Koofers

TEST 2 - Espelie (REALLY HELPFUL) - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2013
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
ODONATA dragonflies, damselflies
"odous" tooth
dragonflies and damselflies

       Incomplete metamorphosis
       Biting mouthparts
       Two pair wings
       Very large eyes
       Very small antennae
       Long abdomen
       Nymphs are aquatic
       Nymphs and adults are predators
     Considered beneficial 

Dragonfly vs. damselfly

·       Damselflies are smaller
·       Damselflies hold wings straight back at rest. Dragonflies hold wings out to side.
     Damselflies lay eggs in plant stems under water. Dragonflies lay eggs on water surface.    

Generated by Koofers.com
Dragonfly mating

·       Males are territorial
·       Mate in wheel position
·       Male first removes rival sperm from female
·       Male and female are in tandem during egg laying
·       This keeps other males from mating with female

BLATTODEA cockroaches
"blatta" cockroach
Cockroaches (1)

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Two pair wings
·       Nocturnal omnivores
·       Flattened body
·       Eggs laid in egg case = ootheca
·       Domestic pests

Generated by Koofers.com
Cockroaches (2)

·       Cockroach is adapted to living with humans
·       Only 20 roach species are pests
·       Peripheral vision
·       Antennae detect food and water. They keep antennae clean.
       Tail hairs are sensitive to movement. 
What pest did termites evolve from? cockroaches
Cockroach mating

·       Male strokes female antennae to identify her
·       Male offers a good gift to her
·       They mate end to end
·       Female mates once and stores sperm
·       She can have 7 broods
·       Ootheca has 40 eggs
·       Nymphs burst ootheca by gulping air

ORTHOPTERA grasshoppers, crickets, locusts
Generated by Koofers.com
"orthos" "ptera" straight wings
grasshoppers, crickets

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Front wings are narrow
·       Back wings are fan-like
·       Strong hind legs
·       Males produce sound - receptors on leg/abdomen
·       Oviposit eggs in soil or a plant
·       Plant eaters
·       Major agricultural pests

Cricket song

·       Each species is different
·       More chirps/second = high temperature
·       Establish territory
·       Call a female
·       Warn others of predators
·       Crickets and some grasshoppers rub wings together·      Grasshoppers and locusts rub a leg against a wing
Wings/legs have bumps and ridges = “file and scraper”
Wing can serve as amplifier 

Gryllus Gryllus is a genus of crickets. 
Generated by Koofers.com
Locusts

·       #1 agricultural insect pest in the world. 2 phases: solitary, gregarious
·       Stimulation of hairs on back legs of solitary locusts causes swarming: solitary ->gregarious
·       Swarm covers 500 sq miles and have 50 billion insects
·       Nymphs stay in soil several years during drought
·       Locust swarms in Africa: eat all food in one area and travel to a different location
·       Travel 65 miles/day

HEMIPTERA true bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas, spittlebugs
"hemi" "ptera" half wings
true bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas, spittlebugs

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Piercing and sucking mouthparts
·       Pest of crops
·       Transmit disease
·       Bed bugs feed at night, inject an anesthetic, and suck human blood

Generated by Koofers.com
True bugs

·       Mouthparts “beak” swing forward
·       Many species are predators
·       Base of forewing is hardened
·       Back of forewing is membranous
·       Many have stink glands

What kind of mouthparts does the Assassin Bug have? piercing/sucking mouthparts    
Chagas' Disease: vector assassin bug/kissing bug
Chagas' Disease: specific name Trypanasoma (Genus)
Generated by Koofers.com
Chagas' Disease: disease agent protozoan
Chagas' Disease

·       One million people die per year

·       Primarily in South America

·       Attacks the heart

·       Hard to diagnose; no cure

·       Reservoir hosts = opossums and armadillos

Chagas' Disease: spread

·       Kissing bug feeds on victim at night
·       Kissing bug defecates on victim’s face
·       Victim rubs feces + Trypanasoma into wound
·       Xenodiagnosis of Chagas’ Disease: laboratory kissing bug feed on patient; 10 days later, they look for Trypanasoma in kissing blood feces

Xenodiagnosis use of live vector to diagnose disease    
Generated by Koofers.com
Aphids

