Koofers

second midterm material - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:EEMB 22 - BIO CONCEPT/CONTROV
Subject:Ecology, Evolution & Marine Biology
University:University of California - Santa Barbara
Term:Spring 2011
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
postzygotic isolation: zygotic wastage Minimum # of zygotes required per species to achieve a viable adult
  • Ex fish and invertebrates
Must have same eggs.
If not enough fertilized eggs, then it wont happen.
postzygotic isolation: hybrid sterility Ex. Mule. To transport
Either male or female sterile.
postzygotic isolation: hybrid inviability Offspring fertile but their offspring are sterile
Hybrids have low fitness ( weak and low survival rates)
First set of offspring are fertile then they become sterile
Fitness in terms of survivability. Or low reproductive success. 
phylogeny line of descent
can be seen by circle graph & box graph. 
Generated by Koofers.com
biological species concept (Ernest Mayer 1942)

Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductive isolated from other such groups

The capacity to contribute to a shared gene pool is qualification for species membership

This concept is good for animals, but is poor for plants and doesn’t apply to asexually reproducing organisms (bacteria)Also fails in cases of crossbreedingBinary fission- splitting into two.

Ex. Ants- classes: soldiers and worker.

Ex. Western / Eastern meadowlark Behavior was modified. Cant breed together but look the same

evidence for evolution: natural selection Pepper moth
Ex of directional selection and evolution
Strong selective pressures.
Can see at Gallapos islands
Continuing now 
evidence for evolution: artificial selection Selective breeding of animals and plants
        Mustard plant
Mimics natural evolutionary process.
evidence for evolution: fossil record (physical evidence of past life)

Estimated, <3% of what is found in nature has been found by man Oldest sediments contain the oldest fossils.

Fall , get covered, make sure no oxygen is there. best place of all: river.

Transitional forms Looks like a bush.  Tells us how things have changed in past Ex. Horse Lived in environment where it was easier to fossilize. River and wetland. 

Ex. Humans First at east Africa. Volcanic activity . Lots of ash  coverage.

Gives evidence of phylogeny ( line of descent)

Generated by Koofers.com
evidence for evolution: comparative anatomy ((Homologous structure))

Similar origins but different functions

Morphological divergence

modification of same body part in different ways in different lines of descent from a common ancestor

Example: wings of bats and arms of humans. ( both bones in the same area)

Start same place but differ

Stain cells.

Started at same place but changed over time. Whale- direction

evidence for evolution: comparative anatomy ((analogus structure))

Different origins but similar functions

Morphological convergence: once different but converge in structure& function to a similar environmental problem

Ex. Wings of bats, birds and insects.

Birds fused in- feathers are flying but the bon is supported.

The bat is flying with the bones itself just with skin over it.

Dragon fly- most agile animles. They osolate wings.

All three flying. Bird and bat use bone. But dragonfly is using kyite structure ( protein specfic for insects)

Ex of environ choosing the best characteristic for environ. 

evidence for evolution: embryology Shows previous evolutionary development and similarity between organisms
  • Tells us which are closer related than others.
  • Recapication responding
    • Seeing how organism develops back in time.
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny- not completely true ( development…
evidence for evolution: biogeography

Evolution of organisms are influenced by their distribution on the earth.

The earth is changing so we do to in order not to go extinct

Ex.Rhea- s. amer Emu- Australia Ostrich- Africa. Behaviors, eating, etc similar DNA's are close to one another.Closely related  Similar but all adapted in their specific area.

Plate tectonics ( continental Drift) Earth crustBroken into thin plates that raft on top of liquid mantle



Generated by Koofers.com
evidence for evolution: biochemical and molecular biology

Can identify similarities and differences among species at the molecular level

DNA hybridizationSplit DNA of 2 Species then recombine and split again The harder it is to break the molecular bonds, the more closely related the 2 species are

Molecular clock Neutral mutations accumulate in the DNA 'aint broke, don’t fix it" Example:Humans and chimpanzees share 98.4% of their DNA Humans and Gorillas share 97.7% of their DNA Less mutations- means common. Less common mutations- not really related. 

mass extinction 6 mass extinction shave reduced diversity on earth
Results in evolutionary change and radiation
Recovery required 20-100million years.
         Some are really big. Worst one- Permian which almost exterminated all
Life can propagate more life. All kinds of new species. Plant material. Coral in animals. 
6 mass extinctions: precambrian 570 million years ago
79% species die
6 mass extinctions: ordovician-Silurian 435 million years ago
100 families of marine invertebrates die
Generated by Koofers.com
6 mass extinctions: devonian-barboniferous 360 million years ago
More than 70%Of marine organism die
Sea Level declines, evidence of global cooling
Ice age
6 mass extinctions: Permian Triassic 240 million years ago
90-95% species lost "the great dying"
Major glaciations/ colossal lava outpourings
  • Lots of heat and cold.
  • Worst one
6 mass extinctions: cretaceous tertiary 65 million years ago
85% of all species disappear from land and oceans
Extinction of dinosaurs
125-140 million years on earth      
6 mass extinctions: Quaternary-present Humans as agents of mass extinction
Pollution and waste. We have killed all the big levels.
Generated by Koofers.com
causes of extinctions: local trends and individual extinctions

Biological events ( competition and predation)

Ex. Do Do bird. Driven to extinction 300 years ago onMauritiusSailors came to an island. Dumb bird. Wasn’t used to predators. After Do Do extinction Calveria tree stopped reproducing By 1970's only 13 trees remained. Aged at 300 years.Has a big fruit- avocado.Sent turkeys there to do that now.

