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Entomology exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2015
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Why Study Insects? What are they good for? Pollination
  • coevolution
  • 1/3 of crop plants
  • 200,000 flowering species
  • $$$ billions
Recycling
  • the wheel of life
Food and other products
Controlling pests

*Smallest?
nTinkerbella nana
nFairyflies
n175 males make up 1
*Biggest?
nMass – Goliath beetle
nLongest – Chans megastick 56 cm
nWing span – Atlas moth, 240 mm
*Fastest?

nRunning – 5 mph

nFlying – 25-1200+

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*Insects are ___% of all described animals

75%
*Insects are ___% of all described species

50%    
*Insects' secrets to Success:
  • Adaptable exoskeleton
  • Small body size
  • Short generation time
  • Early dry-land colonizers
  • Efficient flight
  • Metamorphosis 
*Insect Vectored diseases Human diseases
  • malaria, chagas' disease, west nile virus, dengue, yellow fever, encephalitis, sleeping sickness, river blindness, typhus, filariasis, tularemia
Animal diseases
  • heartworm, eastern equine encephalitis, trypanosomiasis, bluetongue
Plant diseases
  • tomato spotted wilt, Pierce's disease, mosaics, yellows, dutch elm disease, fire blight, plum pox, iris yellow spot, aster yellows
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*Insects affect the environment
  • break down organic material
  • modify soil
  • make some areas unlivable
  • help/injure other elements of ecosystem
  • key element of many food webs
*Insects in research: fruit flies
  • 289 human genes "misspelled" cause diseases in people
  • 177 have direcvt counterparts in the fruit fly 
Taxonomy Science of naming things
Bacteria No nuclear membrane
  • Most prokaryotes
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Archaea Complicated the accepted classifications
  • Prokaryotes of extreme environments
  • Thermophiles, halophiles
Eukarya DNA contained in nucleus
  • protists, plants, fungi, animals
Phylum Arthropoda
  • Exoskeleton, must molt to grow
  • Segmented
  • Jointed appendages
  • Ventral nerve chord
  • Open circulatory system
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Sexual reproduction (may be lost)
Arthropod Exoskeleton must___
  • Must shed skin to grow (most molt 3-6 times)
Adult insects do not molt of get bigger
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Arthropods are ___ and ___ Jointed and sedmented
Arthropods have a ___ ___ ___ and an ___ ___ ___ ventral nervous system 
and
open circulatory system
Crustacea Lobsters, crabs, woodlice, "rollypollies"
Arachnida (Chelicerata) Spiders, scorpions, lice, ticks
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Crustaceans
  • Nearly all aquatic
25,000 species
  • Two pairs of antennae
  • Gills
  • Five pairs of legs or more
Biramous
  • Head and thorax fused- cephalothorax
Arachnida or Chelicerata
  • No antennae
  • Chelicerate mouthparts
  • Pedipalps
Class Arachnida
  • Order Araneae- spiders
  • Order Scorpionida- scorpions
  • Order Acari- ticks and mites
Varroa mites
  • Suck blood out of bees
  • Wekend bees
  • Bee colonies die
  • Move with drifting and robbing bees
  • Difficult to manage
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Tracheal mites
  • Spend nearly entire life in bee trachea
  • Weaken bees, affect flight
  • Kill bee colonies
  • Transmitted by bees drifting or robbing
Class Chilopoda Centipedes
  • One pair of legs per segment
15 to 177 pairs of legs
  • One pair of large antennae
  • Nearly all predaceous and venomous
Class Diplopoda Millipedes
  • Two pairs of legs per segment
  • No venomous bite; noxious chemical release common
How Do You Know It's An Insect?
  • 3 body regions
  • 3 pairs of legs
  • Compound eyes
  • Wings, usually 
  • One pair of antennae
  • Trachea
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Division Exopterygota (nymph similar to adult)
  • Wings develop externally
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
Division Endopterygota (wings as internal buds)
  • Wings develop internally
  • Complete metamorphosis
Basic Insect Taxonomy Example
  • Domain- Eukaryota
  • Kingdom- Animal
  • Phylum- Arthropoda
  • Class- Insecta
  • Order- Hymenoptera
  • Family- Apidae
  • Genus- Apis
  • Species- mellifera
Order: Ephemeroptera (mayfly)
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Four triangular wings with many veins
  • Adults with vestigial mouthparts
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Order: Ephemeroptera (continued)
  • Abundant in permanent freshwater habitats
  • Aquatic immatures feed no plants/detritis