·       Mouthparts “beak” swing down, plant feeders
·       Membranous wings
·       Agricultural pests
·       Have many predators
·       Give birth to nymphs
·       Plant defense=sticky hairs
·       Usually wingless - overpopn. results in winged aphids
·       Piercing/sucking mouthparts
·       Tended by ants for honeydew

Honeydew

·       a sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids
-        Allows water excretion
-        Attracts ants
-        Can cause fungal growth
-        Manna

COLEOPTERA beetles, weevils
"coleo" "ptera" sheath wings
Generated by Koofers.com
beetles, weevils

·       Complete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Forewings hardened
·       Hind wings membranous
·       Thickened exoskeleton
·       Pests of crop and trees
·       Largest insect order

Complete metamorphosis egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult    
Ladybugs

·       Lift up front wings and fly with hind wings
·       Beneficial – eat aphids
·       Adult ladybugs overwinter in massive clusters
·       Collected and sold for biological control

Fireflies

·       Each species has a unique flash pattern
·       Male flashes to attract female, female flashes in response
·       Genders have different flash patterns
·       Some females mimic flash patterns of females of other species and prey on males
·       Larvae are aposematic – glow to deter predators
·       Flash in unison only in India and Tennessee
·       Produce light with Luciferin

Generated by Koofers.com
Luciferin a pigment that yields light when combined with oxygen. 98% of energy is released as light    
Elephant dung beetles

·       Many insects attracted to dung
·       Dung beetles have specialized mouthparts
·       They roll dung into balls
·       Civet cats feed on dung beetles
·       Civet cats produce civetone in anal gland
·       Civetone is used in perfumes

Scarab    Stone beetle
     The symbol of the soul in Ancient Egypt
       Sun God Ra
       Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction 
Spanish fly

·       “Blister beetle”
·       Produces a toxin: cantharidin
·       Hippocrates used cantharidin as medicine
·       Marquis de Sade used cantharidin as aphrodisiac
·       Cantharidin causes burning sensation in groin
·       Cantharidin destroys mucous linings in the body

Generated by Koofers.com
Whirligig beetle

·       Scavenger
·       Has divided eyes so it can see above and below water
·       Spins in circles to create waves that bounce back to beetle when they hit food item
·       Carries air bubble to breathe underwater

LEPIDOPTERA butterflies, moths
"lepido" "ptera" scale wings
Butterflies, moths

·       Complete metamorphosis
·       Siphoning mouthparts
·       Wings have scales
·       Scales = modified hairs
·       Larvae feed on plants
·       Larvae spin silk
·       Greatest color variation
·       Major agricultural pest

Generated by Koofers.com
Morpho Butterfly

·       Morpho: beautiful or well-made
·       Upper wings are iridescent blue
·       Lower wings are plain brown 

LEPIDOPTERIAN larvae

·       Leaf eating machines
·       Must molt 4-5 times
·       Have soft cuticle
·       Need defense:
-        Camouflage
-        Warning coloration
-        Toxic spines

LEPIDOPTERIAN adults

·       Feed to get flight fuel
·       Mate abdomen to abdomen
·       Female lays eggs on host plant

LEPIDOPTERA: Generalists vs. Specialists

·       Generalists: eat many plant species
·       Specialists: eat only one (or a few) plant species

Generated by Koofers.com
Florida Queen Butterfly

·       Florida Queen and Viceroy look similar
·       Finds mate with sex pheromone
·       Male and female do courtship dance
·       Male uses hair pencils to dust female with pheromone

Monarch Butterfly

·       Larvae feed on milkweed
·       Sequester toxic alkaloids (cardenolides)
·       Predators leave larvae and adults alone
·       Fall: 4th generation adults – migrate 2,500 miles to Mexico
·       Winter: dormant in monarch forests
·       Spring: mate and return to US
·       Mexican holiday: Return of monarchs represents return of souls of people who die yearly

Plant defense: silicon oxide like eating glass
Plant defense: proteinase inhibitors animal can't digest food
Generated by Koofers.com
Plant defense: secondary plant products toxic compounds
Trichomes

       Hairs 
      May produce toxins
       May be sticky
       May be spines or hooks

Wounded plants want to...