Trees bred by processing of seeds via (domesticated) turkeys or humansAn extinction event of 1 species may lead to multiple extinctions of dependent ( co evolved) species.Secondary event.

Don’t explain massive losses.

causes of mass extinctions Geologic&extraterrestrial events: K-T Boundary extinction

Yucatan impact crate (9.6 km deep 300 kilometers across)Energy released by blast was equivalent to 100 mill nuclear blastsKT asteroid hit at 160000 km/hr and blasted 20000 km3 of gas and debris into the atmosphereGet caught in wind and spreads around earth and blocks sun and kills plants and the algae die and all the global ecosystem will die.  Not enough dust to do that tho. They forgotCreation of 120 tidal wavesBlacks sunlight for months killing primary producersAnimals starve to death.Golf of Mexico. Didn’t factor in the water and the creation of steam. Creator. 

causes of mass extinctions Geologic&extraterrestrial events: Global Broiling Hypothesis Energy released by blast was equal to 1oo mill blast
Trillions of tons of vaporized debris into the atm
Condenses into sand grain sized particles
Followed by second blast of steam co2
As describes falls to earth it raises at. Temp to 1000 degrees
  • Most intense at location of impact.
In one hour nearly all organisms are exterminated.
  • Other side could have survived as well. 
Clouds still there must deal with lack of sunlight and photosynthesis. 
extinction frequencies Mass extinctions occur regularly from 75-120 million years
The last mass extinction event occurred 65 mya
We have 10-60 million years to go. 
Generated by Koofers.com
PS written and chemical Written definition : PS= the process of converting light energy (E) into potential chemical energy
chemical:
CO2+ H2O to Light E to C6H12O6 + O2
(carbon dioxide and water) with light energy turns into (glucose and oxygen)
PS products Carbs : C- h20
  • Sugars, starches and alcohols
Sugars ( saccharide)
  • Ex. Flucose and fructose
    • Monosaccharide
      • One sugar units
    • Diasaccharide
      • Frutus
    • POLYSACCHARIDE
Glucose is the energy source that runs the world. 
plant structure: 3 organ systems Roots
  • Function- takes up nutrients, water and stabilizes the plants
Stems
  • Function- support and transport system from bottom to top of nutrients. An it brings down energy in form of glucose. Move leaves closer to light.
Leaves
  • Where the glucose is generated and produced. Captures light. 
plant structure 3 tissue types VascularMoves things around
Phloem:Carries photsynthate and water Taking sugar and moving it around the plant, primarily down. Phloem flows down
Xylem Carries minerals and H20 From bottom to top
Epidermis Like skin Used for protection
Ground tissue (undifferentiated tissue)
  • If plant is damaged, it become that tissue type.
  • Stem cell is similar to this.       
Generated by Koofers.com
where does PS take place? In any where above ground structure, but generally in the leaves.
Catus- has it all in the stems. Leaves are modified needles. 
what is the function of different leaf shapes? All radically different. Leafs are sued to catch light, not all big because you can lose water. 
High diversity in size and shape
Function is light capture. 
plant structure paradox Increase in leaf size will increase photosynthesis and capture more light
But an increase in PS increase the rate of water loss.
so the bigger the PS the more water lost
Biggest leaves in tropical
leaves: big leaves, sycamore leaves, pine trees, aloe vera Big leavesWaxy- water slips off & Exposed to water a lot so it can be big
Sycamore leaves Fuzzy-to keeps bugs off. Live low and near rivers. Lots of ground water. Big leaves.
Pine trees Temperate mountains Leaves deisgned for water retention Curled upon leaf
? Waxy-keep water off Thick Storing water.
Aloe vera
  • Spines and spikes, to stop others from eating it. 
Generated by Koofers.com
Internal leaf structure: cuticle leaf is covered with wax and prevents drying of leaf
diffusion
 high to low. high sources moves to sink and gets lower. ex. perfume

osmosis
movement of water through membrane
high in cell  and gets lower when it meets the sink of atmosphere. 

wax layer can reduce water loss from 90-95%
Internal leaf structure: epidermis

Stomata ( has no wax layer and shields an airspace)

Allows o2 and co2 exchange

Allows H20 loss and heat loss from leaf (evapotranspiration)

Protective shield. Has these holes in it. Needs to be able to close the holds of the Stomata. Guard cells open and close them. Swelled with water they expand

Internal leaf structure: mesophyll where PS takes place
2 types of cells
  • Palisade cells
    • Above, columns
  • Spongy mesophyll
    • Irregular, soft. On bottom lots of air space
Vascular bundles (xylem and phloem)
  • When they are side by side. 
Internal leaf structure: chloroplast Freen Body

Thylakoid membranes ( inner membranes)

Granum. Discs stacked thylakoid.

