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Entomology - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2012
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Basic Insect Taxonomy Example Domain= Eukaryota
Kingdom= Animal
Phylum= Arthropoda
Class= Insecta
Order= Hymenoptera
Family= Apidae
Genus= Apis
Species= Mellifera
Order: Ephemeroptera (mayfly) - Incomplete metamorphosis
- Four triangular wings with many veins
- Adults with vestigial mouthparts
- Abundant in permanent freshwater habitats
- Aquatic immatures feed on plants/detritis
- Adults typically emerge synchronously
Order: Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) - Two- pair membraneous wings
- Chewing mouthparts
- No cerci
- Economic/ecologic- predaceous and abundant
- Egg, naiad, adult- incomplete metamorphosis
- Adults may live several months
Order: Plecoptera (stonefly) - Incomplete metamorphosis
- Two- pair membraneous wings
- Long filamentous antennae
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Order: Orthoptera (grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets) - Incomplete metamorphosis
- Chewing mouthparts
- Most males- sound producing organs
Order: Blattaria (Blattodea) - Many generations per year
- Incomplete Metamorphosis
- Head concealed by pronotum
- Wings usually present
- Antennae long and slender
- Chewing mouthparts
Roach IPM - Roaches trigger asthma
- Integrated pest management
- Minimize food available
- Minimize water sources
- Caulk up cracks
- Don't bring them home
- Use sticky traps
- Use baits if necessary
Order: Isoptera (termite) - Soft bodied
- Reproductives (alates) with four similar wings
- Chewing mouthparts
- Incomplete metamorphosis
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Order: Phasmatodea (Phasmida) - Incomplete metamorphosis
- 3 cm- 20+ cm
- Long and slender legs not adapted for jumping, digging, or grasping
- Chewing mouthparts
- Herbivorous
- Leg autonomy common

Order: Dermaptera (earwig) - Incomplete Metamorphosis
- Chewing mouthparts
- Prominent cerci
**Left/Right Penis
Order: Phthiraptera (Lice) - Permanent ectoparasites
- Incomplete metamorphosis
- Tarsi modified into a claw
- Chewing or sucking mouthparts
Controlling Head Lice - Transmitted by close contact or sharing infested materials
- Cannot live away from hosts
- Nit comb
- Lice shampoos
- Wash clothes, bedding, etc
- Break the cycle
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Order: Hemiptera (bugs) - Piercing/sucking mouthparts
- Incomplete metamorphosis
- Economic/ ecological impact: many important agricultural and human health pests. Some vector serious diseases.  Some species can be very numerous.
Order Hemiptera: Suborder Heteroptera Forewing with basal half thickened and leather- like
Suborder Heteroptera Includes predators, plant feeders, parasites
Aquatic Heteroptera Families Nepidae- water scorpion
- Ambush predator
- Breathing tube
Corixidae- water boatmen
- Swim upright
- Predators/detritivore
- Can live in polluted water
- Plastron
Notonectidae- backswimmers
- Free swimming predators, hemogloblin, plastron
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- dff
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Family Cimicidae - Bed bugs
- Flat, oval
- Less than 6 mm
- Wings vestigial
- Feed on blood at night
- Not known to vector diseases
Bed Bugs - Widely infesting hotels, dorms, homes, etc
- Spread in used bedding, luggage
- Maybe related to restrictions on insecticides formerly used indoors
- Signs (unexplained bites, spots of blood/fecal material on bedding, look for the insects)
- Inspect used beds, sofas,
- Check hotel rooms, dorms
Family Reduviidae - Kissing bug transmits Chagas disease
Chagas Disease - Trypanosoma (released in feces)
- Biting causes itching (victim scratches in trypanosomes)
- Affect 18-20 million people (mostly Central and S. American, rural areas)
- Chronic infection (heart, digestive system)
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Family Pentatomidae - Stink bugs
- Large triangular scutellum
- Five segmented antennae
- Very common
- Some serious plant pests
- Some important predators
Family Gerridae - Water striders
- 500 spp
- "Skate" on top of water (elongate middle and hind legs)
- Ripple readers (still water, predaceous/ scavengers)
- Also occur in open seas (Halobates)
Family Cicadidae - Large insects with large wings
- Cicada immatures live in the ground
      - Dog day cicada
      - Periodical cicada
- Reasons for periodicity
       - Overwhelm predation
       - Confuse predators with sounds
       - Predator population can't build up in response to prey increase
Family Cercopidae: Spittlebugs -  Nymphs cover themselves with froth
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Order: Mantodea (mantid) - Overwinter as eggs
- Incomplete Metamorphosis
- Grasping Forelegs
Family Membracidae (treehoppers) - Many structured to resemble plant parts
- Nymphs often gregarious, may be tended by ants
- Feed mostly on woody plants
Family Cicadellidae - Important plant disease vectors, particularly viruses
                - Phony peach disease
                - Pierce's disease (grapes)
                - Corn stunt
                - Many more around the world
Aphid- Transmitted Viruses - Aphids and thrips are the most important vectors of plant viruses
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Complex Life Cycles (heterogamy of aphids) - Eggs overwinter
- Hatch in spring into female
- Viviparous birth to wingless females (several generations)
- Birth to winged female, migrate to secondary host plant
- Parthenogenetic birth to several generations of females on secondary host
- Produce alatae, migrate back to primary host plant
- Birth to male and female, sexual reproduction- oviparous
Family Adelgidae - Hemlock wooly adelgid
- More than 90,000 in a hemlock in Smokies
         - Some 500 years old
         - Critical element of ecosystem
- No males known
         - Parthenogenesis
- Kill trees in 3-10 years
- Pesticides
- Predators
Order: Thysanoptera (thrips) - Transmit plant viruses
Order: Coleoptera (beetles) - The most species of any order of animals
- Fore wings (elytra) thickened, leathery, or hard, usually meeting in a straight line.
- Hind wings usually longer than the elytra and folded underneath
- Chewing mouthparts
- Very small (< 1 mm) to large (> 15 cm)
- Antennae variable
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Family Carabidae - Ground beetles
- Often found under rocks, leaf litter
- Predaceous as larvae and adults
Family Cincindellidae - Tiger beetles (often quick fliers)
- Larvae predaceous (may ambush out of hole)
Coleoptera: Family Dytiscidae - Predaceous diving beetle
- Carry air bubble beneath elytra
- Larvae have suctorial mouthparts
Coleoptera: Family Gyrinidae - Whirligig beetles
- Four compound eyes
- Often gregarious
          - Antennae enable them to avoid crashing
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Coleoptera: Family Curculionidae - Weevils
        - Largest family of beetles
- Larvae typically hidden
Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae - Leaf beetles

