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Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2011
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Entomology Study of insects
Kingdom: Phylum: Anmalia
Arthropoda

Exoskeleton Chitin
Segmented Bodies: 3 parts Head
Thorax
Abdomen

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Class: Insecta jointed appendages
open circulatory system
bilateral system
sexual reproduction
six legs
most have wings
two antennae
only invertebrates that can fly

Class: Chilopoda Centipedes: 300 species
One pair of legs per segment
predators eat small
live in soil and humans
Class: Diplopoda Millipedes: 8,000 species
two pair of legs per body segment
feed on decaying organic matter
Class: Crustacea lobsters, crabs, shrimp- 26,000 species
branched apendages
aquatic: marine equivalent of insects
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Class: Arachnida spiders/arachnids 57,000 species
no antennae
two body segments: head, thorax
terrestrial
carnivorous
eat other bugs and insects
DDT chlorinated hydrocarbon
first synthesized in 1800's by Zeidler
led to "Era of Optimism"
discovered in 1938 by Muller, won nobel peace prize for discovery
Pesticide chemical substance used to kill pests
Insecticide substance that kills insects
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Paul Muller discovered DDT in 1938
won Nobel Peace Price for discovery
Frank Mayo Atlanta chemist during WWII
DDT was a military secret
process was published in Germany

Switzerland Sent DDT to US in 1942
Secret Army lab was set up in Orlando
tested DDT against lice (which spread typhus)
US army first used DDT in N Africa and Italy
WWII DDT saved millions of lives
first war where enemies were killed more by pesticides than disease
used to control typhus

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Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring
MA Marine Biology J Hopkins U
US Bureau of Fisheries
Died of cancer
received Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter
Silent Spring Bill of Rights should protect us and care for our safety
most insects controlled by other insects
"you cant eradicate an insect with a chemical"
pesticides found in milk
pesticides sold in grocery store could kill you
Carson wrote it emotionally
was put down by industry

Effects of Silent Spring pesticide bills introduced in 40 states
US Senate Hearing
opposition was Dr. White-Stevens
Silent Spring and DDT DDT interferes with nervous system
is fat-soluble
causes reduced calcium in bird eggs- hence title Silent Spring
DDT banned in 1972 10 years after book

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DDT Magnification DDT is trapped in animal fat. As DDT travels up Food Chain, the concentration increases, making it become stronger and stronger in every organism
Pesticide use in US 75% farmers
Gov't & industry 10%
Homeowners 10%
forestry 1%

Synergistic two or more pesticides may act together to be worse than one pesticide
David Pimental Department of Entomology, Cornell
concerned about money involved in application or reduction of pesticides
$4 billion is spent each year in US to apply pesticides
yields 12$ billion profit

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Victor Yannacone led ban of DDT

1962 Silent Spring published
1970 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established

1972 DDT banned by EPA
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Pesticide Treadmill Insect becomes resistant to Pesticide
must apply more pesticide to kill insect
apply more toxic pesticide
killing beneficial insects- causing harm to the environment and the humans
Human Sex Hormones & Pesticides sperm count has gone down by half since 1940
Testicular cancer rate doubled since 1970
DDT exposure increases chance of breast cancer

Man-made chemicals mimic estrogenic hormones; hormones act with a receptor in a lock and key fahsion, if the chemical blocks the receptor site, it can alter hormone actions and affect hormone metabolism
Florida: Lake Apopka major DDT spill in 1980
decline in number of alligators
75% of alligator eggs are dead
25% alligators have small penises
many male turtles are "intersex"
DES synthetic estrogen
given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages
given to chickens and cows to promote growth
women whose mother's took DES are more likely to get vaginal cancer

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Diethyl progesterone Captain is probably carcinogenic

Thalidomide given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness
caused major birth defects such as no arms or legs
PLACENTA DOES NOT PROTECT FETUS FROM CHEMICALS
now used to treat leprosy

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) know the pest
life cycle of pest
how does it reproduce?
when is the pest a problem?
which stage of the insect is most susceptible?
attack it when it is most vulnerable
Beneficial Insects parasitoids
parasitic wasps, flies
predators- preying mantis, dragonflies, paper wasps, spiders
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Parasitoid insect whose larvae consume their host

Predator an animal that kills and eats animals
External Parasitoid female wasp paralyzes caterpillar with venom
FW lays eggs on outside of caterpillar
larvae hatch and feed on caterpillar
wasp determines sex of the young
fertilized egg- female
unfertilized egg- male