Pigments Absorb certain wavelength of light and reflect other wavelengths of light (faster the oscillation the stronger)Chlorophlls=green pigments Will absorb certainCarotenoids= orange/yellow pigments. Different kinds. To absorb certain wavelengths of light. To create sugar. 


Generated by Koofers.com
action spectrum Low to high energy. High being gamma. Low as in radio waves.
Plants are green
  • Because they reflect green light and absorb red and blue light.
  • Either absorbing counter color or reflecting all colors but one. 
3 consequences of light energy

Reflection

No usable. Just bounces off.

Transmission

Hit leaf and go through it. Vast majority is this one. They are mostly thin and are air.

Absorption

Only consequence capable of work.

You can transfer the light to create bonds.

Cells capable of PS: mesophyll and guard cells.

Only a smal amount of light capturesd 3% absorbed.

translocation Movement of material via diffusion from one sit ein the plant to another
Ex. Sugar
Leaves:High concentration moving to roots. Which is low.
Leaves (source)Then moved to flowers and stems which is moved to roots(sink).
CR written and chemical CR: process of converting potential chemical energy (food) into usable biochemical energy
Chemical
C6H12O6 to CO2+H2O + ATP + Heat Energy
(glucose) (oxygen) to (carbon dioxide) + (water)


Generated by Koofers.com
1 molecule of glucose produces how many ATP molecules? 38 ATP molecules 
forms of biochemical energy 3 Elections

NADH &FADH2
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( low to middle) $1
Favine adenine dinucleotide $5

ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate. $20
Bigger and more complex you are, the more better energy  you need.

energy gets highest at ATP
Stages of CR: 1. glycolysis Occurs in cytoplasm
Doesn’t require o2 (anaerobic)
Takes glucose. 6C and snaps it in half which liberates energy and creates Pyruvic which liberates energy.
Pyruvic acid 2 )3c) + little bit ATP (+ 4 H ++ energy stored in 2 ATP molecules) 
Stages in CR: 2. Citric acid cycle (Kreb's cycle)

Occurs in mitochondria. Does require o2 (aerobic) produce lots of electrons and Atp

More modern. It wasn’t in atmosphere when atmosphere started. More complex.

2 molecules of Pyruvic acid + 2H+   +3 O2. and make it into 2 carbon dioxide 


Generated by Koofers.com
Stages in CR: 3. Electron transport chain (phosphorylation)

Takes energy in form of NADH and FADH 2 and turns it into ATP occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria. Stripping off energy.

From intermediate through enzymes allow us to take it off.

Mit-energy factories of cells

Energy goes lower as it goes down the ladder. Pulled across from membranes and stripped from electrons. And left with less energy.

Produces 3 h20 and 34 ATP from one molecule of glucose.

what happens if there is no oxygen present? animals: 
go into anaerobic respiration (produces a little bit of ATP)
from pyruvic acid (3C)  to Lactic acid (3C)
no oxygen can lead to death

plants:
anaerobic fermentation (produces a little of ATP)
from pyruvic acid (3C) to either CO2 and Ethyl Alcohol (2C)
metabolism sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism
metabolism= anabolism+catabolism
anabolism Small chemicals to large chemicals
Liberate energy.
Build things. Require energy 
Generated by Koofers.com
catabolism Large chemicals to small chemicals.
Take big things and make them smaller.   
primary metabolism Photosynthesis
  • Produces glucose
    • If put into starch then its secondary.
Cellular respiration.
secondary metabolism Produces secondary metabolites ( what we do with it) take the sugar and store it
Ex. Glycogen, plant starch, lignin, etc.
Pants store as starch. We store it as Glycogen. We can makes thins with them 
carbon cycle: fixation of carbon via PS co2 to c6h12o6

found in atm, ground, or water
vast amount to PS occur in the ocean

CR: returns CO2 to atm. 

Generated by Koofers.com
gases in the atm N2
O2
CO2
reservoirs for carbon 4 Atmosphere: 10% fixed. 700 million metric tons of CO2 in at Only 70 million metric tons are fixed
Water1 billion metric tons are dissolved in the oceanscHigh productivity 50% of PS occurs in top 30 feet of ocean
Fossil fuels (industrial) 5 trillion metric tons in fossil fuels
Living organisms 6 billion to 1 trillion metric tons are in living organisms. 
Gaia hypothesis Lovelock and Margulies Physical and chemical condition of earth is made fit and comfortable for organism by organisms themselves
Earth is a global super organism
Homeostasis
Maintenance of stable internal conditions in the face of changing environ conditions
Planetary homeostasis on earth for 3.5 billion years.
  • Means earth has had a stable climatic
  • Goes to places with low concentration
homeostatis mean temp. Earth temp= 15 Celsius
  • Caused by our atmosphere band
  • Range 5-25 C o
Venus. Temp = 400 C o
  • Heats up quickly
Mars- 150 c on light side, -120 C on dark side
Generated by Koofers.com
what stabilizes the earth temperature? Sun has become 30%  hotter in last 3.5 billion years
Temp stability is due to earth's atmosphere and water
Life has stabilized temperature on earth.
Co2 has a high heat retention.
Methane has a higher heat retention. 
atmosphere & its gases atm gas maintains stability
gases:
CO2
water vapor
CH 4
N2
H2
He

all can trap heat. 
green house effect-global climate change: global warming

Thicker atm. (more gas)