Cucumber beetles - Key pests of vine crops or cucurbits (cucumber, squash, melons, and pumpkins).
- Oval body shape
Coleoptera: Cerambycidae - Long-horned beetles
- Larvae typically in dead or living wood
- Long antennae
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Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae - Scarabs
- Some serious pests
What Insects are Good for - Pollination
- Recycling
- Food and other products
- Controlling pests
Insects affect the Environment - Bread down organic materials
- Modify soil
- Make some areas unlivable
- Help/injure other elements of ecosystem
- Key element of many food webs
Secrets to Success - Adaptable exoskeleton
- Small body size
- Short generation time (short- lived)
- Early dry-land colonizers
- Efficient flight
- Metamorphosis
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An Insect - 3 body regions
- 3 pairs of legs
- Compound eyes
- Wings, usually
- One pair of antennae
- Trachea
Fruit Flies - Insect processes similar to humans
- 289 human genes "misspelled," cause diseases in people
- 177 have direct counterparts in the fruit fly
Three Domains - Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
Bacteria - No nuclear membrane
- Most prokaryotes
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Archaea - Complicated the accepted classifications
- Prokaryotes of extreme environments
- Thermophiles, halophiles

Eukarya - DNA contained in nucleus
- Protists, plants, fungi, animals
Arthropods - Exoskeleton, must molt to grow (MOST MOLT 3-6 TIMES)
   - Adult insects do not molt or get bigger
- Segmented
- Jointed appendages
- Ventral nerve chord
- Open circulatory system
- Bilateral symmetry
- Sexual reproduction (may be lost)
Crustaceans - Lobsters, Crabs, Woodlice, "rollypollies"
- Nearly all aquatic
- Two pairs of antennae
- Gills
- Five pairs of legs (or more)- Biramous
- Head and thorax fused- cephalothorax
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Archnida (Chelicerata) - Spiders, Scorpions, Lice, Ticks
- No antennae
- Chelicerate mouthparts
- Pedipalps
Class Arachnida - Order Araneae: Spiders
- Order Scorpionida- Scorpions
- Order Acari- Ticks and Mites
Varroa Mites - Suck blood out of bees
- Weaken bees
- Bee colonies die
- Move with drifting and robbing bees
- Difficult to manage
Tracheal Mites - Spend nearly entire life in bee trachea
- Weaken bees, affect flight
- Kill bee colonies
- Transmitted by bees drifting or robbing
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Class Chilopoda: Centipedes - One pair of legs per segment
- One pair of large antennae
- Nearly all predaceous and venomous
Class Diplopoda: Millipedes - Two pairs of legs per segment
- No venomous bite; noxious chemical release common
Division Exopterygota - nymph similar to adult
-
Order Strepsiptera - Six- legged larvae wait on flower for host
- Climb onto host visiting flower
- Burrows inside; loses legs, head, antennae, etc
- Male flies away; female never leaves host
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Weevils Largest family of beetles (Coleoptera)
- Larvae typically hidden
Order Strepsiptera - Six- legged larvae wait on flower for host
- Climb onto host visiting flower
- Burrows inside; loses legs, head, antennae
- Male flies away; female never leaves host
Diptera - Flies
- One pair of wings on thorax