Internal Parasitoid female wasp lays eggs inside caterpillar
hyperparasitoids
wasp larvae hatch and eat caterpillar from inside but dont damage internal organs
feed very carefully as not to kill caterpillar
larvae ooze out and spin cocoon
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Bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis- B.t.
several varieties
varieties specific to group of insects
bacteria produce toxin protein which kills insect
B.t. must be eaten because it is a stomach poison
usually sprayed on plant or food source of insect
destroys stomach
NOT slow acting
insects regurgitate and become immobilized, change of color in larvae
Anthrax is a bacillus
Viruses very specific to insects
have no effect on higher animals
multiply in great quantities in host insect
act too slowly
American Cyanamid mite toxin is insect specific
insert gene for mite toxin into virus DNA
pest insects die very quickly
still has narrow host range
also uses toxins from scorpions and spiders
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Biological Classification arrangement of living organisms into categories
Taxonomy classifying organisms into categories
Carolus Linnaeus Swedish naturalist
1753
Linnaean binomial system
Genus species
Rankings Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
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Species organisms that closely resemble one another and can produce fertile offspring
Reasons insects are sucesssful Hard exoskeleton
Jointed appendages
Wings
Small Size
Metamorphosis
Escape from adverse conditions
methods of reproduction
short generation time
specialization of life style
solve the water problem

Hard Exoskeleton provides protection
muscles attach to exoskeleton
limits water loss
when insect grows, it must molt, making more prone to be attacked by birds
Jointed Appendages on head used for feeding
on thorax used for locomotion
on abdomen used for reproduction
all for specialization
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Wings escape from predators
find food
find a mate
Small Size can hide or escape from predators
light enough to be blown by wind
water evaporates quickly
Metamorphosis Incomplete- 13% insect species
egg-nymph-adult
Complete- 87%
egg-larva-pupa-adult
Escape from adverse Conditions migration
Diapause- period of arrested development, in fall triggered by short days
happens at any stage in the life cycle
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Methods of Reproduction sexual- provides genetic variation
parthenogenesis- reproduction without mating, no need to find a mate, quicker and easier
Short Generation Time 2 advantages: increased genetic variation
better utilization of limited food source
Specialization in Life Style develop special skills
maximize the source of food
if host decreases, source of food disappears
Solve the Water Problem extract water from host sugar
limit water evaporation
prevent dehydration
limit water excretion
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Uric Acid MOST INSECTS=URIC ACID
not water soluble
not using any liquid to get rid of the nitrogen
non toxic
Insect Wings primitive- wings dont fold

advanced- wings fold, easier to escape from predators

Insect Nutrition carbohydrates
proteins (amino acids)

insect and human digestive enzymes are the same
Insect Cuticle main component is chitin
chitin=aminosugar polymer
provides tremendous strength and support for muscles and bones
provides protection
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Insect Circulatory System "open system"
hemolymph=insect blood
it distributes nutrients and hormones
Insect Hormones chemical signal that is:
formed in specialized cells
travels in body fluids
interacts with target cells

several different types: juvenile hormone causes insect to retain larval characteristics
Insect Pheromones
Charles David conducted experiments on gypsy moths
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Thomas Eisner Department of Entomology
Cornell
very important
worked with beetles
Bulas Spider spins a silk strand with sticky ball on end
throws ball at prey and then reels it in
catches moths of only one species
all moths it catches are male
spider emits smell of female moth sex pheromone
male moth is attracted to spider and caught
GC/MS used to identify insect chemicals
GC/MS= gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
Aposematic bright coloration warns potential predators of chemical defense
many insects use this as a great defense method
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Monarch Butterfly larvae feed on milkweed
gives them their aposematic feature
gives them complete protection from almost all predators

sequester toxic alkaloids: quite strong, used in many human chemicals and medicines

Grizzly Bear habitat montana
bears and people compete for space
they have become a danger
need to find "old" food source
bears not feed on a tiny moth
Mutualism relationship between two species that benefits both parties
Symbiosis intimate relationship between two species, usually involving coevoltution
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Ant and Acacia mutualistic relationship
ants provide protection from leaf-eating insects
tree provides- home, ants live in the thorns
ants eat sugar from glands at leaf base
ants eat Beltian bodies from leaf tip
ants feed on these leaves without damaging them
ants harvest the leaf tips
ants kill surrounding vegetation allowing tree to access more nutrients, sunlight, rain, etc.
Mistletoe Butterfly lays eggs on mistletoe
larvae eat on mistletoe leaves
mistletoe is a parasite of eucalyptus tree
mistletoe birds feed on mistletoe berries
birds defecate mistletoe seeds ONTO eucalyptus branch
seeds germinate on eucalyptus
Biodiversity over 40 million species, only 1.25 million discovered
being discovered at rate of 5000 a year