Retains more heat

Temperature rises

Results

Ice caps melt, ocean level rises, flooding, drought, erratic weather.

Land masses decrease in size. Erratic weather.

Long term=climate the average for weather conditions over a long period of time

Weather is week to week.

green house effect-global climate change: global cooling

Thinner atm (less gas)

Retain less head

Temp falls

Results

Ice caps expand, oceans level falls, flooding, drought, erratic weather.

Generated by Koofers.com
evidence of global climate change Analysis of gas in Antarctic ice
25% increase in atm CO2 in last 1000 years
85% of this increase has occurred since 1870 (start of industrial revolution) when we first started burning fossil fuels
Long term problems for us- adapt of die.
Humans can be proactive. But we are reactive. 
by 2050 the avg global temp is projected to rise 2-5 degrees: what will happen if it does? If it rises 4 degrees that’s 5 to ten foot sea level rises.
Hurricanes
  • More intense today.
Polar bears
  • Have to swim further to catch prey. Gone in next 50-70 years. Generations will die due to the vast distance they must swim. 
CO2 Regulation: biochemical view Atm carbon is regulated primarily by organisms
CO2 Regulation: geochemical view atm carbon is regulated primarily by environment/ policy
Generated by Koofers.com
CO2 Regulation: biogeochemical view

Synthesis of biochemical view and geochemical view combined with strong human influence. Fusion of the two above. 


Ex. Human influence : # of humans and domestic animals
  • 25 times more heat retention.
  • 300-400 liters of methane=cows
  • 4-5 litters =human 

how do animals communicate? Morphologically
Physiologically
Chemically
Behaviorally
what are the purposes of communication? Social interaction
Sexual interaction
  • Don’t have skill set, you'll never met. Which is crucial for future generations
Defense interaction (alarm)
Ex. Pride of lions. Hunting, social, sexual,
Birds and meer cats.
Why do animals act like a social unit? For survival. Strong sense of cohesion increases survivability.
chemical communication: internal Nervous system
  • Driven by neurons. Signaled by electrical. And chemical.  Fast.
Endocrine system.
  • Hormonal.
Both maintain homeostasis(internal stability). Critical. 
Generated by Koofers.com
external chemical communication: chemical properties Easily vaporized ( volatility)
  • Turning it into gases. Why? Why to liquid to gas- spreads further and faster. From high to low concentration. 
external chemical communication: pheromones (4 kinds) DeterrentsKeep away
AttractantsSexual attentively. Calling someone over.
SuppressantsDecreases activity of others around you. Limiting the activity of other animals. Predators based it on motion. Bees lay a suppressor when they find a food supply.
StimulantsIncreases activity of other organisms around you. Locus, all track in on the same place.
Humans are interested in this because they want to control other organisms. 2 senses humans find are repugnant: decomposition, feces & vomit.   
external chemical communication: olfaction (smell) Receptors ( receive information )
Antennae : Picking up different signals.
Vomeronasal organ
why use chemicals? negt and post positive
  • Species specific
  • Low metabolic cost ( easy to produce and transform)
Negative
  • Directionally limited
  • Distance limited (diffused)
  • Diffusion is slow
  • Air and water current dependent
  • Discovery by other animals. 
Generated by Koofers.com
insect pheromones: sex pheromones 2 reactions must occur ( attract and icite copulation)
Released by males or females
  • Ex. Mediterranean fruit fly
    • Trimedlure (synthetic hormone)
    • Biocontrol
      • Papers, sterile males. 
insect pheromone: trail pheromones Used by social insects
Order trails
  • Ex. Bees, ants, termites
    • Follow scent trail (ants) bees will sting in same area. 
insect pheromone: aggregation pheromones sex and trial 

let each other know where to eat and who to mate with. 
defense pheromones Produced and delivered from 3 places
Mandibular glands
  • A spider. Produce venom and bite down. Venomous snakes, lizards.
Anal glands- skunk
Sting apparatus
Ex. Bees ( isoamyl acetate)
Ex. Citronellal and citral
Generated by Koofers.com
visual communication how? Color
Posture
Shape
Movement
Timing
Patterns
oral-aural communication To make and hear sounds
  • Sound travels through water than air
  • Ex. Whales
ethnology study of behavior
genetic behaviors modified by the environment
sociobiology social behaviors and biology
Generated by Koofers.com
are behaviors adaptive? If behaviors are adaptive
  • Natural selection can act on behaviors
  • Ex. Wolves- tight knit social structure. 
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 81 Print
 