- Mosquitoes: eggs laid in water
Rat Fleas - Rat fleas vector plague
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Fleas - Host for tapeworms
- Adult never leaves animal host
Milkweed Butterflies Sequester chemicals from milkweed for protection
Order Trichoptera (Caddisfly) - Almost all aquatic as larvae
- Larvae often in cases
- Closely related to the order Lepidoptera
Stinging - Only female bees can sting
- A worker bee's sting get stuck in the victim
           - bee die
- The queen can sting multiple times
- Honeybees are not usually aggressive away from the nest
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The Hive - Only one queen is tolerated
- If the hive gets too large, a new queen and many of the bees will swarm
- The hive can make a new queen by feeding a developing larva special food
Karl von Frisch - First believed bees used flower scents or other odors to find food sources
- Began to  pay close attention to dances performed by returning foragers
Round Dance - When food source is <50m from hive
Waggle Dance - When food source is >50 meters away
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Africanized Honey Bees - The same species as European honey bees, but more defensive
100 Stings ______ stings per pound of body weight is potentially fatal in a normal adult
Hymenoptera (Wasp, Ant, Bee) Diptera (Fly) What 2 orders comprised the parasitoids?
Aphids and Thrips The most important vectors of plant viruses
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Hemlock Wooly Adelgid - More than 90,000 in Smokies
- Some 500 years old
- No males known
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 Basic Insect Taxonomy ExampleDomain= Eukaryota
Kingdom= Animal
Phylum= Arthropoda
Class= Insecta
Order= Hymenoptera
Family= Apidae
Genus= Apis
Species= Mellifera
 Order: Ephemeroptera (mayfly)- Incomplete metamorphosis
- Four triangular wings with many veins
- Adults with vestigial mouthparts
- Abundant in permanent freshwater habitats
- Aquatic immatures feed on plants/detritis
- Adults typically emerge synchronously
 Order: Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)- Two- pair membraneous wings
- Chewing mouthparts
- No cerci
- Economic/ecologic- predaceous and abundant
- Egg, naiad, adult- incomplete metamorphosis
- Adults may live several months
 Order: Plecoptera (stonefly)- Incomplete metamorphosis
- Two- pair membraneous wings
- Long filamentous antennae
 Order: Orthoptera (grasshoppers, katydids, and crickets)- Incomplete metamorphosis
- Chewing mouthparts
- Most males- sound producing organs
 Order: Blattaria (Blattodea)- Many generations per year
- Incomplete Metamorphosis
- Head concealed by pronotum
- Wings usually present
- Antennae long and slender
- Chewing mouthparts
 Roach IPM- Roaches trigger asthma
- Integrated pest management
- Minimize food available
- Minimize water sources
- Caulk up cracks
- Don't bring them home
- Use sticky traps
- Use baits if necessary
 Order: Isoptera (termite)- Soft bodied
- Reproductives (alates) with four similar wings
- Chewing mouthparts
- Incomplete metamorphosis
 Order: Phasmatodea (Phasmida)- Incomplete metamorphosis
- 3 cm- 20+ cm
- Long and slender legs not adapted for jumping, digging, or grasping
- Chewing mouthparts
- Herbivorous
- Leg autonomy common