·       Limit water loss
·       Prevent fungal/bacterial infection
·       Deter herbivory

Jurassic Park

·       Fossilized plant resin = amber = gem
·       DNA found in fossil insects
·       Sequence fossil DNA
·       Determine relatedness of insect species
·       Recover dinosaur blood DNA from fossil mosquito

Generated by Koofers.com
Carnivorous Plants

·       Habitat is low in nutrients
·       Digest protein of prey
·       Have modified structure to catch insects 

4 types of Carnivorous Plants 1. Sundews
2. Venus Fly Trap
3. Bladderworts
4. Pitcher Plants
Sundews

·       Bright colors attract insects
·       Lead tentacles have sticky glue
·       Electrical signal causes leaf to curl
·       Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey

Venus Fly Traps

·       Has trigger hairs inside leaf
·       Touching trigger hairs causes electrical signal
·       Two signals cause rapid growth of outer leaf cells
·       Leaf closes on insect; Venus digests it
·       It is native only to wetlands of North Carolina and South Carolina

Generated by Koofers.com
Bladderworts

·       Aquatic
·       Have bladder with a trap door
·       When pretty item hits trigger, it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000th of a second

Pitcher Plants

·       Flower-like: nectar and color attract insects
·       Inside: downward pointing hairs and loose wax
·       I fall into “pool” and are digested

MANTODEA mantis, mantid
"mantis" prophet
Generated by Koofers.com
Mantis

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts, carnivorous
·       0.5-6 inches long, cryptic coloration
·       Raptorial forelegs, long thorax
·       Eggs laid in ootheca
·       Sways back and forth prior to attack
·       Has spines on front legs to hold prey; when they catch it, they don’t let go

Preying Mantis

·       Eggs are laid in an egg case = ootheca
·       Generalist predator
·       Uses antennae to recognize prey
·       Exerts selective pressure: prey with best mimicry survive. 

PHASMIDA walking sticks
"phasma" apparition
Generated by Koofers.com
Walking sticks

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Long and slender body
·       Cryptic coloration
·       Feed on plants
·       Feign death when threatened
·       Autotomy = loss of a leg to escape 

Natural Selection

Change in the frequency of genetic traits in a population through differential survival of individuals bearing those traits.


  •      Blue Jay (predator) eats moths: 50 years ago, most moths were pale. Pale moths were hard to see on trees.  Pollution darkened trees. Today most moths are dark. Dark moths are now harder to catch.

Batesian mimicry (with example)

Resemblance of an edible species (mimic) to an unpalatable species (model) to deceive predators.


Ex: Viceroy looks like Monarch butterfly.
·       Monarch larva eats toxic milkweed
·       Viceroy larva eats non-toxic willow
·       Monarch adult is toxic = model
·       Viceroy adult is not toxic = mimic
·       Blue jay learns to avoid mimic

Mullerian mimicry mutual resemblance of two or more unpalatable species to enhance predator avoidance 
Generated by Koofers.com
Crypsis resemblance of an organism to its background 
Passion Vine and Butterfly interaction

·       PV leaves have toxins to deter insects
·       Some butterfly species can eat only 1 PV species
·       PV leaves mimic each other to confuse butterflies
·       Female butterfly lays one egg per leaf because larvae are cannibals
·       PV makes mimic eggs on leaf
·       Butterfly avoids PV leaves with mimic eggs

DIPTERA flies, mosquitoes
"di" "ptera" two wings (total)
Generated by Koofers.com
Flies, mosquitoes

·       Complete metamorphosis
·       Piercing/sucking or sponging mouthparts
·       1 pair of membranous wings, no hind wings
·       Halteres = stabilizers (replace hind wings)
·       Primitive larvae=maggots
·       Many larvae are aquatic
·       Most harmful order: many members cause disease

Flight of flies/mosquitoes

·       Flies are the best insect fliers

·       Hoverflies: 175 wing beats/second

·       Halteres give stability

Housefly

·       Regurgitates on food; enzymes soften food; uses sponging mouthparts

·       Transmits disease mechanically: picks up disease somewhere and carries disease to another location

Medical Treatment (maggots)