EO Wilson Harvard
1992
The Diversity of Life
points out that some species are more difficult to describe and distinguish than others
insects are almost impossible to classify
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# of named species and animals 1.82 million
Bird species in New Guinea museum collection says 125
natives say 124

Forest Canopy many of the unknown species of insects are in the Forest Canopy
get into canopy with ropes, cranes, walkways
Terry Erwin Washington DC
moves from one location to another searching for new species in the canopies
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# of species between 10 and 30 million species of insects on earth today
Order: Isoptera iso= equal
ptera= wings
common name= termites
2230 species
Termites incomplete metamorphosis
highly social
caste system
symbiosis with protozoa or fungi to degrade the cellulose in wood
beneficial: recycle nutrients
pest: destroy wood structures
use saliva as cement, complex structures
Termite Castes soldiers- protectors
workers- exchange food when they meet
king- fertilize eggs
queen- lays eggs, 30,000 a day

not possible without king
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Traits of Social Insects reproductive division of labor
cooperative care for the young
overlap in generations
Order: Ephemeroptera ephemera= short lived
ptera= wings
common name= mayflies
2,000 species
Mayflies incomplete metamorphosis
eggs laid in water
nymphs breathe with gills
have good sense of timing

Characteristics of Nymphs and Adults feed on plants
live 1 to 3 years
adults emerge at the same time
adults do not feed
adults have 2 pair of wings and 2 to 3 tails
adults mate and die in 1 to 2 days

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Taxonomists Lumpers: have few orders, like to generalize organisms

Splitters: have more orders, like to be very specific

26 insect orders
Insects Walk on Water adapted to their environment
use surface tension of water
have extra layer of wax on cuticle to prevent water loss
Hey
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 EntomologyStudy of insects
 Kingdom: Phylum:Anmalia
Arthropoda

 ExoskeletonChitin
 Segmented Bodies: 3 partsHead
Thorax
Abdomen

 Class: Insectajointed appendages
open circulatory system
bilateral system
sexual reproduction
six legs
most have wings
two antennae
only invertebrates that can fly

 Class: ChilopodaCentipedes: 300 species
One pair of legs per segment
predators eat small
live in soil and humans
 Class: DiplopodaMillipedes: 8,000 species
two pair of legs per body segment
feed on decaying organic matter
 Class: Crustacealobsters, crabs, shrimp- 26,000 species
branched apendages
aquatic: marine equivalent of insects
 Class: Arachnidaspiders/arachnids 57,000 species
no antennae
two body segments: head, thorax
terrestrial
carnivorous
eat other bugs and insects
 DDTchlorinated hydrocarbon
first synthesized in 1800's by Zeidler
led to "Era of Optimism"
discovered in 1938 by Muller, won nobel peace prize for discovery
 Pesticidechemical substance used to kill pests
 Insecticidesubstance that kills insects
 Paul Mullerdiscovered DDT in 1938
won Nobel Peace Price for discovery
 Frank MayoAtlanta chemist during WWII
DDT was a military secret
process was published in Germany

 SwitzerlandSent DDT to US in 1942
Secret Army lab was set up in Orlando
tested DDT against lice (which spread typhus)
US army first used DDT in N Africa and Italy
 WWIIDDT saved millions of lives
first war where enemies were killed more by pesticides than disease
used to control typhus

 Rachel Carsonwrote Silent Spring
MA Marine Biology J Hopkins U
US Bureau of Fisheries
Died of cancer
received Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter
 Silent SpringBill of Rights should protect us and care for our safety
most insects controlled by other insects
"you cant eradicate an insect with a chemical"
pesticides found in milk
pesticides sold in grocery store could kill you
Carson wrote it emotionally
was put down by industry

 Effects of Silent Springpesticide bills introduced in 40 states
US Senate Hearing
opposition was Dr. White-Stevens
 Silent Spring and DDTDDT interferes with nervous system
is fat-soluble
causes reduced calcium in bird eggs- hence title Silent Spring
DDT banned in 1972 10 years after book

 DDT MagnificationDDT is trapped in animal fat. As DDT travels up Food Chain, the concentration increases, making it become stronger and stronger in every organism
 Pesticide use in US75% farmers
Gov't & industry 10%
Homeowners 10%
forestry 1%

