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Class:EEMB 22 - BIO CONCEPT/CONTROV
Subject:Ecology, Evolution & Marine Biology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2011
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three types of variation morphological
physiological
behavioral
evolutionary process? 1. variation
 2. natural selection 
3. genetic divergence 
4. reproductive isolation 
5. speciation
binomial system of nomenclature Devised by Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Scientific name: consists of Genus and Species
How to categorize an organ by name
Ex: Homospaian
Genus: homo (same)
Species: sapiens (wise man)
Linnanen Ranks

Taxonology:Domain. Three domians Eukarya: ex. humans Archaea Bacteria

Kingdom

E: animalia

Phylum

E- Chordata We have post anal tail (in embryo). Gill slits (not now, but in the womb we do); nerve cord. Other animals don’t have it

Class

E- mammalia Lactate and have hair. Whales have hair on chin

Order 

E- Primate; chimps , gorillas. The way our face looks, walk, our physiology. 97% genetic similarity.

Family

E- Hominidae

Genus

E-Homo (there were homo errectus -we killed them off

species

E- Sapiens

Every animal can be placed and order with this method. 

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evolution change through space and time
biological evolution descent with modification in the genes (change in man over time) 
result of modification is evolution
based on environment 
adaptation

adjustment or change to meet environmental conditions; functional solution to a environmental problem. Solve by changing  through behavior, morphology(how you look) or physiology(way you act) . Can give you an advantage or disadvantage.

3 kinds of adaption traits adaptive traits
mala-adaptive traits
neutral traits
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adaptative traits

Form of trait that is advantage in terms of survival and reproduction. Gives you a selective advantage.

Ex. Snails. Colored ones. The green and brown, dry and wet season.

Ex. Humans.:Skin pigmentation.Vitamin D. Eyes-light in& Bipedal locomotion's- survival of young, thumbs, seeing 360. These have given us advantage.:Precision grip-fine tool movement Power grip- clubbing and hitting Depth perceptionEx. Monkeys. Brain-Biggest cognitive brain. Whales do as well. Joined with our hand structure has lead to our domination of the planet.

Language/speech

Most complex. Transfers info rapidly.

maladaptive traits

Form of trait that is a disadvantage in terms of survival and reproduction.

Ex. Birth effect. Occurs more in developing countries.

Ex. Sixth finger.:No control, badly placed, not functional at all. An anomaly.

Wisdom teeth.

1/3 will be infected and we can bleed to death. They use to fit, not anymore, our skeleton changed.

Skull has adapted faster than the jaw

neutral trait

Form of trait is neither a disadvantage or advantage in terms of survival and reproduction.

Eye, Hair, skin color

Tail bone.

De/Attached ear lobe

2 major periods of evolution

Organic evolution
Evolution of chemical state to first cell
Takes a long time almost a billion years. Taking inorganic compounds to the first cell. Earth in past is diff. new earth has more oxygen which tears down the molecules. Rust is an example of oxygenation
Organismal Evolution
Evolution of unicellular to multicellular organisms

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Aristotle created the "scala naturae" a hierarchy of life. those on top were noble.
Albertus Magnus removed humans from the scale of nature. supported by his student Thomas Aquinas
Sir Thomas Aquinas humans are divine. they have a soul and animals do not, which separated the two. taking them out the scale
Ernst Haeckel Homunculus theory- soul transferred at fertilization. the egg is an empty vessel waiting for the soul to deliver. and the sperm carries the soul
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Eramus Darwin

Competition play role in species formation (not creation)

The cows, strong cattle that eat the food and kill the weak.

Animals change in response to changes in the environment

Those with fur survived the cold

Offspring inherit these changes. 

Charles Lyll

Theory of uniforminitarianism (uniformity) (changes in the earth occurred slowly, gradually and at uniform rates) counting of layers of soil. Showing that the : [earth is old and is changing slowly]

Earth was old 1-2 million yrs

By looking at layers, they found it as a normal gradual change.

States: earth is changing and its old and that’s how it is. It evolves and changes

william smith

Layer of fossils in the Cliffs of Dover, Great Britain

Linked age of rocks to age of fossils.

Saw the linkage between those organism on the bottom and that they were similar to the ones on the top. Linked living things and the age of the planet. You can connect life with how old the rocks are. 

georges cuvier

Species go extinct

Theory of Catastrophism

(survivors not new species, fossils represent species that were destroyed.)

Doesn’t hold up numerically. There are more species now than there was before.

Was richer thank Lamarck. He could afford to buy pamphlets to discredit Lamarck. 

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Lamark

Inheritance of acquired characteristics (traits)

Environmental pressures and internal needs bring about permanent changes in body form and function

Ex. Giraffe ( process of orthogenesist [straight line])

Sp A -> sp B-> sp C -> sp D necks stretching their necks and their youth having longer necks.

Not true. 

Charles Darwin

3 major findings

As environment changes so does species composition

Fossils are related to organisms today but are also structurally different

Collects fossils along the way. Related to similar organism yet with differences.

Galapagos islands: island animals were related to mainland species but locally different in form and function ex: finches.

Malthus

geometric growth of populations"

All populations have the capacity to produce more individuals than the environment can support.