 Order: Dermaptera (earwig)- Incomplete Metamorphosis
- Chewing mouthparts
- Prominent cerci
**Left/Right Penis
 Order: Phthiraptera (Lice)- Permanent ectoparasites
- Incomplete metamorphosis
- Tarsi modified into a claw
- Chewing or sucking mouthparts
 Controlling Head Lice- Transmitted by close contact or sharing infested materials
- Cannot live away from hosts
- Nit comb
- Lice shampoos
- Wash clothes, bedding, etc
- Break the cycle
 Order: Hemiptera (bugs)- Piercing/sucking mouthparts
- Incomplete metamorphosis
- Economic/ ecological impact: many important agricultural and human health pests. Some vector serious diseases.  Some species can be very numerous.
 Order Hemiptera: Suborder HeteropteraForewing with basal half thickened and leather- like
 Suborder HeteropteraIncludes predators, plant feeders, parasites
 Aquatic Heteroptera FamiliesNepidae- water scorpion
- Ambush predator
- Breathing tube
Corixidae- water boatmen
- Swim upright
- Predators/detritivore
- Can live in polluted water
- Plastron
Notonectidae- backswimmers
- Free swimming predators, hemogloblin, plastron
df

- dff
 Family Cimicidae- Bed bugs
- Flat, oval
- Less than 6 mm
- Wings vestigial
- Feed on blood at night
- Not known to vector diseases
 Bed Bugs- Widely infesting hotels, dorms, homes, etc
- Spread in used bedding, luggage
- Maybe related to restrictions on insecticides formerly used indoors
- Signs (unexplained bites, spots of blood/fecal material on bedding, look for the insects)
- Inspect used beds, sofas,
- Check hotel rooms, dorms
 Family Reduviidae- Kissing bug transmits Chagas disease
 Chagas Disease- Trypanosoma (released in feces)
- Biting causes itching (victim scratches in trypanosomes)
- Affect 18-20 million people (mostly Central and S. American, rural areas)
- Chronic infection (heart, digestive system)
 Family Pentatomidae- Stink bugs
- Large triangular scutellum
- Five segmented antennae
- Very common
- Some serious plant pests
- Some important predators
 Family Gerridae- Water striders
- 500 spp
- "Skate" on top of water (elongate middle and hind legs)
- Ripple readers (still water, predaceous/ scavengers)
- Also occur in open seas (Halobates)
 Family Cicadidae- Large insects with large wings
- Cicada immatures live in the ground
      - Dog day cicada
      - Periodical cicada
- Reasons for periodicity
       - Overwhelm predation
       - Confuse predators with sounds
       - Predator population can't build up in response to prey increase
 Family Cercopidae: Spittlebugs-  Nymphs cover themselves with froth
 Order: Mantodea (mantid)- Overwinter as eggs
- Incomplete Metamorphosis
- Grasping Forelegs
 Family Membracidae (treehoppers)- Many structured to resemble plant parts
- Nymphs often gregarious, may be tended by ants
- Feed mostly on woody plants
 Family Cicadellidae- Important plant disease vectors, particularly viruses
                - Phony peach disease
                - Pierce's disease (grapes)
                - Corn stunt
                - Many more around the world
 Aphid- Transmitted Viruses- Aphids and thrips are the most important vectors of plant viruses
 Complex Life Cycles (heterogamy of aphids)- Eggs overwinter
- Hatch in spring into female
- Viviparous birth to wingless females (several generations)
- Birth to winged female, migrate to secondary host plant
- Parthenogenetic birth to several generations of females on secondary host
- Produce alatae, migrate back to primary host plant
- Birth to male and female, sexual reproduction- oviparous
 Family Adelgidae- Hemlock wooly adelgid
- More than 90,000 in a hemlock in Smokies
         - Some 500 years old
         - Critical element of ecosystem
- No males known
         - Parthenogenesis
- Kill trees in 3-10 years
- Pesticides
- Predators
 Order: Thysanoptera (thrips)- Transmit plant viruses
 Order: Coleoptera (beetles)- The most species of any order of animals
- Fore wings (elytra) thickened, leathery, or hard, usually meeting in a straight line.
- Hind wings usually longer than the elytra and folded underneath
- Chewing mouthparts
- Very small (< 1 mm) to large (> 15 cm)
- Antennae variable
 Family Carabidae- Ground beetles
- Often found under rocks, leaf litter
- Predaceous as larvae and adults
 Family Cincindellidae- Tiger beetles (often quick fliers)
- Larvae predaceous (may ambush out of hole)
 Coleoptera: Family Dytiscidae- Predaceous diving beetle
- Carry air bubble beneath elytra
- Larvae have suctorial mouthparts
 Coleoptera: Family Gyrinidae- Whirligig beetles
- Four compound eyes
- Often gregarious
          - Antennae enable them to avoid crashing
 Coleoptera: Family Curculionidae- Weevils
        - Largest family of beetles
- Larvae typically hidden
 Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae- Leaf beetles