·       People with poor circulation

·       Leg/arm wounds heal slowly

·       Add fly maggots to wound

·       Maggots eat dead flesh

·       Prevents amputation 

Generated by Koofers.com
African Sleeping Sickness

·       Drug treatment is effective

·       65,000 deaths per year

·       Will people and cows

·       Wild animals=reservoir host

·       Africans cant raise catlle

·       People of Africa need more protein

·       Tsetse fly=”Guardian of Africa” because native habitat has been saved

African Sleeping Sickness: vector tsetse fly
African Sleeping Sickness: disease agent protozoan
African Sleeping Sickness: specific name

·       Trypanosoma (Genus)

Generated by Koofers.com
tsetse fly female

·       Does not lay eggs

·       1 egg hatches inside it

·       Larva developes inside

·       Mature larva is born

·       Larva burrows into soil and pupates

·       Adult emerges from soil

·       Female produces only 8 larvae

Mosquitoes

·       Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing.

·       Female attracted to host CO2; sound of females’ wings attract males

·       Eggs don’t develop without a Blood meal

·       Head produces hormones needed for egg production

·       Mosquitoes have piercing/sucking mouthparts: Protective sheath, Tube to suck blood, Knife-like mouthparts, Saliva injector (stop blood clotting)



·

What fraction of humans have an insect-vectored disease? 1/6
What disease has killed more people than any other disease? Malaria
Generated by Koofers.com
Ronald Ross showed that mosquitoes vector malaria (1897)
Walter Reed showed that mosquitoes vector yellow fever (1900)
Malaria: vector mosquitoes
Malaria: disease agent protozoan
Generated by Koofers.com
Malaria: specific name Anopheles (Genus)    
Malaria

·       Drug treatment is effective

·       South America, Africa, and Asia

·       2 million deaths per year

·       500 million new cases per year

Yellow Fever: vector mosquito
Yellow Fever: disease agent virus
Generated by Koofers.com
Yellow Fever: reservoir host monkeys
Yellow Fever Worst in South America and Africa        
No effective treatment 

Dengue Fever

·       South America, Africa, and Asia

·       No effective treatment 

Dengue Fever: vector mosquito
Generated by Koofers.com
Dengue Fever: disease agent virus

Natural Selection in Africa

·       A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin

·       This change provided resistance to malaria

·       People with 1 copy of gene survive malaria

·       People with 2 copies have Sickle Cell Anemia

Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 102 Print
 
Front
Back
 ODONATAdragonflies, damselflies
 "odous"tooth
 dragonflies and damselflies

       Incomplete metamorphosis
       Biting mouthparts
       Two pair wings
       Very large eyes
       Very small antennae
       Long abdomen
       Nymphs are aquatic
       Nymphs and adults are predators
     Considered beneficial 

 Dragonfly vs. damselfly

·       Damselflies are smaller
·       Damselflies hold wings straight back at rest. Dragonflies hold wings out to side.
     Damselflies lay eggs in plant stems under water. Dragonflies lay eggs on water surface.    

 Dragonfly mating

·       Males are territorial
·       Mate in wheel position
·       Male first removes rival sperm from female
·       Male and female are in tandem during egg laying
·       This keeps other males from mating with female

 BLATTODEAcockroaches
 "blatta"cockroach
 Cockroaches (1)

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Two pair wings
·       Nocturnal omnivores
·       Flattened body
·       Eggs laid in egg case = ootheca
·       Domestic pests

 Cockroaches (2)

·       Cockroach is adapted to living with humans
·       Only 20 roach species are pests
·       Peripheral vision
·       Antennae detect food and water. They keep antennae clean.
       Tail hairs are sensitive to movement. 
 What pest did termites evolve from?cockroaches
 Cockroach mating

·       Male strokes female antennae to identify her
·       Male offers a good gift to her
·       They mate end to end
·       Female mates once and stores sperm
·       She can have 7 broods
·       Ootheca has 40 eggs
·       Nymphs burst ootheca by gulping air

 ORTHOPTERAgrasshoppers, crickets, locusts
 "orthos" "ptera"straight wings
 grasshoppers, crickets

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Front wings are narrow
·       Back wings are fan-like
·       Strong hind legs
·       Males produce sound - receptors on leg/abdomen
·       Oviposit eggs in soil or a plant
·       Plant eaters
·       Major agricultural pests