  • Adults typically emerge synchronously 
Order: Odonata (dragonfly)
  • Two-pair membraneous wings
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • No cerci
  • Economic/ecologic- predaceous and abundant Order
Order: Odonata continued
  • Egg, naiad, adult- Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Adults may live several months
Order: Orthoptera (grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets)
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Most males- sound producing organs
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Order: Blattaria (Blattodea)
  • Many generations per year
Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Head Concealed by pronotum
  • Wings usually present
  • Antennae long and slender
Roach IPM
  • roaches trigger asthma
  • integrated pest management
  • minimize food available
  • minimize water sources
  • caulk up cracks
  • don't bring them home
  • use sticky traps
  • use baits if necessary
Order Blattaria: Suborder Isoptera (termite)
  • Soft bodied
  • Reproductives (alates) with four similar wings
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Incomplete metamorphosis 
Order: Mantodea (mantid)
  • Overwinter as eggs
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Grasping forelegs
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Order: Phasmatodea (Phasmida)
  • incomplete metamorphosis
  • 3 cm- 20cm+
  • Long and slender legs not adapted for jumping, digging, or grasping
  • Chewing mouthparts 
Order: Phasmatodea
  • Herbivorous
  • Leg autonomy common 
Order: Dermaptera (earwig)
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • prominent cerci 
Order: Phthiraptera (Lice)
  • Permanent ectoparasites
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Tarsi modified into claw
  • Chewing or sucking mouthpartsCOntroll
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Controlling Head Lice
  • Transmitted by close contact or sharing infested materials
cannot live away from hosts
  • nit comb
  • lice shampoos
  • wash clothes, bedding, etc
  • Break the cycle 
Order: Hemiptera (bugs)
  • Piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Economic/ecological impact: many important agricultural and human health pests. Some vector serious diseases. some species can be very numerous 
Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera
  • Forewing with basal half thickened and leather-like 
Suborder Heteroptera
  • includes predators, plant feeders, parasites
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Aquatic Heteroptera Families
  • Nepidae- water scorpion
ambush predator
breathing tube
  • Corixidae- water boatmen
swim upright
predators/detritivore
can live in polluted water
plastron
  • Notonectidae- backswimmers 
free swimming predators
hemoglobin. plastron
Family Cimicidae
  • bed bugs
  • flat, oval
  • less than 6 mm
  • Wings vestigial
  • feed on blood at night
  • not known to vector diseases 
Bed bugs:
  • widely infesting hotels, dorms, etc
  • spread in used bedding, luggage, etc
  • maybe related to restrictions on insecticides formerly used indoors
Family Reduviidae
  • Kissing bug transmits Chagas disease 
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Chagas disease
  • Trypanosoma
released in feces 
  • Biting causes itching
victim scratches in trypanosomes
  • Affects 18-20 million people
mostly in central and south america
mostly rural areas 
  • Chronic infection 
heart, digestive system 
Family Pentatomidae
  • stink bugs
  • large triangular scutellum
  • give segmented antennae
  • very common
  • some serious plant pests
  • some important predators 
Order: Hemiptera Suborder: Homoptera Economic/ ecologic- can be very numerous (prey item), important plant pests and transmit plant diseases
Homoptera- Auchenorrhyncha
  • Family Cicadidae: Large insects with large wings
  • Cicada immatures live in the ground 
dog day cicada
periodical cicada
  • Reasons for periodicity 
overwhelm predation
confuse predators with sound
predator population cannot build up in response to prey increase
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Hemiptera: Homoptera Auchenorryncha Family Cercopidae: spittlebugs
  • Nymphs cover themselves with froth 
Auchenorryncha Family Membracidae (treehoppers)
  • many structured to resemble plant parts
  • nymphs often gregarious, may be tended by ants
  • feed mostly on woody plants 
Auchenorryncha
  • Important plant disease vectors, particularly viruses 
Acid transmitted viruses
  • Aphids and thrips are the most important vectors of plant viruses 
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Complex life cycles (heterogamy) of aphids