Front
Back
 postzygotic isolation: zygotic wastageMinimum # of zygotes required per species to achieve a viable adult
  • Ex fish and invertebrates
Must have same eggs.
If not enough fertilized eggs, then it wont happen.
 postzygotic isolation: hybrid sterilityEx. Mule. To transport
Either male or female sterile.
 postzygotic isolation: hybrid inviabilityOffspring fertile but their offspring are sterile
Hybrids have low fitness ( weak and low survival rates)
First set of offspring are fertile then they become sterile
Fitness in terms of survivability. Or low reproductive success. 
 phylogenyline of descent
can be seen by circle graph & box graph. 
 biological species concept (Ernest Mayer 1942)

Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductive isolated from other such groups

The capacity to contribute to a shared gene pool is qualification for species membership

This concept is good for animals, but is poor for plants and doesn’t apply to asexually reproducing organisms (bacteria)Also fails in cases of crossbreedingBinary fission- splitting into two.

Ex. Ants- classes: soldiers and worker.

Ex. Western / Eastern meadowlark Behavior was modified. Cant breed together but look the same

 evidence for evolution: natural selectionPepper moth
Ex of directional selection and evolution
Strong selective pressures.
Can see at Gallapos islands
Continuing now 
 evidence for evolution: artificial selectionSelective breeding of animals and plants
        Mustard plant
Mimics natural evolutionary process.
 evidence for evolution: fossil record (physical evidence of past life)

Estimated, <3% of what is found in nature has been found by man Oldest sediments contain the oldest fossils.

Fall , get covered, make sure no oxygen is there. best place of all: river.

Transitional forms Looks like a bush.  Tells us how things have changed in past Ex. Horse Lived in environment where it was easier to fossilize. River and wetland. 

Ex. Humans First at east Africa. Volcanic activity . Lots of ash  coverage.

Gives evidence of phylogeny ( line of descent)

 evidence for evolution: comparative anatomy ((Homologous structure))

Similar origins but different functions

Morphological divergence

modification of same body part in different ways in different lines of descent from a common ancestor

Example: wings of bats and arms of humans. ( both bones in the same area)

Start same place but differ

Stain cells.

Started at same place but changed over time. Whale- direction

 evidence for evolution: comparative anatomy ((analogus structure))

Different origins but similar functions

Morphological convergence: once different but converge in structure& function to a similar environmental problem

Ex. Wings of bats, birds and insects.

Birds fused in- feathers are flying but the bon is supported.

The bat is flying with the bones itself just with skin over it.

Dragon fly- most agile animles. They osolate wings.

All three flying. Bird and bat use bone. But dragonfly is using kyite structure ( protein specfic for insects)

Ex of environ choosing the best characteristic for environ. 

 evidence for evolution: embryologyShows previous evolutionary development and similarity between organisms
  • Tells us which are closer related than others.
  • Recapication responding
    • Seeing how organism develops back in time.
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny- not completely true ( development…
 evidence for evolution: biogeography

Evolution of organisms are influenced by their distribution on the earth.

The earth is changing so we do to in order not to go extinct

Ex.Rhea- s. amer Emu- Australia Ostrich- Africa. Behaviors, eating, etc similar DNA's are close to one another.Closely related  Similar but all adapted in their specific area.

Plate tectonics ( continental Drift) Earth crustBroken into thin plates that raft on top of liquid mantle



 evidence for evolution: biochemical and molecular biology

Can identify similarities and differences among species at the molecular level

DNA hybridizationSplit DNA of 2 Species then recombine and split again The harder it is to break the molecular bonds, the more closely related the 2 species are

Molecular clock Neutral mutations accumulate in the DNA 'aint broke, don’t fix it" Example:Humans and chimpanzees share 98.4% of their DNA Humans and Gorillas share 97.7% of their DNA Less mutations- means common. Less common mutations- not really related. 

 mass extinction6 mass extinction shave reduced diversity on earth
Results in evolutionary change and radiation
Recovery required 20-100million years.
         Some are really big. Worst one- Permian which almost exterminated all
Life can propagate more life. All kinds of new species. Plant material. Coral in animals. 
 6 mass extinctions: precambrian570 million years ago
79% species die
 6 mass extinctions: ordovician-Silurian435 million years ago
100 families of marine invertebrates die
 6 mass extinctions: devonian-barboniferous360 million years ago
More than 70%Of marine organism die
Sea Level declines, evidence of global cooling
Ice age
 6 mass extinctions: Permian Triassic240 million years ago
90-95% species lost "the great dying"
Major glaciations/ colossal lava outpourings
  • Lots of heat and cold.
  • Worst one
 6 mass extinctions: cretaceous tertiary65 million years ago
85% of all species disappear from land and oceans
Extinction of dinosaurs
125-140 million years on earth      
 6 mass extinctions: Quaternary-presentHumans as agents of mass extinction
Pollution and waste. We have killed all the big levels.
 causes of extinctions: local trends and individual extinctions

Biological events ( competition and predation)

Ex. Do Do bird. Driven to extinction 300 years ago onMauritiusSailors came to an island. Dumb bird. Wasn’t used to predators. After Do Do extinction Calveria tree stopped reproducing By 1970's only 13 trees remained. Aged at 300 years.Has a big fruit- avocado.Sent turkeys there to do that now.