 Cricket song

·       Each species is different
·       More chirps/second = high temperature
·       Establish territory
·       Call a female
·       Warn others of predators
·       Crickets and some grasshoppers rub wings together·      Grasshoppers and locusts rub a leg against a wing
Wings/legs have bumps and ridges = “file and scraper”
Wing can serve as amplifier 

 GryllusGryllus is a genus of crickets. 
 Locusts

·       #1 agricultural insect pest in the world. 2 phases: solitary, gregarious
·       Stimulation of hairs on back legs of solitary locusts causes swarming: solitary ->gregarious
·       Swarm covers 500 sq miles and have 50 billion insects
·       Nymphs stay in soil several years during drought
·       Locust swarms in Africa: eat all food in one area and travel to a different location
·       Travel 65 miles/day

 HEMIPTERAtrue bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas, spittlebugs
 "hemi" "ptera"half wings
 true bugs, aphids, scales, cicadas, spittlebugs

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Piercing and sucking mouthparts
·       Pest of crops
·       Transmit disease
·       Bed bugs feed at night, inject an anesthetic, and suck human blood

 True bugs

·       Mouthparts “beak” swing forward
·       Many species are predators
·       Base of forewing is hardened
·       Back of forewing is membranous
·       Many have stink glands

 What kind of mouthparts does the Assassin Bug have?piercing/sucking mouthparts    
 Chagas' Disease: vectorassassin bug/kissing bug
 Chagas' Disease: specific nameTrypanasoma (Genus)
 Chagas' Disease: disease agentprotozoan
 Chagas' Disease

·       One million people die per year

·       Primarily in South America

·       Attacks the heart

·       Hard to diagnose; no cure

·       Reservoir hosts = opossums and armadillos

 Chagas' Disease: spread

·       Kissing bug feeds on victim at night
·       Kissing bug defecates on victim’s face
·       Victim rubs feces + Trypanasoma into wound
·       Xenodiagnosis of Chagas’ Disease: laboratory kissing bug feed on patient; 10 days later, they look for Trypanasoma in kissing blood feces

 Xenodiagnosisuse of live vector to diagnose disease    
 Aphids

·       Mouthparts “beak” swing down, plant feeders
·       Membranous wings
·       Agricultural pests
·       Have many predators
·       Give birth to nymphs
·       Plant defense=sticky hairs
·       Usually wingless - overpopn. results in winged aphids
·       Piercing/sucking mouthparts
·       Tended by ants for honeydew

 Honeydew

·       a sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids
-        Allows water excretion
-        Attracts ants
-        Can cause fungal growth
-        Manna

 COLEOPTERAbeetles, weevils
 "coleo" "ptera"sheath wings
 beetles, weevils

·       Complete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Forewings hardened
·       Hind wings membranous
·       Thickened exoskeleton
·       Pests of crop and trees
·       Largest insect order

 Complete metamorphosisegg -> larva -> pupa -> adult    
 Ladybugs

·       Lift up front wings and fly with hind wings
·       Beneficial – eat aphids
·       Adult ladybugs overwinter in massive clusters
·       Collected and sold for biological control

 Fireflies

·       Each species has a unique flash pattern
·       Male flashes to attract female, female flashes in response
·       Genders have different flash patterns
·       Some females mimic flash patterns of females of other species and prey on males
·       Larvae are aposematic – glow to deter predators
·       Flash in unison only in India and Tennessee
·       Produce light with Luciferin

 Luciferina pigment that yields light when combined with oxygen. 98% of energy is released as light    
 Elephant dung beetles

·       Many insects attracted to dung
·       Dung beetles have specialized mouthparts
·       They roll dung into balls
·       Civet cats feed on dung beetles
·       Civet cats produce civetone in anal gland
·       Civetone is used in perfumes

 Scarab   Stone beetle
     The symbol of the soul in Ancient Egypt
       Sun God Ra
       Beetle metamorphosis may have inspired pyramid construction 
 Spanish fly

·       “Blister beetle”
·       Produces a toxin: cantharidin
·       Hippocrates used cantharidin as medicine
·       Marquis de Sade used cantharidin as aphrodisiac
·       Cantharidin causes burning sensation in groin
·       Cantharidin destroys mucous linings in the body