--Eggs overwinter

--Hatch in spring into parthenogenetic female fundatrix

--Viviparous birth to wingless females, apterae (several generations)

--Birth to winged female, alatae, migrate to secondary host plant

--Parthenogenetic birth to several generations of female apterae on secondary host

--Produce alatae, migrate back to primary host plant

--Birth to male & female (sexuparae), sexual reproduction - oviparous female (ovipara) produce fertilized eggs from which fundatrix hatches    
Family Adelgidae
  • Hemlock wooly adelgid
  • More than 90,000 of hemlock in Smokies
Some 500 years old
Critical element of ecosystem 
  • No males known
Parthenogenesis 
  • Kill trees in 3-10 years
  • Pesticides
  • Predators 
Scale insect life cycle
  • Eggs hatch under scale
  • Crawlers emerge to find feeding location 
control most effective in this stage
  • At first molt, armored scale females lose legs and antennae. They do not pupate 
Soft scale females retain legs/ antennae but seldom move
  • Males pupate under wax and emerge with wings but no mouthparts 
Order: Thysanoptera (thrips) Transmit plant viruses 
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Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus
The value of fast reproduction
  • One female aphid- up to 100 offspring
offspring ready to reproduce in a week 
  • predator populations slower to respond
  • Rapid population growth leads to big cycles 
Endopterygota: Complete metamorphosis
Life stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult 
Neuroptera (lacewing) Chewing mouthparts 
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Order: Neuroptera
  • lacewings 