Poor had higher population rate. Had an idea of how revolutions began. Poor would out use their resources then stealing them from the rich. 

Alfred Russell Wallace independently wrote 2 page letter summarizing all of the Darwin's ideas

Comes from different status, blue collar. As he travels, he sees same thing as Darwin.

In 1889 Darwin published his book on " on the origin of species"

Didn’t published first one due to the Victorian era of Christianity. Sold out rapidly but controversial. 

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theory of natural selection (5 basic tenets) :nature selects the individuals that are most fit. 5 basic tenets
1 In all species there is an overproduction of progeny
There is a struggle for existence among individuals and species ( competition for resources)
All species posses a large amount of variation in structure
Those variations (look, act, etc) will give you an advantage in different environments
4The fittest individuals survive
5. All species inherit the traits of their parents.
Gregor Mendel father of genetics 

Sperm and egg carry distinct "units ( genes) of information about heritable traits ( 2 units- male and female)

Found observable evidence of how parents transmit genes to offspring

Provided evident to support the key premised of natural section

Units of inheritance what is know known as genes.  How you pass things from parents to offspring

How you pass information of traits from one generation to the next.

Hugo Derives

Theory of mutation "mutare"

Spontaneous mutation was the source of variation

Inheritance of specific traits in organisms comes in particles. He called these units pangenes. (Mutated/changed chunks of info. Genes comes from this)

What is known as the gene today. 

Neodarwinism

Combination of Darwinian natural selection and basic genetics.

Mutation created them- natural selection picks which one works. Then passed on. Slow growth period. 

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Stephen Gould & Niles Eldredge

Theory of punctuated equilibrium

1 Long periods of stability (stasis) punctuated by bursts of evolutionary change and diversification

2 We get these when environment changes rapidly.  See this with climate change- global warming.

3 Saying rapid periods of change then nothing. But those slow periods have slow changes and specialization

4 Periods in between no evolution but specialization slow and normal

Sythetic theory (modern theory of evolution)

Synthesis of Neodarwinian ideas, population biology and punctuated equilibrium

Short bursts of evolution followed by long periods of slow gradual change

Modifications in descent can occur gradually, rapidly or a combination of both. 

variation 3 features
  • Morphological traits
  • Physiological traits
  • Behavioral traits
cell smallest unit, with plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA
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prokaryotic unicellular. no nucleus and no membrane bound organelles
multicellular most are Eukaryotic
nucleus and membrane bound organelles. 
Eukaryotic cell types:

Unicellular ( most are prokaryotic) No nucleus and no membrane bound organelles (whole series of cells encapsulated in membranes)

Multi-cellular ( most are eukaryotic) Have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. A certain focus which allows for specialization.

Eukaryotic cell types: Nucleus Chromosome Packed in

DNA and Histone protein

Ex. Humans 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) 

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid - double helix-hydrogen bonded)

A coding system using 4 letters

The sequence of bases along DNA is genetic info. This sequence is what causes variation.

Varies among species

Nucleotide- ribose sugar, phosphate and nitrogen containing base

Rails of latter are made of these

Nitrogenous base: adenine , thymine, cytosine, guanine.  (a to t, C to G)

Hydrogen bongs connect them

Simple, so hard to mess up. 

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gene heritable unit of DNA that codes for specific traits. ex. hair or eye color
allele

3 or more different molecular forms of a gene

alternative forms of traits examples

Brown hair vs blond hair, blue vs brown eyes

allele frequencies

the abundance of each kind of allele in a population

  • Ex. Eye color. A gross simplification.
  • Genotype frequency = (#/total population) X 100= %
  • For all eye colors to get the genotype frequency to find the percentage of those with that trai

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somatic cells body cells DIPLOID
diploid 2 sets of chromosomes
gametes sex cells (egg or sperm) 
Haploid
Haploid 1 set of chromosomes
When joined together you have the total of 46. a conservative approach that maintains what you have. Extra chromosome leads to down syndrome
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Typical life cycle

Egg + sprem -> fertilization (fusion) -> zygote (mitosis) -> differentiation -> adult organism -> mitosis(which leads to somatic cells Diploid) or meiosis (leads to gametes haploid)

mitosis

Starts with two chromosomes and ends in another diploid to diploid

meiosis

Halving the chromosome. Diploid to haploid. Benefiting is independent assortment. Increased gentic variation. If environment changes, variations suitable to change.

karyotype ex. human map of chromosomes

human has 46 chromosomes - 23 pairs
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recombination meisosis

Pairs of homologous chromosomes combine

Increase variation ( by shuffling the deck)

Crossing over

Each similar pair of chromosomes line up and can exchange genes

Independent assortment at meiosis.

Dominanance (genetics) 1 allele always expressed over another
ex. brown over blue
Recessive genetics 1 allele not expressed over another unless paired up
blue eyes. 2 little b's
co-dominant both alleles both expressed equally
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homozygous 2 alleles are the same
heterozygous 2 alleles are different
genotypes genetic expression
indivdual inherit of different combo of alleles
phenotypes physical expression (brown eyed)
individuals express different details of traits
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gene pool

all the genes in a population ( pool of genetic resources) 

genome

all the genes in a species.

genetic expression dominant and recessive traits 
extra digits recessive
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hair on middle joint dominant
nose shape recessive
freckles dominant
free ear lobes dominant
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darwins tubercle dominant
tongue rolling recessive 
sources of variation 2 mutation
recombination

mutation ultimate source of variation

ATCG. In bands. Have to split and read like a book. Transcribed then translate to product.