 Whirligig beetle

·       Scavenger
·       Has divided eyes so it can see above and below water
·       Spins in circles to create waves that bounce back to beetle when they hit food item
·       Carries air bubble to breathe underwater

 LEPIDOPTERAbutterflies, moths
 "lepido" "ptera"scale wings
 Butterflies, moths

·       Complete metamorphosis
·       Siphoning mouthparts
·       Wings have scales
·       Scales = modified hairs
·       Larvae feed on plants
·       Larvae spin silk
·       Greatest color variation
·       Major agricultural pest

 Morpho Butterfly

·       Morpho: beautiful or well-made
·       Upper wings are iridescent blue
·       Lower wings are plain brown 

 LEPIDOPTERIAN larvae

·       Leaf eating machines
·       Must molt 4-5 times
·       Have soft cuticle
·       Need defense:
-        Camouflage
-        Warning coloration
-        Toxic spines

 LEPIDOPTERIAN adults

·       Feed to get flight fuel
·       Mate abdomen to abdomen
·       Female lays eggs on host plant

 LEPIDOPTERA: Generalists vs. Specialists

·       Generalists: eat many plant species
·       Specialists: eat only one (or a few) plant species

 Florida Queen Butterfly

·       Florida Queen and Viceroy look similar
·       Finds mate with sex pheromone
·       Male and female do courtship dance
·       Male uses hair pencils to dust female with pheromone

 Monarch Butterfly

·       Larvae feed on milkweed
·       Sequester toxic alkaloids (cardenolides)
·       Predators leave larvae and adults alone
·       Fall: 4th generation adults – migrate 2,500 miles to Mexico
·       Winter: dormant in monarch forests
·       Spring: mate and return to US
·       Mexican holiday: Return of monarchs represents return of souls of people who die yearly

 Plant defense: silicon oxidelike eating glass
 Plant defense: proteinase inhibitorsanimal can't digest food
 Plant defense: secondary plant productstoxic compounds
 Trichomes

       Hairs 
      May produce toxins
       May be sticky
       May be spines or hooks

 Wounded plants want to...

·       Limit water loss
·       Prevent fungal/bacterial infection
·       Deter herbivory

 Jurassic Park

·       Fossilized plant resin = amber = gem
·       DNA found in fossil insects
·       Sequence fossil DNA
·       Determine relatedness of insect species
·       Recover dinosaur blood DNA from fossil mosquito

 Carnivorous Plants

·       Habitat is low in nutrients
·       Digest protein of prey
·       Have modified structure to catch insects 

 4 types of Carnivorous Plants1. Sundews
2. Venus Fly Trap
3. Bladderworts
4. Pitcher Plants
 Sundews

·       Bright colors attract insects
·       Lead tentacles have sticky glue
·       Electrical signal causes leaf to curl
·       Leaf uses enzymes to digest prey

 Venus Fly Traps

·       Has trigger hairs inside leaf
·       Touching trigger hairs causes electrical signal
·       Two signals cause rapid growth of outer leaf cells
·       Leaf closes on insect; Venus digests it
·       It is native only to wetlands of North Carolina and South Carolina

 Bladderworts

·       Aquatic
·       Have bladder with a trap door
·       When pretty item hits trigger, it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000th of a second

 Pitcher Plants

·       Flower-like: nectar and color attract insects
·       Inside: downward pointing hairs and loose wax
·       I fall into “pool” and are digested

 MANTODEAmantis, mantid
 "mantis"prophet
 Mantis

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts, carnivorous
·       0.5-6 inches long, cryptic coloration
·       Raptorial forelegs, long thorax
·       Eggs laid in ootheca
·       Sways back and forth prior to attack
·       Has spines on front legs to hold prey; when they catch it, they don’t let go

 Preying Mantis

·       Eggs are laid in an egg case = ootheca
·       Generalist predator
·       Uses antennae to recognize prey
·       Exerts selective pressure: prey with best mimicry survive. 

 PHASMIDAwalking sticks
 "phasma"apparition
 Walking sticks

·       Incomplete metamorphosis
·       Chewing mouthparts
·       Long and slender body
·       Cryptic coloration
·       Feed on plants
·       Feign death when threatened
·       Autotomy = loss of a leg to escape 

 Natural Selection

Change in the frequency of genetic traits in a population through differential survival of individuals bearing those traits.