  • chewing mouthparts
  • large lateral eyes
  • eggs on stalks
  • predaceous larvae and adults
abundant garden/ agric. predators 
Antlions
  • Larvae make pits in soil 
Order: Coleoptera (beetles)
  • The most species of any order of animals
    More than 3000,000 spp.
    More than 23,000 in N.A.
  • Fore wings (elytra) thickened, leathery, or hard, usually meeting in a straight line
  • Hind wings usually longer than the elytra and folded underneath
  • Chewing mouthparts
Coleoptera
  • Very small (<1mm) to large (>15cm)
  • Antennae variable
  • May be sexuallly dimorphic
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Family Carabidae
  • Ground beetles
20,000 spp worldwide
Moist environments, nocturnal
  • Often found under rocks, leaf litter, etc
  • Predaceous as larvae and adults
Family Carabidae
  • Tiger beetles
  • Larvae predaceous
May ambush out of hole
Coleoptera: Family Dystiscidae
  • Predaceous diving beetle
  • Carry air bubble beneath elytra
  • Larvae have suctorial mouthparts
Coleoptera: Family Gyrinidae
  • Whirligig beetles
  • Four compound eyes
  • Often gregarious
Antennae enable them to avoid crashing 
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Coleoptera: Family Curculionidae
  • Weevils
  • Largest family of beetles
  • Larvae typically hidden 
Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae
  • Leaf beetles
  • Cucumber beetles are key pests of vine crops or cucurbits (cucumber, squash, melons, and pumpkins)
  • Oval body shape 
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
  • Long-horned beetles
  • Larvae typically in dead or living wood
  • Long antennae 
Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae
  • Scarabs
  • Some serious pests
Whitegrubs
Japanese beetles 
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Coleoptera: Family Lampyridae
  • Lightning bugs, Fireflies
  • Produce "cool" light
Order Strepsiptera
Endoparasitic on Thysanura, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera
Order Strepsiptera
  • Six-legged larvae wait on flower for host
  • Climb unto host visiting flower
  • Burrows inside; loses legs, head, antennae etc
Order Mecoptera
  • Scorpion fly
  • Head usually a prolonged beak 
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Order: Diptera
  • FLIES
  • One pair of wings on thorax.
  • Economic/ecologic- important pests and beneficials. Disease vectors.
Extremely abundant in a wide variety of ecosystems. Pollinators 
  • Primarily saprophagous (feed on decay) 
very important decomposer
others are predators, parasites, or parasitoids
Diptera: Family Culicidae
  • Mosquitoes
  • Eggs laid in water or area that will be flooded
Must have water to complete life cycle
Water preferences differ 
Diptera: Family Syrphidae
  • Hoverflies, Flowerflies
  • Some myrmecophiles
produce ant chemical
larval cuticular hydrocarbons identical to ants'
Diptera: Family Muscidae
  • Houseflies
  • Transport disease organisms
larvae feed on feces/ garbage 
  • Sanitation is key to control 
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Order: Siphonaptera
  • Fleas
  • Sucking mouthparts with developed palps
  • Usually jumping insects 
  • All are parasitic as adults
  • Rat fleas vector plague
  • Fleas are a host for tapeworms 
Flea Life Cycle
  • Adults never leaves animal host
  • Eggs fall from animal  (usually in resting area)
  • Larvae mostly feed on adult feces
  • Larvae spins cocoons, pupate, and wait (they can live for months, emerge when a host returns)
Flea Control
  • Fleas must have an animal host
  • Control fleas on your pet- flea comb, pesticide products
  • Flea eggs- wash pet bedding
  • Larvae- pupae- adults: vacuum cleaner
Order: Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)
  • Larvae and adult morphology strongly divergent
  • Larvae supply most food for life cycle
  • Some larvae are very important pests. Some adults are important pollinators
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Butterflies
  • Diurnal
  • Knobbed antennae
  • Usually naked chysalis 
Moths
  • Nocturnal
  • Usually drab
  • Filiform antennae
Males' may be plumose
  • Fuzzy cocoon 
Skippers (Family Hesperiidae)
  • Stouter body
  • Hooked antennae
Lepidopteran Larvae
  • Six true legs attached to thorax
  • Fleshly prolegs on abdomen
w/ terminal patches of hooked spines (crochets)
  • Usually six lateral stemmata
  • Some eat a variety of plants (corn earworm)
  • Others specialize on few plants (monarch)
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Order: Lepidoptera
  • Family: Danaidae
Milkweed butterflies
Monarch 
  • Sequester chemicals from milkweed for protection 
Monarch Migration
  • Late summer adults emerge- do not mate or lay eggs
  • Cluster together and fly to overwintering site- may fly thousands of miles, do not feed through winter
  • Spring: mate and begin to fly north- lay eggs on milkweed
  • Summer: several generations 
Common Lepidopteran pests
  • Family Noctuidae (corn earworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm)
  • Control with Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Spray when they're small 
Lepidopteran pests
  • Family Pyralidae
  • Indian meal moth commonly infests food
  • Look for larvae, ebbing, adults
  • Find and eliminate access to food
  • Store foods in freezer/ refrigerator
  • Seal foods in tightly sealed container
  • DO NOT spray pesticide around food  
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Order Trichoptera (caddisfly)
  • Almost all aquatic as larvae
  • Larvae often in cases
  • Also pupate in case; adults must swim to the top
  • Closely related to the order Lepidoptera 
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 Why Study Insects? What are they good for?Pollination
  • coevolution
  • 1/3 of crop plants
  • 200,000 flowering species
  • $$$ billions
Recycling
  • the wheel of life
Food and other products
Controlling pests