Mistake that occurs that goes on from generation to generation.

Adding a new card

Only source of new alleles (produce unexpected phenotypes)

Each gene has a different mutation rate

Mutations give rise to structural, functional, or behavioral modifications that can increase, decrease or are neutral to an individuals survival and reproduction.

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recombination

Doesn’t make anything new, scrambles what's already there.

Secondary source

Shufflin

types of mutation 2 chromosomal
point
point mutatation Very commonSwitching, adding or switching out.
Can be post, negative, neutral (most of the time they are neutral)
Natural selection doesn't increase nor decrease the frequency of neutral mutations. 
Will increase adaptive one
Decrease a maladaptive one
An A turning to a G or  T or a C.
Most likely to occur in space between coding genes. As long as it doesn't land where its turned off or on, it can alter it just a tad
chromosomal mutation
  • Not common
  • Usually negative
  • Can be lethal to animals
  • Animals don’t take well to this.  (two headed cow)
  • Plants can handle it better than humans.
  • Colors of roses due to this chromosomal mutation.
  • Taking a chromosome out adding another and mixing
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recombination sexual reproduction secondary source: crossbreeding
  • sexual reproduction between 2 genetically different individuals
  • Decrease: the genetic load ( # of potential harmful negative genes)
  • Increase the amount of variation in a population 
recombination sexual reproduction secondary source: inbreeding
  • sexual reproduction between 2 genetically similar individuals
  • Increase the genetic load ( # of potential harmful negative genes)
  • Decrease the amount of variation in a population
    • Recessive homogenous-maladaptive
  • Ex. Amish and cheetahs. Sea elephants. 
recombination sexual reproduction secondary source: sexual selection
  • Traits being favored are advantageous with respect to survival and reproduction because males or females prefer them
    • Intrasexual (same sex) or intersexual (opposite sex)
    • Ex. Brad pitt:)
  • You survive because the other prefers the trait.
  • Cost- more prone to predators. Ex. Peacocks. Beautiful feathers-mating but will get eaten.
  • Fiddler crab:Claw-to battle other males.
sexual dimorphism Individuals of most sexually reproducing organisms have a distinct male or female phenotype (common in mammals and birds)
How does this condition come about and what maintains it?
  • Non random mating selects for alleles from preferred traits that prevail over generations
  • Females are often the main agents of selection 
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hybridization (form of crossbreeding) Sexual reproduction between 2 different species
Usually results in infertility (low sperm or egg count) or sterility ( no viable sperm or egg_
Ex- mule
  • Male = sterile
  • Female - infertile
  • Can happen in nature but is very rare. Horse is big and fast, have no stamina. Donkey-strong and endurance. But lack size.
  • Ex. Liger 
types of variation 3 1. normal
2. polymorphic
3. ecogeographic
normal variation continuous. ex. height, weight, etc. expressed over a bell curvve. 
Polymorphic variation discrete
ex. eye color
plots ireegularly 
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ecogeographic variation variation along a ecological or geographic gradient 
ex. bird wing length
perfectly up or down. can trend up or down
can be size of water from high to low. size of leaf. 
evolutionary (darwin's) fitness.
  • the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contribution of other individuals.
    • How many offspring you have with the genes you pass on
natural selection
  • Acts on phenotypes not genotypes
  • If organism is adapted to environment = positive contribution
    • One is contributing more than other
  • If organism is not adapted to environment= negative contribution
    • One is contributing less
normal variation
  • + = positive contribution ( well adapted)
  • -  = negative contribution (not well adapted)
  • Many individuals will cluster around the mean.  (get graph online)
  • Clustered around mean. Those near the middle are giving a positive contribution and those on the ends are giving a negative contribution. 
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stabilizing selection

Intermediated forms of traits are favored and extreme forms are eliminated from populations

Reduces variation

Preserves the most common phenotype (phenotypic character)

Basic conditions

Environment remains stable over time

Organisms have obtained a high state of adaptiveness.

Over time the hump will narrow up.

Individuals that are well adapted cluster around the mean

Ex. Human birth weight. 

directional selection

Allele frequencies in a range of phenotypic characteristics shift in a one direction or another

Individuals that deviate from the average are favored

Occur when mutations appear and prove adaptive (effective and useful)

Ex. Our earth-static and stable? No. fluctuates. Ex. 1000 cycle of colder weather.

Basic conditions

Environ and or bio conditions area changing over time

Species cant be completely adapted to the changing conditions.

Hump graph. Negative on one half. Positive on the other (graph)

Will shift left or right. Mean changes

Takes a long time to do. A slow process. Time scale is long.

Individual at one end of the range for some phenotypic character become more common than intermediate forms

Ex. European Brown bear

Bears get smaller with warmer weather.