 Synergistictwo or more pesticides may act together to be worse than one pesticide
 David PimentalDepartment of Entomology, Cornell
concerned about money involved in application or reduction of pesticides
$4 billion is spent each year in US to apply pesticides
yields 12$ billion profit

 Victor Yannaconeled ban of DDT

 1962Silent Spring published
 1970Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established

 1972DDT banned by EPA
 Pesticide TreadmillInsect becomes resistant to Pesticide
must apply more pesticide to kill insect
apply more toxic pesticide
killing beneficial insects- causing harm to the environment and the humans
 Human Sex Hormones & Pesticidessperm count has gone down by half since 1940
Testicular cancer rate doubled since 1970
DDT exposure increases chance of breast cancer

Man-made chemicals mimic estrogenic hormones; hormones act with a receptor in a lock and key fahsion, if the chemical blocks the receptor site, it can alter hormone actions and affect hormone metabolism
 Florida: Lake Apopkamajor DDT spill in 1980
decline in number of alligators
75% of alligator eggs are dead
25% alligators have small penises
many male turtles are "intersex"
 DESsynthetic estrogen
given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages
given to chickens and cows to promote growth
women whose mother's took DES are more likely to get vaginal cancer

 Diethyl progesteroneCaptain is probably carcinogenic

 Thalidomidegiven to pregnant women to combat morning sickness
caused major birth defects such as no arms or legs
PLACENTA DOES NOT PROTECT FETUS FROM CHEMICALS
now used to treat leprosy

 Integrated Pest Management (IPM)know the pest
life cycle of pest
how does it reproduce?
when is the pest a problem?
which stage of the insect is most susceptible?
attack it when it is most vulnerable
 Beneficial Insectsparasitoids
parasitic wasps, flies
predators- preying mantis, dragonflies, paper wasps, spiders
 Parasitoidinsect whose larvae consume their host

 Predatoran animal that kills and eats animals
 External Parasitoidfemale wasp paralyzes caterpillar with venom
FW lays eggs on outside of caterpillar
larvae hatch and feed on caterpillar
wasp determines sex of the young
fertilized egg- female
unfertilized egg- male

 Internal Parasitoidfemale wasp lays eggs inside caterpillar
hyperparasitoids
wasp larvae hatch and eat caterpillar from inside but dont damage internal organs
feed very carefully as not to kill caterpillar
larvae ooze out and spin cocoon
 BacteriaBacillus thuringiensis- B.t.
several varieties
varieties specific to group of insects
bacteria produce toxin protein which kills insect
 B.t.must be eaten because it is a stomach poison
usually sprayed on plant or food source of insect
destroys stomach
NOT slow acting
insects regurgitate and become immobilized, change of color in larvae
Anthrax is a bacillus
 Virusesvery specific to insects
have no effect on higher animals
multiply in great quantities in host insect
act too slowly
 American Cyanamidmite toxin is insect specific
insert gene for mite toxin into virus DNA
pest insects die very quickly
still has narrow host range
also uses toxins from scorpions and spiders
 Biological Classificationarrangement of living organisms into categories
 Taxonomyclassifying organisms into categories
 Carolus LinnaeusSwedish naturalist
1753
Linnaean binomial system
Genus species
 RankingsPhylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
 Speciesorganisms that closely resemble one another and can produce fertile offspring
 Reasons insects are sucesssfulHard exoskeleton
Jointed appendages
Wings
Small Size
Metamorphosis
Escape from adverse conditions
methods of reproduction
short generation time
specialization of life style
solve the water problem

 Hard Exoskeletonprovides protection
muscles attach to exoskeleton
limits water loss
when insect grows, it must molt, making more prone to be attacked by birds
 Jointed Appendageson head used for feeding
on thorax used for locomotion
on abdomen used for reproduction
all for specialization
 Wingsescape from predators
find food
find a mate
 Small Sizecan hide or escape from predators
light enough to be blown by wind
water evaporates quickly
 MetamorphosisIncomplete- 13% insect species
egg-nymph-adult
Complete- 87%
egg-larva-pupa-adult
 Escape from adverse Conditionsmigration
Diapause- period of arrested development, in fall triggered by short days
happens at any stage in the life cycle
 Methods of Reproductionsexual- provides genetic variation
parthenogenesis- reproduction without mating, no need to find a mate, quicker and easier
 Short Generation Time2 advantages: increased genetic variation
better utilization of limited food source
 Specialization in Life Styledevelop special skills
maximize the source of food
if host decreases, source of food disappears
 Solve the Water Problemextract water from host sugar
limit water evaporation
prevent dehydration
limit water excretion
 Uric AcidMOST INSECTS=URIC ACID
not water soluble
not using any liquid to get rid of the nitrogen
non toxic
 Insect Wingsprimitive- wings dont fold