 *Smallest?
nTinkerbella nana
nFairyflies
n175 males make up 1
 *Biggest?
nMass – Goliath beetle
nLongest – Chans megastick 56 cm
nWing span – Atlas moth, 240 mm
 *Fastest?

nRunning – 5 mph

nFlying – 25-1200+

 *Insects are ___% of all described animals

75%
 *Insects are ___% of all described species

50%    
 *Insects' secrets to Success:
  • Adaptable exoskeleton
  • Small body size
  • Short generation time
  • Early dry-land colonizers
  • Efficient flight
  • Metamorphosis 
 *Insect Vectored diseasesHuman diseases
  • malaria, chagas' disease, west nile virus, dengue, yellow fever, encephalitis, sleeping sickness, river blindness, typhus, filariasis, tularemia
Animal diseases
  • heartworm, eastern equine encephalitis, trypanosomiasis, bluetongue
Plant diseases
  • tomato spotted wilt, Pierce's disease, mosaics, yellows, dutch elm disease, fire blight, plum pox, iris yellow spot, aster yellows
 *Insects affect the environment
  • break down organic material
  • modify soil
  • make some areas unlivable
  • help/injure other elements of ecosystem
  • key element of many food webs
 *Insects in research: fruit flies
  • 289 human genes "misspelled" cause diseases in people
  • 177 have direcvt counterparts in the fruit fly 
 TaxonomyScience of naming things
 BacteriaNo nuclear membrane
  • Most prokaryotes
 ArchaeaComplicated the accepted classifications
  • Prokaryotes of extreme environments
  • Thermophiles, halophiles
 EukaryaDNA contained in nucleus
  • protists, plants, fungi, animals
 Phylum Arthropoda
  • Exoskeleton, must molt to grow
  • Segmented
  • Jointed appendages
  • Ventral nerve chord
  • Open circulatory system
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Sexual reproduction (may be lost)
 Arthropod Exoskeleton must___
  • Must shed skin to grow (most molt 3-6 times)
Adult insects do not molt of get bigger
 Arthropods are ___ and ___Jointed and sedmented
 Arthropods have a ___ ___ ___ and an ___ ___ ___ventral nervous system 
and
open circulatory system
 CrustaceaLobsters, crabs, woodlice, "rollypollies"
 Arachnida (Chelicerata)Spiders, scorpions, lice, ticks
 Crustaceans
  • Nearly all aquatic
25,000 species
  • Two pairs of antennae
  • Gills
  • Five pairs of legs or more
Biramous
  • Head and thorax fused- cephalothorax
 Arachnida or Chelicerata
  • No antennae
  • Chelicerate mouthparts
  • Pedipalps
 Class Arachnida
  • Order Araneae- spiders
  • Order Scorpionida- scorpions
  • Order Acari- ticks and mites
 Varroa mites
  • Suck blood out of bees
  • Wekend bees
  • Bee colonies die
  • Move with drifting and robbing bees
  • Difficult to manage
 Tracheal mites
  • Spend nearly entire life in bee trachea
  • Weaken bees, affect flight
  • Kill bee colonies
  • Transmitted by bees drifting or robbing
 Class Chilopoda Centipedes
  • One pair of legs per segment
15 to 177 pairs of legs
  • One pair of large antennae
  • Nearly all predaceous and venomous
 Class Diplopoda Millipedes
  • Two pairs of legs per segment
  • No venomous bite; noxious chemical release common
 How Do You Know It's An Insect?
  • 3 body regions
  • 3 pairs of legs
  • Compound eyes
  • Wings, usually 
  • One pair of antennae
  • Trachea
 Division Exopterygota (nymph similar to adult)
  • Wings develop externally
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
 Division Endopterygota (wings as internal buds)
  • Wings develop internally
  • Complete metamorphosis
 Basic Insect Taxonomy Example
  • Domain- Eukaryota
  • Kingdom- Animal
  • Phylum- Arthropoda
  • Class- Insecta
  • Order- Hymenoptera
  • Family- Apidae
  • Genus- Apis
  • Species- mellifera
 Order: Ephemeroptera (mayfly)
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Four triangular wings with many veins
  • Adults with vestigial mouthparts
 Order: Ephemeroptera (continued)
  • Abundant in permanent freshwater habitats
  • Aquatic immatures feed no plants/detritis
  • Adults typically emerge synchronously 
 Order: Odonata (dragonfly)
  • Two-pair membraneous wings
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • No cerci
  • Economic/ecologic- predaceous and abundant Order