Ex. Peppered moth ( bison betularia)

disruptive selection

Phenotypic characters at both ends of the range of variation are favored Intermediate forms are selected against

Basic conditions :Positive selection tends to effect the extremes not the means On the edges and negatives are in the middle.

The number of organism is often reduced (graph) Time scale is short. Creates a two humped bimodal hump

Reduction of organisms.

Ex. Black bellied see cracker finches (pyrenestes ostrinus)

artificial selection selection by humans. 
  • Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals
  • Selection and breeding of individuals with desired traits
  • Hybridization (cross breeding)
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Artificial selection ex. cannabis staiva (mary jane)
  • Selected for thick woody stems= hemp fiber
  • Selected for large oily seeds= hemp oil
  • Selected for large resinous leaves and flower buds = psychoactive drug ( THC- tetrahydrocannabinol)
    • Natural pesticides to not get consumed by animals
artifiical selection Brassica Oleracea (mustard plant) Selected for leaves- mustard greens, kale
Selected for stem- kohl rabi-Thick juicy, lots of moisture load.
Selected for flowerBroccoli, cauliflower, broccoflower.-Different coloration. And consistency. White- don’t let it be in the sun
Selected for terminal buds Cabbage Modifications of flesshy
Selected for lateral buds
  • Brussel sprouts
Some forms are recent 20 yrs. Others have had longer time 
genetic drift random change in allele frequencies over the generatins, brought by chance alone
2 situations that increase the impact of genetic drift on a population bottle neck effect

founders effect
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the bottleneck effect

A severe reduction in population size brought about by intense selection pressure or natural disaster :Contagious disease, habitat loss, hunting, volcanoes, etc.

Variation loss. Can go in different ways 

Survivors gene pool may no longer represent the original population By chance certain alleles may be over represented under represented or eliminated Genetic drift may continue to alter the gene pool until pop size is large

Ex. Elephant seals Little variation. Almost identical Ex. Cheetah. 

the founder's effect

When a few individuals become isolated from a larger population

Isolated gene pool may no longer represent the original pop

Occurs when a few members migrate to a new habitation (found a new population) like an island

In the absence of gene flow, natural selection will alter allele frequencies in different ways due to genetic drift

Ex. Isolated islands.

Diverging genetically. 

genetic divergence

Any structural, functional or behavioral difference that favors reproductive isolation is a by product of genetic change

Genetic changes between populations can be countered by gene flow ( homogenizes genetic differences)

Barriers prevent the exchange of genes between populations and leads to evolutionary divergence of each population.

Will lead to radical changes.

Ex. Meadowlark (wester and eastern) and rocky mountains. Birds went on both sides, but what makes them differ are the songs they sing to mate. 

reproductive isolating mechanism

Any heritable feature of body form, functioning, or behavior that prevents interbreeding between one or more genetically divergent populations

Maintains post adaptations for specific environment

Want to maintain the stronger ones for your own environment

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types of reproductive isolation 2 prezygotic isolation- premating
before or during fertilzation
weaker than post

postzygotic isolation-post mating
mechanisms of isolation after ferilization 
very difficult to reach, and stronger
Prezygotic isolation : ecological isolation

Adaptation to different microclimates in the same habitat.

Based on ecology. More water available at bottom. The water availability is the factor.

Quercus lobata

Bigger

Querars agrifolia

Smaller. 

Prezygotic isolation : geographic isolation

Isolated by distance or geographic barriers

Relative to the size of the organism

Ex. Louse ( lice) 2 subspecies

Head lice (pediculus humanus var. capitis)

Body lice (pediculus humanus var. vestimenti)

Wont cross, the neck area. Geographic isolation is the hairless region of the night

Based on size and locomotion

Prezygotic isolation : temporal isolation isolated by reproductive events occurring at different times ( mating season do not overlap)
Ex. Cicadas 9 magicidada - 3 species
Insect mature underground , reproduce every 17 yrs
Each species has sibling species, reproduce every 13 years
Only once every 221 years do the sibling species release gametes at the same time.
Ex. Baboon.:Its genitals get swollen and red when ready to mate. Primates: 2-4 estrus cycles per year Humans : Estrus all year long. 
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Prezygotic isolation : ethological isolation

Isolated by behaviors

Copulation proceeded by courtship displays

Reciprocity produces sexual stimulation

Ex. The blue footed boobie

Checked his feet out, its size, dance, etc.

Paradise bird -Planet earth bird.

Blue bellied lizard or the "fence lizard"

Ostrich.

Ex. Birds Females genetically equipped to recognize behavioral signals by…

Prezygotic isolation : mechanical isolation

Isolated by reproductive part size or shape behaviors

Ex. Insects (tsetse flies)

Sword penis

The girl has the shape where the penis could enter and remain or stick too. If its too big or not the right size, she will be she will be killed and he will be stuck and die eventually.

Result in death or mortality

Prezygotic isolation : gametic morality incompatibility. 
Gametes of different species are incompatible at the molecular level
Ex. Plant ( pollen grains) 
Prezygotic isolation : gametic wastage

Minimum # of sperm required per species to achieve fertilization

Ex. Humans.

You need more sperm than eggs.

50-500 million sperm

20 million is infertile.

Strongest sperm survives. 