advanced- wings fold, easier to escape from predators

 Insect Nutritioncarbohydrates
proteins (amino acids)

insect and human digestive enzymes are the same
 Insect Cuticlemain component is chitin
chitin=aminosugar polymer
provides tremendous strength and support for muscles and bones
provides protection
 Insect Circulatory System"open system"
hemolymph=insect blood
it distributes nutrients and hormones
 Insect Hormoneschemical signal that is:
formed in specialized cells
travels in body fluids
interacts with target cells

several different types: juvenile hormone causes insect to retain larval characteristics
 Insect Pheromones 
 Charles Davidconducted experiments on gypsy moths
 Thomas EisnerDepartment of Entomology
Cornell
very important
worked with beetles
 Bulas Spiderspins a silk strand with sticky ball on end
throws ball at prey and then reels it in
catches moths of only one species
all moths it catches are male
spider emits smell of female moth sex pheromone
male moth is attracted to spider and caught
 GC/MSused to identify insect chemicals
GC/MS= gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
 Aposematicbright coloration warns potential predators of chemical defense
many insects use this as a great defense method
 Monarch Butterflylarvae feed on milkweed
gives them their aposematic feature
gives them complete protection from almost all predators

sequester toxic alkaloids: quite strong, used in many human chemicals and medicines

 Grizzly Bear habitatmontana
bears and people compete for space
they have become a danger
need to find "old" food source
bears not feed on a tiny moth
 Mutualismrelationship between two species that benefits both parties
 Symbiosisintimate relationship between two species, usually involving coevoltution
 Ant and Acaciamutualistic relationship
ants provide protection from leaf-eating insects
tree provides- home, ants live in the thorns
ants eat sugar from glands at leaf base
ants eat Beltian bodies from leaf tip
ants feed on these leaves without damaging them
ants harvest the leaf tips
ants kill surrounding vegetation allowing tree to access more nutrients, sunlight, rain, etc.
 Mistletoe Butterflylays eggs on mistletoe
larvae eat on mistletoe leaves
mistletoe is a parasite of eucalyptus tree
mistletoe birds feed on mistletoe berries
birds defecate mistletoe seeds ONTO eucalyptus branch
seeds germinate on eucalyptus
 Biodiversityover 40 million species, only 1.25 million discovered
being discovered at rate of 5000 a year

 EO WilsonHarvard
1992
The Diversity of Life
points out that some species are more difficult to describe and distinguish than others
insects are almost impossible to classify
 # of named species and animals1.82 million
 Bird species in New Guineamuseum collection says 125
natives say 124

 Forest Canopymany of the unknown species of insects are in the Forest Canopy
get into canopy with ropes, cranes, walkways
 Terry ErwinWashington DC
moves from one location to another searching for new species in the canopies
 # of speciesbetween 10 and 30 million species of insects on earth today
 Order: Isopteraiso= equal
ptera= wings
common name= termites
2230 species
 Termitesincomplete metamorphosis
highly social
caste system
symbiosis with protozoa or fungi to degrade the cellulose in wood
beneficial: recycle nutrients
pest: destroy wood structures
use saliva as cement, complex structures
 Termite Castessoldiers- protectors
workers- exchange food when they meet
king- fertilize eggs
queen- lays eggs, 30,000 a day

not possible without king
 Traits of Social Insectsreproductive division of labor
cooperative care for the young
overlap in generations
 Order: Ephemeropteraephemera= short lived
ptera= wings
common name= mayflies
2,000 species
 Mayfliesincomplete metamorphosis
eggs laid in water
nymphs breathe with gills
have good sense of timing

 Characteristics of Nymphs and Adultsfeed on plants
live 1 to 3 years
adults emerge at the same time
adults do not feed
adults have 2 pair of wings and 2 to 3 tails
adults mate and die in 1 to 2 days

 TaxonomistsLumpers: have few orders, like to generalize organisms

Splitters: have more orders, like to be very specific

26 insect orders
 Insects Walk on Wateradapted to their environment
use surface tension of water
have extra layer of wax on cuticle to prevent water loss
 Hey 
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