Trees bred by processing of seeds via (domesticated) turkeys or humansAn extinction event of 1 species may lead to multiple extinctions of dependent ( co evolved) species.Secondary event.

Don’t explain massive losses.

 causes of mass extinctions Geologic&extraterrestrial events: K-T Boundary extinction

Yucatan impact crate (9.6 km deep 300 kilometers across)Energy released by blast was equivalent to 100 mill nuclear blastsKT asteroid hit at 160000 km/hr and blasted 20000 km3 of gas and debris into the atmosphereGet caught in wind and spreads around earth and blocks sun and kills plants and the algae die and all the global ecosystem will die.  Not enough dust to do that tho. They forgotCreation of 120 tidal wavesBlacks sunlight for months killing primary producersAnimals starve to death.Golf of Mexico. Didn’t factor in the water and the creation of steam. Creator. 

 causes of mass extinctions Geologic&extraterrestrial events: Global Broiling HypothesisEnergy released by blast was equal to 1oo mill blast
Trillions of tons of vaporized debris into the atm
Condenses into sand grain sized particles
Followed by second blast of steam co2
As describes falls to earth it raises at. Temp to 1000 degrees
  • Most intense at location of impact.
In one hour nearly all organisms are exterminated.
  • Other side could have survived as well. 
Clouds still there must deal with lack of sunlight and photosynthesis. 
 extinction frequenciesMass extinctions occur regularly from 75-120 million years
The last mass extinction event occurred 65 mya
We have 10-60 million years to go. 
 PS written and chemicalWritten definition : PS= the process of converting light energy (E) into potential chemical energy
chemical:
CO2+ H2O to Light E to C6H12O6 + O2
(carbon dioxide and water) with light energy turns into (glucose and oxygen)
 PS productsCarbs : C- h20
  • Sugars, starches and alcohols
Sugars ( saccharide)
  • Ex. Flucose and fructose
    • Monosaccharide
      • One sugar units
    • Diasaccharide
      • Frutus
    • POLYSACCHARIDE
Glucose is the energy source that runs the world. 
 plant structure: 3 organ systemsRoots
  • Function- takes up nutrients, water and stabilizes the plants
Stems
  • Function- support and transport system from bottom to top of nutrients. An it brings down energy in form of glucose. Move leaves closer to light.
Leaves
  • Where the glucose is generated and produced. Captures light. 
 plant structure 3 tissue typesVascularMoves things around
Phloem:Carries photsynthate and water Taking sugar and moving it around the plant, primarily down. Phloem flows down
Xylem Carries minerals and H20 From bottom to top
Epidermis Like skin Used for protection
Ground tissue (undifferentiated tissue)
  • If plant is damaged, it become that tissue type.
  • Stem cell is similar to this.       
 where does PS take place?In any where above ground structure, but generally in the leaves.
Catus- has it all in the stems. Leaves are modified needles. 
 what is the function of different leaf shapes?All radically different. Leafs are sued to catch light, not all big because you can lose water. 
High diversity in size and shape
Function is light capture. 
 plant structure paradoxIncrease in leaf size will increase photosynthesis and capture more light
But an increase in PS increase the rate of water loss.
so the bigger the PS the more water lost
Biggest leaves in tropical
 leaves: big leaves, sycamore leaves, pine trees, aloe veraBig leavesWaxy- water slips off & Exposed to water a lot so it can be big
Sycamore leaves Fuzzy-to keeps bugs off. Live low and near rivers. Lots of ground water. Big leaves.
Pine trees Temperate mountains Leaves deisgned for water retention Curled upon leaf
? Waxy-keep water off Thick Storing water.
Aloe vera
  • Spines and spikes, to stop others from eating it. 
 Internal leaf structure: cuticleleaf is covered with wax and prevents drying of leaf
diffusion
 high to low. high sources moves to sink and gets lower. ex. perfume

osmosis
movement of water through membrane
high in cell  and gets lower when it meets the sink of atmosphere. 

wax layer can reduce water loss from 90-95%
 Internal leaf structure: epidermis

Stomata ( has no wax layer and shields an airspace)

Allows o2 and co2 exchange

Allows H20 loss and heat loss from leaf (evapotranspiration)

Protective shield. Has these holes in it. Needs to be able to close the holds of the Stomata. Guard cells open and close them. Swelled with water they expand

 Internal leaf structure: mesophyllwhere PS takes place
2 types of cells
  • Palisade cells
    • Above, columns
  • Spongy mesophyll
    • Irregular, soft. On bottom lots of air space
Vascular bundles (xylem and phloem)
  • When they are side by side. 
 Internal leaf structure: chloroplastFreen Body

Thylakoid membranes ( inner membranes)

Granum. Discs stacked thylakoid.