 Cucumber beetles- Key pests of vine crops or cucurbits (cucumber, squash, melons, and pumpkins).
- Oval body shape
 Coleoptera: Cerambycidae- Long-horned beetles
- Larvae typically in dead or living wood
- Long antennae
 Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae- Scarabs
- Some serious pests
 What Insects are Good for- Pollination
- Recycling
- Food and other products
- Controlling pests
 Insects affect the Environment- Bread down organic materials
- Modify soil
- Make some areas unlivable
- Help/injure other elements of ecosystem
- Key element of many food webs
 Secrets to Success- Adaptable exoskeleton
- Small body size
- Short generation time (short- lived)
- Early dry-land colonizers
- Efficient flight
- Metamorphosis
 An Insect- 3 body regions
- 3 pairs of legs
- Compound eyes
- Wings, usually
- One pair of antennae
- Trachea
 Fruit Flies- Insect processes similar to humans
- 289 human genes "misspelled," cause diseases in people
- 177 have direct counterparts in the fruit fly
 Three Domains- Bacteria
- Archaea
- Eukarya
 Bacteria- No nuclear membrane
- Most prokaryotes
 Archaea- Complicated the accepted classifications
- Prokaryotes of extreme environments
- Thermophiles, halophiles

 Eukarya- DNA contained in nucleus
- Protists, plants, fungi, animals
 Arthropods- Exoskeleton, must molt to grow (MOST MOLT 3-6 TIMES)
   - Adult insects do not molt or get bigger
- Segmented
- Jointed appendages
- Ventral nerve chord
- Open circulatory system
- Bilateral symmetry
- Sexual reproduction (may be lost)
 Crustaceans- Lobsters, Crabs, Woodlice, "rollypollies"
- Nearly all aquatic
- Two pairs of antennae
- Gills
- Five pairs of legs (or more)- Biramous
- Head and thorax fused- cephalothorax
 Archnida (Chelicerata)- Spiders, Scorpions, Lice, Ticks
- No antennae
- Chelicerate mouthparts
- Pedipalps
 Class Arachnida- Order Araneae: Spiders
- Order Scorpionida- Scorpions
- Order Acari- Ticks and Mites
 Varroa Mites- Suck blood out of bees
- Weaken bees
- Bee colonies die
- Move with drifting and robbing bees
- Difficult to manage
 Tracheal Mites- Spend nearly entire life in bee trachea
- Weaken bees, affect flight
- Kill bee colonies
- Transmitted by bees drifting or robbing
 Class Chilopoda: Centipedes- One pair of legs per segment
- One pair of large antennae
- Nearly all predaceous and venomous
 Class Diplopoda: Millipedes- Two pairs of legs per segment
- No venomous bite; noxious chemical release common
 Division Exopterygota- nymph similar to adult
-
 Order Strepsiptera- Six- legged larvae wait on flower for host
- Climb onto host visiting flower
- Burrows inside; loses legs, head, antennae, etc
- Male flies away; female never leaves host
 WeevilsLargest family of beetles (Coleoptera)
- Larvae typically hidden
 Order Strepsiptera- Six- legged larvae wait on flower for host
- Climb onto host visiting flower
- Burrows inside; loses legs, head, antennae
- Male flies away; female never leaves host
 Diptera- Flies
- One pair of wings on thorax

- Mosquitoes: eggs laid in water
 Rat Fleas- Rat fleas vector plague
 Fleas- Host for tapeworms
- Adult never leaves animal host
 Milkweed ButterfliesSequester chemicals from milkweed for protection
 Order Trichoptera (Caddisfly)- Almost all aquatic as larvae
- Larvae often in cases
- Closely related to the order Lepidoptera
 Stinging- Only female bees can sting
- A worker bee's sting get stuck in the victim
           - bee die
- The queen can sting multiple times
- Honeybees are not usually aggressive away from the nest
 The Hive- Only one queen is tolerated
- If the hive gets too large, a new queen and many of the bees will swarm
- The hive can make a new queen by feeding a developing larva special food
 Karl von Frisch- First believed bees used flower scents or other odors to find food sources
- Began to  pay close attention to dances performed by returning foragers
 Round Dance- When food source is <50m from hive
 Waggle Dance- When food source is >50 meters away
 Africanized Honey Bees- The same species as European honey bees, but more defensive
 100 Stings______ stings per pound of body weight is potentially fatal in a normal adult
 Hymenoptera (Wasp, Ant, Bee) Diptera (Fly)What 2 orders comprised the parasitoids?
 Aphids and ThripsThe most important vectors of plant viruses
 Hemlock Wooly Adelgid- More than 90,000 in Smokies
- Some 500 years old
- No males known
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"