  •      Blue Jay (predator) eats moths: 50 years ago, most moths were pale. Pale moths were hard to see on trees.  Pollution darkened trees. Today most moths are dark. Dark moths are now harder to catch.

 Batesian mimicry (with example)

Resemblance of an edible species (mimic) to an unpalatable species (model) to deceive predators.


Ex: Viceroy looks like Monarch butterfly.
·       Monarch larva eats toxic milkweed
·       Viceroy larva eats non-toxic willow
·       Monarch adult is toxic = model
·       Viceroy adult is not toxic = mimic
·       Blue jay learns to avoid mimic

 Mullerian mimicrymutual resemblance of two or more unpalatable species to enhance predator avoidance 
 Crypsisresemblance of an organism to its background 
 Passion Vine and Butterfly interaction

·       PV leaves have toxins to deter insects
·       Some butterfly species can eat only 1 PV species
·       PV leaves mimic each other to confuse butterflies
·       Female butterfly lays one egg per leaf because larvae are cannibals
·       PV makes mimic eggs on leaf
·       Butterfly avoids PV leaves with mimic eggs

 DIPTERAflies, mosquitoes
 "di" "ptera"two wings (total)
 Flies, mosquitoes

·       Complete metamorphosis
·       Piercing/sucking or sponging mouthparts
·       1 pair of membranous wings, no hind wings
·       Halteres = stabilizers (replace hind wings)
·       Primitive larvae=maggots
·       Many larvae are aquatic
·       Most harmful order: many members cause disease

 Flight of flies/mosquitoes

·       Flies are the best insect fliers

·       Hoverflies: 175 wing beats/second

·       Halteres give stability

 Housefly

·       Regurgitates on food; enzymes soften food; uses sponging mouthparts

·       Transmits disease mechanically: picks up disease somewhere and carries disease to another location

 Medical Treatment (maggots)

·       People with poor circulation

·       Leg/arm wounds heal slowly

·       Add fly maggots to wound

·       Maggots eat dead flesh

·       Prevents amputation 

 African Sleeping Sickness

·       Drug treatment is effective

·       65,000 deaths per year

·       Will people and cows

·       Wild animals=reservoir host

·       Africans cant raise catlle

·       People of Africa need more protein

·       Tsetse fly=”Guardian of Africa” because native habitat has been saved

 African Sleeping Sickness: vectortsetse fly
 African Sleeping Sickness: disease agentprotozoan
 African Sleeping Sickness: specific name

·       Trypanosoma (Genus)

 tsetse fly female

·       Does not lay eggs

·       1 egg hatches inside it

·       Larva developes inside

·       Mature larva is born

·       Larva burrows into soil and pupates

·       Adult emerges from soil

·       Female produces only 8 larvae

 Mosquitoes

·       Mosquito larvae have a siphon tube for breathing.

·       Female attracted to host CO2; sound of females’ wings attract males

·       Eggs don’t develop without a Blood meal

·       Head produces hormones needed for egg production

·       Mosquitoes have piercing/sucking mouthparts: Protective sheath, Tube to suck blood, Knife-like mouthparts, Saliva injector (stop blood clotting)



·

 What fraction of humans have an insect-vectored disease?1/6
 What disease has killed more people than any other disease?Malaria
 Ronald Rossshowed that mosquitoes vector malaria (1897)
 Walter Reedshowed that mosquitoes vector yellow fever (1900)
 Malaria: vectormosquitoes
 Malaria: disease agentprotozoan
 Malaria: specific nameAnopheles (Genus)    
 Malaria

·       Drug treatment is effective

·       South America, Africa, and Asia

·       2 million deaths per year

·       500 million new cases per year

 Yellow Fever: vectormosquito
 Yellow Fever: disease agentvirus
 Yellow Fever: reservoir hostmonkeys
 Yellow FeverWorst in South America and Africa        
No effective treatment 

 Dengue Fever

·       South America, Africa, and Asia

·       No effective treatment 

 Dengue Fever: vectormosquito
 Dengue Fever: disease agentvirus

 Natural Selection in Africa

·       A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin

·       This change provided resistance to malaria

·       People with 1 copy of gene survive malaria

·       People with 2 copies have Sickle Cell Anemia

36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"