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 three types of variationmorphological
physiological
behavioral
 evolutionary process?1. variation
 2. natural selection 
3. genetic divergence 
4. reproductive isolation 
5. speciation
 binomial system of nomenclatureDevised by Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Scientific name: consists of Genus and Species
How to categorize an organ by name
Ex: Homospaian
Genus: homo (same)
Species: sapiens (wise man)
 Linnanen Ranks

Taxonology:Domain. Three domians Eukarya: ex. humans Archaea Bacteria

Kingdom

E: animalia

Phylum

E- Chordata We have post anal tail (in embryo). Gill slits (not now, but in the womb we do); nerve cord. Other animals don’t have it

Class

E- mammalia Lactate and have hair. Whales have hair on chin

Order 

E- Primate; chimps , gorillas. The way our face looks, walk, our physiology. 97% genetic similarity.

Family

E- Hominidae

Genus

E-Homo (there were homo errectus -we killed them off

species

E- Sapiens

Every animal can be placed and order with this method. 

 evolutionchange through space and time
 biological evolutiondescent with modification in the genes (change in man over time) 
result of modification is evolution
based on environment 
 adaptation

adjustment or change to meet environmental conditions; functional solution to a environmental problem. Solve by changing  through behavior, morphology(how you look) or physiology(way you act) . Can give you an advantage or disadvantage.

 3 kinds of adaption traitsadaptive traits
mala-adaptive traits
neutral traits
 adaptative traits

Form of trait that is advantage in terms of survival and reproduction. Gives you a selective advantage.

Ex. Snails. Colored ones. The green and brown, dry and wet season.

Ex. Humans.:Skin pigmentation.Vitamin D. Eyes-light in& Bipedal locomotion's- survival of young, thumbs, seeing 360. These have given us advantage.:Precision grip-fine tool movement Power grip- clubbing and hitting Depth perceptionEx. Monkeys. Brain-Biggest cognitive brain. Whales do as well. Joined with our hand structure has lead to our domination of the planet.

Language/speech

Most complex. Transfers info rapidly.

 maladaptive traits

Form of trait that is a disadvantage in terms of survival and reproduction.

Ex. Birth effect. Occurs more in developing countries.

Ex. Sixth finger.:No control, badly placed, not functional at all. An anomaly.

Wisdom teeth.

1/3 will be infected and we can bleed to death. They use to fit, not anymore, our skeleton changed.

Skull has adapted faster than the jaw

 neutral trait

Form of trait is neither a disadvantage or advantage in terms of survival and reproduction.

Eye, Hair, skin color

Tail bone.

De/Attached ear lobe

 2 major periods of evolution

Organic evolution
Evolution of chemical state to first cell
Takes a long time almost a billion years. Taking inorganic compounds to the first cell. Earth in past is diff. new earth has more oxygen which tears down the molecules. Rust is an example of oxygenation
Organismal Evolution
Evolution of unicellular to multicellular organisms

 Aristotlecreated the "scala naturae" a hierarchy of life. those on top were noble.
 Albertus Magnusremoved humans from the scale of nature. supported by his student Thomas Aquinas
 Sir Thomas Aquinashumans are divine. they have a soul and animals do not, which separated the two. taking them out the scale
 Ernst HaeckelHomunculus theory- soul transferred at fertilization. the egg is an empty vessel waiting for the soul to deliver. and the sperm carries the soul
 Eramus Darwin

Competition play role in species formation (not creation)

The cows, strong cattle that eat the food and kill the weak.

Animals change in response to changes in the environment

Those with fur survived the cold

Offspring inherit these changes. 

 Charles Lyll

Theory of uniforminitarianism (uniformity) (changes in the earth occurred slowly, gradually and at uniform rates) counting of layers of soil. Showing that the : [earth is old and is changing slowly]

Earth was old 1-2 million yrs

By looking at layers, they found it as a normal gradual change.

States: earth is changing and its old and that’s how it is. It evolves and changes

 william smith

Layer of fossils in the Cliffs of Dover, Great Britain

Linked age of rocks to age of fossils.

Saw the linkage between those organism on the bottom and that they were similar to the ones on the top. Linked living things and the age of the planet. You can connect life with how old the rocks are. 

 georges cuvier

Species go extinct

Theory of Catastrophism

(survivors not new species, fossils represent species that were destroyed.)

Doesn’t hold up numerically. There are more species now than there was before.

Was richer thank Lamarck. He could afford to buy pamphlets to discredit Lamarck. 

 Lamark

Inheritance of acquired characteristics (traits)

Environmental pressures and internal needs bring about permanent changes in body form and function

Ex. Giraffe ( process of orthogenesist [straight line])

Sp A -> sp B-> sp C -> sp D necks stretching their necks and their youth having longer necks.

Not true. 

 Charles Darwin

3 major findings

As environment changes so does species composition

Fossils are related to organisms today but are also structurally different

Collects fossils along the way. Related to similar organism yet with differences.

Galapagos islands: island animals were related to mainland species but locally different in form and function ex: finches.

 Malthus

geometric growth of populations"

All populations have the capacity to produce more individuals than the environment can support.

Poor had higher population rate. Had an idea of how revolutions began. Poor would out use their resources then stealing them from the rich. 