 Order: Odonata continued
  • Egg, naiad, adult- Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Adults may live several months
 Order: Orthoptera (grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets)
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Most males- sound producing organs
 Order: Blattaria (Blattodea)
  • Many generations per year
Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Head Concealed by pronotum
  • Wings usually present
  • Antennae long and slender
 Roach IPM
  • roaches trigger asthma
  • integrated pest management
  • minimize food available
  • minimize water sources
  • caulk up cracks
  • don't bring them home
  • use sticky traps
  • use baits if necessary
 Order Blattaria: Suborder Isoptera (termite)
  • Soft bodied
  • Reproductives (alates) with four similar wings
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • Incomplete metamorphosis 
 Order: Mantodea (mantid)
  • Overwinter as eggs
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Grasping forelegs
 Order: Phasmatodea (Phasmida)
  • incomplete metamorphosis
  • 3 cm- 20cm+
  • Long and slender legs not adapted for jumping, digging, or grasping
  • Chewing mouthparts 
 Order: Phasmatodea
  • Herbivorous
  • Leg autonomy common 
 Order: Dermaptera (earwig)
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • prominent cerci 
 Order: Phthiraptera (Lice)
  • Permanent ectoparasites
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Tarsi modified into claw
  • Chewing or sucking mouthpartsCOntroll
 Controlling Head Lice
  • Transmitted by close contact or sharing infested materials
cannot live away from hosts
  • nit comb
  • lice shampoos
  • wash clothes, bedding, etc
  • Break the cycle 
 Order: Hemiptera (bugs)
  • Piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • Incomplete metamorphosis
  • Economic/ecological impact: many important agricultural and human health pests. Some vector serious diseases. some species can be very numerous 
 Order Hemiptera Suborder Heteroptera
  • Forewing with basal half thickened and leather-like 
 Suborder Heteroptera
  • includes predators, plant feeders, parasites
 Aquatic Heteroptera Families
  • Nepidae- water scorpion
ambush predator
breathing tube
  • Corixidae- water boatmen
swim upright
predators/detritivore
can live in polluted water
plastron
  • Notonectidae- backswimmers 
free swimming predators
hemoglobin. plastron
 Family Cimicidae
  • bed bugs
  • flat, oval
  • less than 6 mm
  • Wings vestigial
  • feed on blood at night
  • not known to vector diseases 
 Bed bugs:
  • widely infesting hotels, dorms, etc
  • spread in used bedding, luggage, etc
  • maybe related to restrictions on insecticides formerly used indoors
 Family Reduviidae
  • Kissing bug transmits Chagas disease 
 Chagas disease
  • Trypanosoma
released in feces 
  • Biting causes itching
victim scratches in trypanosomes
  • Affects 18-20 million people
mostly in central and south america
mostly rural areas 
  • Chronic infection 
heart, digestive system 
 Family Pentatomidae
  • stink bugs
  • large triangular scutellum
  • give segmented antennae
  • very common
  • some serious plant pests
  • some important predators 
 Order: Hemiptera Suborder: HomopteraEconomic/ ecologic- can be very numerous (prey item), important plant pests and transmit plant diseases
 Homoptera- Auchenorrhyncha
  • Family Cicadidae: Large insects with large wings
  • Cicada immatures live in the ground 
dog day cicada
periodical cicada
  • Reasons for periodicity 
overwhelm predation
confuse predators with sound
predator population cannot build up in response to prey increase
 Hemiptera: Homoptera AuchenorrynchaFamily Cercopidae: spittlebugs
  • Nymphs cover themselves with froth 
 AuchenorrynchaFamily Membracidae (treehoppers)
  • many structured to resemble plant parts
  • nymphs often gregarious, may be tended by ants
  • feed mostly on woody plants 
 Auchenorryncha
  • Important plant disease vectors, particularly viruses 
 Acid transmitted viruses
  • Aphids and thrips are the most important vectors of plant viruses 
 Complex life cycles (heterogamy) of aphids