Pigments Absorb certain wavelength of light and reflect other wavelengths of light (faster the oscillation the stronger)Chlorophlls=green pigments Will absorb certainCarotenoids= orange/yellow pigments. Different kinds. To absorb certain wavelengths of light. To create sugar. 


 action spectrumLow to high energy. High being gamma. Low as in radio waves.
Plants are green
  • Because they reflect green light and absorb red and blue light.
  • Either absorbing counter color or reflecting all colors but one. 
 3 consequences of light energy

Reflection

No usable. Just bounces off.

Transmission

Hit leaf and go through it. Vast majority is this one. They are mostly thin and are air.

Absorption

Only consequence capable of work.

You can transfer the light to create bonds.

Cells capable of PS: mesophyll and guard cells.

Only a smal amount of light capturesd 3% absorbed.

 translocationMovement of material via diffusion from one sit ein the plant to another
Ex. Sugar
Leaves:High concentration moving to roots. Which is low.
Leaves (source)Then moved to flowers and stems which is moved to roots(sink).
 CR written and chemicalCR: process of converting potential chemical energy (food) into usable biochemical energy
Chemical
C6H12O6 to CO2+H2O + ATP + Heat Energy
(glucose) (oxygen) to (carbon dioxide) + (water)


 1 molecule of glucose produces how many ATP molecules?38 ATP molecules 
 forms of biochemical energy 3Elections

NADH &FADH2
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( low to middle) $1
Favine adenine dinucleotide $5

ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate. $20
Bigger and more complex you are, the more better energy  you need.

energy gets highest at ATP
 Stages of CR: 1. glycolysisOccurs in cytoplasm
Doesn’t require o2 (anaerobic)
Takes glucose. 6C and snaps it in half which liberates energy and creates Pyruvic which liberates energy.
Pyruvic acid 2 )3c) + little bit ATP (+ 4 H ++ energy stored in 2 ATP molecules) 
 Stages in CR: 2. Citric acid cycle (Kreb's cycle)

Occurs in mitochondria. Does require o2 (aerobic) produce lots of electrons and Atp

More modern. It wasn’t in atmosphere when atmosphere started. More complex.

2 molecules of Pyruvic acid + 2H+   +3 O2. and make it into 2 carbon dioxide 


 Stages in CR: 3. Electron transport chain (phosphorylation)

Takes energy in form of NADH and FADH 2 and turns it into ATP occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria. Stripping off energy.

From intermediate through enzymes allow us to take it off.

Mit-energy factories of cells

Energy goes lower as it goes down the ladder. Pulled across from membranes and stripped from electrons. And left with less energy.

Produces 3 h20 and 34 ATP from one molecule of glucose.

 what happens if there is no oxygen present?animals: 
go into anaerobic respiration (produces a little bit of ATP)
from pyruvic acid (3C)  to Lactic acid (3C)
no oxygen can lead to death

plants:
anaerobic fermentation (produces a little of ATP)
from pyruvic acid (3C) to either CO2 and Ethyl Alcohol (2C)
 metabolismsum total of all chemical reactions in an organism
metabolism= anabolism+catabolism
 anabolismSmall chemicals to large chemicals
Liberate energy.
Build things. Require energy 
 catabolismLarge chemicals to small chemicals.
Take big things and make them smaller.   
 primary metabolismPhotosynthesis
  • Produces glucose
    • If put into starch then its secondary.
Cellular respiration.
 secondary metabolismProduces secondary metabolites ( what we do with it) take the sugar and store it
Ex. Glycogen, plant starch, lignin, etc.
Pants store as starch. We store it as Glycogen. We can makes thins with them 
 carbon cycle: fixation of carbon via PSco2 to c6h12o6

found in atm, ground, or water
vast amount to PS occur in the ocean

CR: returns CO2 to atm. 

 gases in the atmN2
O2
CO2
 reservoirs for carbon 4Atmosphere: 10% fixed. 700 million metric tons of CO2 in at Only 70 million metric tons are fixed
Water1 billion metric tons are dissolved in the oceanscHigh productivity 50% of PS occurs in top 30 feet of ocean
Fossil fuels (industrial) 5 trillion metric tons in fossil fuels
Living organisms 6 billion to 1 trillion metric tons are in living organisms. 
 Gaia hypothesis Lovelock and MarguliesPhysical and chemical condition of earth is made fit and comfortable for organism by organisms themselves
Earth is a global super organism
Homeostasis
Maintenance of stable internal conditions in the face of changing environ conditions
Planetary homeostasis on earth for 3.5 billion years.
  • Means earth has had a stable climatic
  • Goes to places with low concentration
 homeostatis mean temp.Earth temp= 15 Celsius
  • Caused by our atmosphere band
  • Range 5-25 C o
Venus. Temp = 400 C o
  • Heats up quickly
Mars- 150 c on light side, -120 C on dark side
 what stabilizes the earth temperature?Sun has become 30%  hotter in last 3.5 billion years
Temp stability is due to earth's atmosphere and water
Life has stabilized temperature on earth.
Co2 has a high heat retention.
Methane has a higher heat retention. 
 atmosphere & its gasesatm gas maintains stability
gases:
CO2
water vapor
CH 4
N2
H2
He

all can trap heat. 
 green house effect-global climate change: global warming

Thicker atm. (more gas)

Retains more heat

Temperature rises

Results

Ice caps melt, ocean level rises, flooding, drought, erratic weather.