 Alfred Russell Wallaceindependently wrote 2 page letter summarizing all of the Darwin's ideas

Comes from different status, blue collar. As he travels, he sees same thing as Darwin.

In 1889 Darwin published his book on " on the origin of species"

Didn’t published first one due to the Victorian era of Christianity. Sold out rapidly but controversial. 

 theory of natural selection (5 basic tenets) :nature selects the individuals that are most fit.5 basic tenets
1 In all species there is an overproduction of progeny
There is a struggle for existence among individuals and species ( competition for resources)
All species posses a large amount of variation in structure
Those variations (look, act, etc) will give you an advantage in different environments
4The fittest individuals survive
5. All species inherit the traits of their parents.
 Gregor Mendelfather of genetics 

Sperm and egg carry distinct "units ( genes) of information about heritable traits ( 2 units- male and female)

Found observable evidence of how parents transmit genes to offspring

Provided evident to support the key premised of natural section

Units of inheritance what is know known as genes.  How you pass things from parents to offspring

How you pass information of traits from one generation to the next.

 Hugo Derives

Theory of mutation "mutare"

Spontaneous mutation was the source of variation

Inheritance of specific traits in organisms comes in particles. He called these units pangenes. (Mutated/changed chunks of info. Genes comes from this)

What is known as the gene today. 

 Neodarwinism

Combination of Darwinian natural selection and basic genetics.

Mutation created them- natural selection picks which one works. Then passed on. Slow growth period. 

 Stephen Gould & Niles Eldredge

Theory of punctuated equilibrium

1 Long periods of stability (stasis) punctuated by bursts of evolutionary change and diversification

2 We get these when environment changes rapidly.  See this with climate change- global warming.

3 Saying rapid periods of change then nothing. But those slow periods have slow changes and specialization

4 Periods in between no evolution but specialization slow and normal

 Sythetic theory (modern theory of evolution)

Synthesis of Neodarwinian ideas, population biology and punctuated equilibrium

Short bursts of evolution followed by long periods of slow gradual change

Modifications in descent can occur gradually, rapidly or a combination of both. 

 variation 3 features
  • Morphological traits
  • Physiological traits
  • Behavioral traits
 cellsmallest unit, with plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA
 prokaryoticunicellular. no nucleus and no membrane bound organelles
 multicellularmost are Eukaryotic
nucleus and membrane bound organelles. 
 Eukaryotic cell types:

Unicellular ( most are prokaryotic) No nucleus and no membrane bound organelles (whole series of cells encapsulated in membranes)

Multi-cellular ( most are eukaryotic) Have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. A certain focus which allows for specialization.

Eukaryotic cell types: Nucleus Chromosome Packed in

DNA and Histone protein

Ex. Humans 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) 

 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid - double helix-hydrogen bonded)

A coding system using 4 letters

The sequence of bases along DNA is genetic info. This sequence is what causes variation.

Varies among species

Nucleotide- ribose sugar, phosphate and nitrogen containing base

Rails of latter are made of these

Nitrogenous base: adenine , thymine, cytosine, guanine.  (a to t, C to G)

Hydrogen bongs connect them

Simple, so hard to mess up. 

 geneheritable unit of DNA that codes for specific traits. ex. hair or eye color
 allele

3 or more different molecular forms of a gene

 alternative forms of traits examples

Brown hair vs blond hair, blue vs brown eyes

 allele frequencies

the abundance of each kind of allele in a population

  • Ex. Eye color. A gross simplification.
  • Genotype frequency = (#/total population) X 100= %
  • For all eye colors to get the genotype frequency to find the percentage of those with that trai

 somatic cellsbody cells DIPLOID
 diploid2 sets of chromosomes
 gametessex cells (egg or sperm) 
Haploid
 Haploid1 set of chromosomes
When joined together you have the total of 46. a conservative approach that maintains what you have. Extra chromosome leads to down syndrome
 Typical life cycle

Egg + sprem -> fertilization (fusion) -> zygote (mitosis) -> differentiation -> adult organism -> mitosis(which leads to somatic cells Diploid) or meiosis (leads to gametes haploid)

 mitosis

Starts with two chromosomes and ends in another diploid to diploid

 meiosis

Halving the chromosome. Diploid to haploid. Benefiting is independent assortment. Increased gentic variation. If environment changes, variations suitable to change.

 karyotype ex. humanmap of chromosomes

human has 46 chromosomes - 23 pairs
 recombination meisosis

Pairs of homologous chromosomes combine

Increase variation ( by shuffling the deck)

Crossing over

Each similar pair of chromosomes line up and can exchange genes

Independent assortment at meiosis.

 Dominanance (genetics)1 allele always expressed over another
ex. brown over blue
 Recessive genetics1 allele not expressed over another unless paired up
blue eyes. 2 little b's
 co-dominantboth alleles both expressed equally
 homozygous2 alleles are the same
 heterozygous2 alleles are different
 genotypesgenetic expression
indivdual inherit of different combo of alleles
 phenotypesphysical expression (brown eyed)
individuals express different details of traits
 gene pool

all the genes in a population ( pool of genetic resources) 

 genome

all the genes in a species.

 genetic expressiondominant and recessive traits 
 extra digitsrecessive
 hair on middle jointdominant
 nose shaperecessive
 frecklesdominant
 free ear lobesdominant
 darwins tubercledominant
 tongue rollingrecessive 
 sources of variation 2mutation
recombination

 mutationultimate source of variation

ATCG. In bands. Have to split and read like a book. Transcribed then translate to product.