--Eggs overwinter

--Hatch in spring into parthenogenetic female fundatrix

--Viviparous birth to wingless females, apterae (several generations)

--Birth to winged female, alatae, migrate to secondary host plant

--Parthenogenetic birth to several generations of female apterae on secondary host

--Produce alatae, migrate back to primary host plant

--Birth to male & female (sexuparae), sexual reproduction - oviparous female (ovipara) produce fertilized eggs from which fundatrix hatches    
 Family Adelgidae
  • Hemlock wooly adelgid
  • More than 90,000 of hemlock in Smokies
Some 500 years old
Critical element of ecosystem 
  • No males known
Parthenogenesis 
  • Kill trees in 3-10 years
  • Pesticides
  • Predators 
 Scale insect life cycle
  • Eggs hatch under scale
  • Crawlers emerge to find feeding location 
control most effective in this stage
  • At first molt, armored scale females lose legs and antennae. They do not pupate 
Soft scale females retain legs/ antennae but seldom move
  • Males pupate under wax and emerge with wings but no mouthparts 
 Order: Thysanoptera (thrips)Transmit plant viruses 
 Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus
 The value of fast reproduction
  • One female aphid- up to 100 offspring
offspring ready to reproduce in a week 
  • predator populations slower to respond
  • Rapid population growth leads to big cycles 
 Endopterygota:Complete metamorphosis
Life stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult 
 Neuroptera (lacewing)Chewing mouthparts 
 Order: Neuroptera
  • lacewings 