Land masses decrease in size. Erratic weather.

Long term=climate the average for weather conditions over a long period of time

Weather is week to week.

 green house effect-global climate change: global cooling

Thinner atm (less gas)

Retain less head

Temp falls

Results

Ice caps expand, oceans level falls, flooding, drought, erratic weather.

 evidence of global climate changeAnalysis of gas in Antarctic ice
25% increase in atm CO2 in last 1000 years
85% of this increase has occurred since 1870 (start of industrial revolution) when we first started burning fossil fuels
Long term problems for us- adapt of die.
Humans can be proactive. But we are reactive. 
 by 2050 the avg global temp is projected to rise 2-5 degrees: what will happen if it does?If it rises 4 degrees that’s 5 to ten foot sea level rises.
Hurricanes
  • More intense today.
Polar bears
  • Have to swim further to catch prey. Gone in next 50-70 years. Generations will die due to the vast distance they must swim. 
 CO2 Regulation: biochemical viewAtm carbon is regulated primarily by organisms
 CO2 Regulation: geochemical viewatm carbon is regulated primarily by environment/ policy
 CO2 Regulation: biogeochemical view

Synthesis of biochemical view and geochemical view combined with strong human influence. Fusion of the two above. 


Ex. Human influence : # of humans and domestic animals
  • 25 times more heat retention.
  • 300-400 liters of methane=cows
  • 4-5 litters =human 

 how do animals communicate?Morphologically
Physiologically
Chemically
Behaviorally
 what are the purposes of communication?Social interaction
Sexual interaction
  • Don’t have skill set, you'll never met. Which is crucial for future generations
Defense interaction (alarm)
Ex. Pride of lions. Hunting, social, sexual,
Birds and meer cats.
Why do animals act like a social unit? For survival. Strong sense of cohesion increases survivability.
 chemical communication: internalNervous system
  • Driven by neurons. Signaled by electrical. And chemical.  Fast.
Endocrine system.
  • Hormonal.
Both maintain homeostasis(internal stability). Critical. 
 external chemical communication: chemical propertiesEasily vaporized ( volatility)
  • Turning it into gases. Why? Why to liquid to gas- spreads further and faster. From high to low concentration. 
 external chemical communication: pheromones (4 kinds)DeterrentsKeep away
AttractantsSexual attentively. Calling someone over.
SuppressantsDecreases activity of others around you. Limiting the activity of other animals. Predators based it on motion. Bees lay a suppressor when they find a food supply.
StimulantsIncreases activity of other organisms around you. Locus, all track in on the same place.
Humans are interested in this because they want to control other organisms. 2 senses humans find are repugnant: decomposition, feces & vomit.   
 external chemical communication: olfaction (smell)Receptors ( receive information )
Antennae : Picking up different signals.
Vomeronasal organ
 why use chemicals? negt and postpositive
  • Species specific
  • Low metabolic cost ( easy to produce and transform)
Negative
  • Directionally limited
  • Distance limited (diffused)
  • Diffusion is slow
  • Air and water current dependent
  • Discovery by other animals. 
 insect pheromones: sex pheromones2 reactions must occur ( attract and icite copulation)
Released by males or females
  • Ex. Mediterranean fruit fly
    • Trimedlure (synthetic hormone)
    • Biocontrol
      • Papers, sterile males. 
 insect pheromone: trail pheromonesUsed by social insects
Order trails
  • Ex. Bees, ants, termites
    • Follow scent trail (ants) bees will sting in same area. 
 insect pheromone: aggregation pheromonessex and trial 

let each other know where to eat and who to mate with. 
 defense pheromonesProduced and delivered from 3 places
Mandibular glands
  • A spider. Produce venom and bite down. Venomous snakes, lizards.
Anal glands- skunk
Sting apparatus
Ex. Bees ( isoamyl acetate)
Ex. Citronellal and citral
 visual communication how?Color
Posture
Shape
Movement
Timing
Patterns
 oral-aural communicationTo make and hear sounds
  • Sound travels through water than air
  • Ex. Whales
 ethnologystudy of behavior
genetic behaviors modified by the environment
 sociobiologysocial behaviors and biology
 are behaviors adaptive?If behaviors are adaptive
  • Natural selection can act on behaviors
  • Ex. Wolves- tight knit social structure. 
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"