Mistake that occurs that goes on from generation to generation.

Adding a new card

Only source of new alleles (produce unexpected phenotypes)

Each gene has a different mutation rate

Mutations give rise to structural, functional, or behavioral modifications that can increase, decrease or are neutral to an individuals survival and reproduction.

 recombination

Doesn’t make anything new, scrambles what's already there.

Secondary source

Shufflin

 types of mutation 2chromosomal
point
 point mutatationVery commonSwitching, adding or switching out.
Can be post, negative, neutral (most of the time they are neutral)
Natural selection doesn't increase nor decrease the frequency of neutral mutations. 
Will increase adaptive one
Decrease a maladaptive one
An A turning to a G or  T or a C.
Most likely to occur in space between coding genes. As long as it doesn't land where its turned off or on, it can alter it just a tad
 chromosomal mutation
  • Not common
  • Usually negative
  • Can be lethal to animals
  • Animals don’t take well to this.  (two headed cow)
  • Plants can handle it better than humans.
  • Colors of roses due to this chromosomal mutation.
  • Taking a chromosome out adding another and mixing
 recombination sexual reproduction secondary source: crossbreeding
  • sexual reproduction between 2 genetically different individuals
  • Decrease: the genetic load ( # of potential harmful negative genes)
  • Increase the amount of variation in a population 
 recombination sexual reproduction secondary source: inbreeding
  • sexual reproduction between 2 genetically similar individuals
  • Increase the genetic load ( # of potential harmful negative genes)
  • Decrease the amount of variation in a population
    • Recessive homogenous-maladaptive
  • Ex. Amish and cheetahs. Sea elephants. 
 recombination sexual reproduction secondary source: sexual selection
  • Traits being favored are advantageous with respect to survival and reproduction because males or females prefer them
    • Intrasexual (same sex) or intersexual (opposite sex)
    • Ex. Brad pitt:)
  • You survive because the other prefers the trait.
  • Cost- more prone to predators. Ex. Peacocks. Beautiful feathers-mating but will get eaten.
  • Fiddler crab:Claw-to battle other males.
 sexual dimorphismIndividuals of most sexually reproducing organisms have a distinct male or female phenotype (common in mammals and birds)
How does this condition come about and what maintains it?
  • Non random mating selects for alleles from preferred traits that prevail over generations
  • Females are often the main agents of selection 
 hybridization (form of crossbreeding)Sexual reproduction between 2 different species
Usually results in infertility (low sperm or egg count) or sterility ( no viable sperm or egg_
Ex- mule
  • Male = sterile
  • Female - infertile
  • Can happen in nature but is very rare. Horse is big and fast, have no stamina. Donkey-strong and endurance. But lack size.
  • Ex. Liger 
 types of variation 31. normal
2. polymorphic
3. ecogeographic
 normal variationcontinuous. ex. height, weight, etc. expressed over a bell curvve. 
 Polymorphic variationdiscrete
ex. eye color
plots ireegularly 
 ecogeographic variationvariation along a ecological or geographic gradient 
ex. bird wing length
perfectly up or down. can trend up or down
can be size of water from high to low. size of leaf. 
 evolutionary (darwin's) fitness.
  • the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contribution of other individuals.
    • How many offspring you have with the genes you pass on
 natural selection
  • Acts on phenotypes not genotypes
  • If organism is adapted to environment = positive contribution
    • One is contributing more than other
  • If organism is not adapted to environment= negative contribution
    • One is contributing less
 normal variation
  • + = positive contribution ( well adapted)
  • -  = negative contribution (not well adapted)
  • Many individuals will cluster around the mean.  (get graph online)
  • Clustered around mean. Those near the middle are giving a positive contribution and those on the ends are giving a negative contribution. 
 stabilizing selection

Intermediated forms of traits are favored and extreme forms are eliminated from populations

Reduces variation

Preserves the most common phenotype (phenotypic character)

Basic conditions

Environment remains stable over time

Organisms have obtained a high state of adaptiveness.

Over time the hump will narrow up.

Individuals that are well adapted cluster around the mean

Ex. Human birth weight. 

 directional selection

Allele frequencies in a range of phenotypic characteristics shift in a one direction or another

Individuals that deviate from the average are favored

Occur when mutations appear and prove adaptive (effective and useful)

Ex. Our earth-static and stable? No. fluctuates. Ex. 1000 cycle of colder weather.

Basic conditions

Environ and or bio conditions area changing over time

Species cant be completely adapted to the changing conditions.

Hump graph. Negative on one half. Positive on the other (graph)

Will shift left or right. Mean changes

Takes a long time to do. A slow process. Time scale is long.

Individual at one end of the range for some phenotypic character become more common than intermediate forms

Ex. European Brown bear

Bears get smaller with warmer weather.