  • chewing mouthparts
  • large lateral eyes
  • eggs on stalks
  • predaceous larvae and adults
abundant garden/ agric. predators 
 Antlions
  • Larvae make pits in soil 
 Order: Coleoptera (beetles)
  • The most species of any order of animals
    More than 3000,000 spp.
    More than 23,000 in N.A.
  • Fore wings (elytra) thickened, leathery, or hard, usually meeting in a straight line
  • Hind wings usually longer than the elytra and folded underneath
  • Chewing mouthparts
 Coleoptera
  • Very small (<1mm) to large (>15cm)
  • Antennae variable
  • May be sexuallly dimorphic
 Family Carabidae
  • Ground beetles
20,000 spp worldwide
Moist environments, nocturnal
  • Often found under rocks, leaf litter, etc
  • Predaceous as larvae and adults
 Family Carabidae
  • Tiger beetles
  • Larvae predaceous
May ambush out of hole
 Coleoptera: Family Dystiscidae
  • Predaceous diving beetle
  • Carry air bubble beneath elytra
  • Larvae have suctorial mouthparts
 Coleoptera: Family Gyrinidae
  • Whirligig beetles
  • Four compound eyes
  • Often gregarious
Antennae enable them to avoid crashing 
 Coleoptera: Family Curculionidae
  • Weevils
  • Largest family of beetles
  • Larvae typically hidden 
 Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae
  • Leaf beetles
  • Cucumber beetles are key pests of vine crops or cucurbits (cucumber, squash, melons, and pumpkins)
  • Oval body shape 
 Coleoptera: Cerambycidae
  • Long-horned beetles
  • Larvae typically in dead or living wood
  • Long antennae 
 Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae
  • Scarabs
  • Some serious pests
Whitegrubs
Japanese beetles 
 Coleoptera: Family Lampyridae
  • Lightning bugs, Fireflies
  • Produce "cool" light
 Order Strepsiptera
Endoparasitic on Thysanura, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera
 Order Strepsiptera
  • Six-legged larvae wait on flower for host
  • Climb unto host visiting flower
  • Burrows inside; loses legs, head, antennae etc
 Order Mecoptera
  • Scorpion fly
  • Head usually a prolonged beak 
 Order: Diptera
  • FLIES
  • One pair of wings on thorax.
  • Economic/ecologic- important pests and beneficials. Disease vectors.
Extremely abundant in a wide variety of ecosystems. Pollinators 
  • Primarily saprophagous (feed on decay) 
very important decomposer
others are predators, parasites, or parasitoids
 Diptera: Family Culicidae
  • Mosquitoes
  • Eggs laid in water or area that will be flooded
Must have water to complete life cycle
Water preferences differ 
 Diptera: Family Syrphidae
  • Hoverflies, Flowerflies
  • Some myrmecophiles
produce ant chemical
larval cuticular hydrocarbons identical to ants'
 Diptera: Family Muscidae
  • Houseflies
  • Transport disease organisms
larvae feed on feces/ garbage 
  • Sanitation is key to control 
 Order: Siphonaptera
  • Fleas
  • Sucking mouthparts with developed palps
  • Usually jumping insects 
  • All are parasitic as adults
  • Rat fleas vector plague
  • Fleas are a host for tapeworms 
 Flea Life Cycle
  • Adults never leaves animal host
  • Eggs fall from animal  (usually in resting area)
  • Larvae mostly feed on adult feces
  • Larvae spins cocoons, pupate, and wait (they can live for months, emerge when a host returns)
 Flea Control
  • Fleas must have an animal host
  • Control fleas on your pet- flea comb, pesticide products
  • Flea eggs- wash pet bedding
  • Larvae- pupae- adults: vacuum cleaner
 Order: Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)
  • Larvae and adult morphology strongly divergent
  • Larvae supply most food for life cycle
  • Some larvae are very important pests. Some adults are important pollinators
 Butterflies
  • Diurnal
  • Knobbed antennae
  • Usually naked chysalis 
 Moths
  • Nocturnal
  • Usually drab
  • Filiform antennae
Males' may be plumose
  • Fuzzy cocoon 
 Skippers (Family Hesperiidae)
  • Stouter body
  • Hooked antennae
 Lepidopteran Larvae
  • Six true legs attached to thorax
  • Fleshly prolegs on abdomen
w/ terminal patches of hooked spines (crochets)
  • Usually six lateral stemmata
  • Some eat a variety of plants (corn earworm)
  • Others specialize on few plants (monarch)
 Order: Lepidoptera
  • Family: Danaidae
Milkweed butterflies
Monarch 
  • Sequester chemicals from milkweed for protection 
 Monarch Migration
  • Late summer adults emerge- do not mate or lay eggs
  • Cluster together and fly to overwintering site- may fly thousands of miles, do not feed through winter
  • Spring: mate and begin to fly north- lay eggs on milkweed
  • Summer: several generations 
 Common Lepidopteran pests
  • Family Noctuidae (corn earworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm)
  • Control with Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Spray when they're small 
 Lepidopteran pests
  • Family Pyralidae
  • Indian meal moth commonly infests food
  • Look for larvae, ebbing, adults
  • Find and eliminate access to food
  • Store foods in freezer/ refrigerator
  • Seal foods in tightly sealed container
  • DO NOT spray pesticide around food  
 Order Trichoptera (caddisfly)
  • Almost all aquatic as larvae
  • Larvae often in cases
  • Also pupate in case; adults must swim to the top
  • Closely related to the order Lepidoptera 
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