported and cheap tickets attracted a large new audience, it was artistically successful and financially poor, competed with the Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo, gained game when Balanchine was invited to London by director of a British Ballet Company in 1950, had many US leading dancers, gained the US its first international recognition for ballet and enhanced its prestige, it was primarily a showcase of Balanchine's choreography
 Arthur Mitchell
  • hired by Balanchine in 1955
  • started the Dance Theater in Harlem because of MLK's assasination in 1969
 Dance Theater of Harlem
  • founded by Mitchell after MLK was killed to provide role models and professional goals for aspiring dancers, 
  • it was a predominantly black, 
  • mixed modern with ballet
 American Ballet Theater (ABT)
  • not state-supported, developed as an outgrowth of the Mordkin Ballet which was founded in 1937
  • Richard Pleasant was the general manager whose plan was to create a producing organization that would perform existing works of all periods and national sources, traveled widely, tried to develop glamour and encourage ticket sales, suffered from a lack of clear-cut artistic direction, renamed ABT in 1957
 Isadora Duncaninfluence Diaghlev's 5 major choreographers, early modern dance pioneer at turn of 20th century, valued expression rather than technique, her dance is American and influenced by nature so she rediscovered  the glory of natural movement, danced bare foot, danced in unadorned recitals accompanied only by a pianist, very avante-garde
 Loie Fullerprimarily an actress and singer who began to perform solo movement pieces, did the "serpentine dance" with a piece of cloth given to her by a friend, experimented with body movement, fabric, shape, color, and light.
 Ruth St. Denis
  • vaudeville performer meant she was one of 7 or more independent touring acts, confined to commerial theater, married Ted Shawn, tried to emulate East Indian dance through a sort of trance for "oriental authenticity," dreamer's art
 Ted Shawn
  • St. Denis' dance partner & former theology student
  • Added opportunities for greater commercial success by bringing in theatrical visions, started a school with wife called Denishawn
  • very good business man and huband of Ruth Denis
 Denishawn
  • St. Denis and Ted Shawn's company that helps spread the gospel of dance from the constraints of ballet
  • opened a school in Los Angeles
  • brought dance to the middle class by supporting good health and virginal spirituality
 19th Constitutional Amendment vote
  • 1920
  • women get the right to vote
  • dance reflects civil rights movement of the time
 Margaret Sanger
  • Founder of Planned Parenthood
  • Advocated birth control
  • Flees country to Paris to avoid arrest
 Louis Horst
 Martha Graham 
 Acts of Light, 1981 
 Pelvic contraction and release 
 Percussive movement 
 Doris Humphrey 
 Fall & Recovery 
 The Art of Making Dances, 1959 
 Charles Weidman 
 Jose Limon 
 Rudolph Laban 
 Mary Wigman 
 Hanya Holm 
 Alvin Ailey 
 Paul Taylor 
 Avant-Garde 
 Duet, 1957 & Aureole, 1962 
 Merce Cunningham 
 John Cage 
 Robert Ellis Dunn 
 Postmodern Dance 
 Judson Church 
 Twyla Tharp 
 Alwin Nikolais 
 Tensile Involvement, 1953 
 Pilobolus 
 Monkshood Farewell, 1974 
 HIV+ 
 AIDS 
 Choreographers who died from AIDS 
 Bill T. Jones 
 D-Man in the Water, 1989 
 Still/Here, 1994 
 Joe Goode 
 Deeply There, 1998 
 African-American modern dance choreographers from video—Gus Solomon, Jr., Eleo Pomare, Talley Beatty, Katherine Dunham, Ulysses Dove, Alvin Ailey, Bill T. Jones, hip-hop, Ronald Brown, Donald McKayle 
 Mikhail Baryshnikov 
 Garth Fagan 
 Lion King, 1998 
 Vandekeybus 
 Ballroom dance 
 Savoy Ballroom 
 Harlem 
 Lindy Hop 
 Jitterbug 
 Buddy Dean Show 
 Buddy Dean Show 
 Busby Berkeley 
 Ruby Keeler 
 Fred Astaire & Ginger Rogers 
 Tap Dance 
 Nicholas Brothers 
 Shirley Temple & Bill “Bojangles” Robinson 
 Chain Dance 
 Contemporary social dance of UCSB Dance 45 Students 
 Christianity & Nigeria & dance 
 Yoruba tradition in Nigeria & dance 
 Egungun 
 River Goddess Osun 
 Snake Dance in India 
 Pullavas caste 
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