Ex. Peppered moth ( bison betularia)

 disruptive selection

Phenotypic characters at both ends of the range of variation are favored Intermediate forms are selected against

Basic conditions :Positive selection tends to effect the extremes not the means On the edges and negatives are in the middle.

The number of organism is often reduced (graph) Time scale is short. Creates a two humped bimodal hump

Reduction of organisms.

Ex. Black bellied see cracker finches (pyrenestes ostrinus)

 artificial selectionselection by humans. 
  • Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals
  • Selection and breeding of individuals with desired traits
  • Hybridization (cross breeding)
 Artificial selection ex. cannabis staiva (mary jane)
  • Selected for thick woody stems= hemp fiber
  • Selected for large oily seeds= hemp oil
  • Selected for large resinous leaves and flower buds = psychoactive drug ( THC- tetrahydrocannabinol)
    • Natural pesticides to not get consumed by animals
 artifiical selection Brassica Oleracea (mustard plant)Selected for leaves- mustard greens, kale
Selected for stem- kohl rabi-Thick juicy, lots of moisture load.
Selected for flowerBroccoli, cauliflower, broccoflower.-Different coloration. And consistency. White- don’t let it be in the sun
Selected for terminal buds Cabbage Modifications of flesshy
Selected for lateral buds
  • Brussel sprouts
Some forms are recent 20 yrs. Others have had longer time 
 genetic driftrandom change in allele frequencies over the generatins, brought by chance alone
 2 situations that increase the impact of genetic drift on a populationbottle neck effect

founders effect
 the bottleneck effect

A severe reduction in population size brought about by intense selection pressure or natural disaster :Contagious disease, habitat loss, hunting, volcanoes, etc.

Variation loss. Can go in different ways 

Survivors gene pool may no longer represent the original population By chance certain alleles may be over represented under represented or eliminated Genetic drift may continue to alter the gene pool until pop size is large

Ex. Elephant seals Little variation. Almost identical Ex. Cheetah. 

 the founder's effect

When a few individuals become isolated from a larger population

Isolated gene pool may no longer represent the original pop

Occurs when a few members migrate to a new habitation (found a new population) like an island

In the absence of gene flow, natural selection will alter allele frequencies in different ways due to genetic drift

Ex. Isolated islands.

Diverging genetically. 

 genetic divergence

Any structural, functional or behavioral difference that favors reproductive isolation is a by product of genetic change

Genetic changes between populations can be countered by gene flow ( homogenizes genetic differences)

Barriers prevent the exchange of genes between populations and leads to evolutionary divergence of each population.

Will lead to radical changes.

Ex. Meadowlark (wester and eastern) and rocky mountains. Birds went on both sides, but what makes them differ are the songs they sing to mate. 

 reproductive isolating mechanism

Any heritable feature of body form, functioning, or behavior that prevents interbreeding between one or more genetically divergent populations

Maintains post adaptations for specific environment

Want to maintain the stronger ones for your own environment

 types of reproductive isolation 2prezygotic isolation- premating
before or during fertilzation
weaker than post

postzygotic isolation-post mating
mechanisms of isolation after ferilization 
very difficult to reach, and stronger
 Prezygotic isolation : ecological isolation

Adaptation to different microclimates in the same habitat.

Based on ecology. More water available at bottom. The water availability is the factor.

Quercus lobata

Bigger

Querars agrifolia

Smaller. 

 Prezygotic isolation : geographic isolation

Isolated by distance or geographic barriers

Relative to the size of the organism

Ex. Louse ( lice) 2 subspecies

Head lice (pediculus humanus var. capitis)

Body lice (pediculus humanus var. vestimenti)

Wont cross, the neck area. Geographic isolation is the hairless region of the night

Based on size and locomotion

 Prezygotic isolation : temporal isolationisolated by reproductive events occurring at different times ( mating season do not overlap)
Ex. Cicadas 9 magicidada - 3 species
Insect mature underground , reproduce every 17 yrs
Each species has sibling species, reproduce every 13 years
Only once every 221 years do the sibling species release gametes at the same time.
Ex. Baboon.:Its genitals get swollen and red when ready to mate. Primates: 2-4 estrus cycles per year Humans : Estrus all year long. 
 Prezygotic isolation : ethological isolation

Isolated by behaviors

Copulation proceeded by courtship displays

Reciprocity produces sexual stimulation

Ex. The blue footed boobie

Checked his feet out, its size, dance, etc.

Paradise bird -Planet earth bird.

Blue bellied lizard or the "fence lizard"

Ostrich.

Ex. Birds Females genetically equipped to recognize behavioral signals by…

 Prezygotic isolation : mechanical isolation

Isolated by reproductive part size or shape behaviors

Ex. Insects (tsetse flies)

Sword penis

The girl has the shape where the penis could enter and remain or stick too. If its too big or not the right size, she will be she will be killed and he will be stuck and die eventually.

Result in death or mortality

 Prezygotic isolation : gametic moralityincompatibility. 
Gametes of different species are incompatible at the molecular level
Ex. Plant ( pollen grains) 
 Prezygotic isolation : gametic wastage

Minimum # of sperm required per species to achieve fertilization

Ex. Humans.

You need more sperm than eggs.

50-500 million sperm

20 million is infertile.

Strongest sperm survives. 

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