Koofers

Exam 2 - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2014
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mayflies scientific name Ephemeroptera
dragonflies/damselflies scientific name Odonata
cockroach scientific name Blattodea
grasshopper/cricket/locust scientific name Orthoptera
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bugs/aphids/scales/cicadas scientific name Hemiptera
beetles/weevils scientific name Coleoptera
butterflies/moths scientific name Lepidoptera
Flies/mosquitoes scientific name Diptera
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Ephemeroptera definition short-lived, wings
Ephemeroptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosis incomplete
Odonata: complete or incomplete metamorphosis incomplete
Blattodea: complete or incomplete metamorphosis incomplete
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Orthoptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosis incomplete
Hemiptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosis incomplete
Coleoptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosis complete
Lepidoptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosis complete
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Diptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosis complete
Ephemeroptera life span
  • nymph: 1-3 yrs
  • adult: 1-3 days
  • Note: in between stage is dangerous, must first pump hemolymph into its wings  
Odonata nymph life span: 1-3 years
Ephemeroptera mouthparts piercing/sucking
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Odonata mouthparts biting
Blattodea mouthparts chewing
Orthoptera mouthparts chewing
Hemiptera mouthparts piercing/sucking 
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Coleoptera mouthparts chewing
Lepidoptera mouthparts siphoning 
Diptera mouthparts piercing/sucking or sponging  
Odonata definition odus = tooth
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Orthoptera definition
  • ortho = straight
  • ptera = wings
Hemiptera definition
  • hemi = half
  • ptera = wings
Coleoptera definition
  • Coleo = sheath
  • ptera = wings
Lepidoptera definition
  • lepido = scale 
  • ptera = wings
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Diptera definition two wings 
Ephemeroptera adults
  • live 1-3 days
  • don't feed
  • have 2-3 tails
water-measurer mouthparts piercing/sucking
Fisherpeople and insects
  • fishermen use lures that mimic insects in the stream 
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**Dragonfly vs. Damselfly
  • Dragonflies: bigger, hold wings to side at rest, lays eggs on water surface
  • damselfly: smaller, hold wings straight back at rest, lays eggs in plant stems underwater
Odonata characteristics
  • incomplete metamorphosis
  • biting mouthparts
  • 2 pair of wings
  • very large eyes, very small antennae - hunt by sight 
  • long abdomen 
  • muscles attached to wings (like birds/bees); front/back wings beat independently 
  • aquatic nymphs
  • both adult and nymphs are predators
  • use leg hairs to catch prey 
Odonata mating
  • males are territorial
  • mate in "wheel position"
  • male first removes rival sperm 
  • male and female in tandem during egg laying

insect behavior reaction of insects to specific conditions 
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ootheca** egg case cockroaches lay their eggs in 
blattodea characteristics
  • incomplete metamorphosis 
  • chewing mouthparts, 2 pair of wings, flattened body
  • nocturnal omnivore 
  • adapted to living with humans, 20 species are domestic pests
  • peripheral vision
  • antennae detect food/water (keep antennae clean)
  • tail hairs sensitive to movement 
omnivore eats plant and animal material
cockroaches and spread of disease
  • spread disease (bacteria) manually
  • can cause allergies
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cockroach defenses against pest control bait
  • smell at a distance
  • touch with antennae
  • touch with hairs on mouthparts
  • chew and taste
termites evolved from cockroaches**
  • roach fossils 300 million years old
  • some roaches eat wood
  • like termites, roaches have protozoans to digest cellulose
  • protozoans passes on to baby roaches via feces
  • female roaches carry young by carrying ootheca
**stridulation
  • production of sound to attract mate 
Orthoptera characteristics
  • incomplete metamorph.
  • chewing mouthparts
  • narrow front wings, fan-like back wings 
  • strong hind legs
  • males produce sound ("call" to find mate) - sound receptors on leg/abdomen
  • oviposit eggs in soil/on a plant
  • eat plants - major agricultural pests
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Dangers of calling for a mate
  • some predators/parasites attracted to call
  • mate at night to reduce danger from predators
  • safer to be a strong "silent" male
cricket songs
  • each species different
  • higher temperature = more chirps/second
  • call to establish territory, call female, or warm of predator
Crickets and grasshoppers sound production
  • crickets and some grasshoppers: rub wing against wing
  • grasshopper, locusts: rub leg against wing
  • wings/legs have bumps and ridges - file and scraper
  • wing can be amplifier
cricket uses
  • court case to lower rent
  • In China: raise for fights
  • sell for fish bait
  • a cricket genus = Gryllus (food)
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Locusts
  • nymphs stay in soil several years during drought 
  • blew/flew to Americas from Africa
  • #1 agricultural pest in the world
  • 2 phases: solitary and gregarious 
  • stimulation of hairs on back legs of solitary locust -> swarming (gregarious phase)
  • swarm may cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects 
locust swarms in africa
  • eat 2000 tons per day
  • travel 65 miles per day
  • oviposit in soil
  • 1 female -> 500 nymphs
lubber grasshopper
  • bright colors (aposematic)
  • noxious foam from mouth/thorax
elephant dung beetles
  • Coleoptera
  • dung is a valuable food source!
  • many insects attracted to dung
  • dung beetles have specialized mouth parts
  • roll dung into balls
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Civet cats
  • feed on dung beetles
  • produce civetone in anal gland
  • civetone used in perfumes
**Australia and dung beetles
  • cows were imported
  • insects couldn't cope with the dung
  • grassland lost
  • solution: imported more dung beetles 
Scarab (ancient Egypt)
  • Coleoptera
  • stone beetle
  • symbol of the soul
  • was the sun god Ra
  • beetle metamorphosis may have inspired the construction of pyramids 
Spanish fly
  • Coleoptera
  • AKA blister beetle
  • produces toxin: cantharidin 
  • Hippocrates used cantharidin as medicine 
  • Marquis de Sade used cantharidin as aphrodisiac
  • cantharidin causes burning sensation in groin
  • cantharidin destroys mucous linings in body
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acorn weevil
  • Coleoptera
  • female has long snout 
  • drills hole in acorn then oviposits in hole
  • lays 1 egg per acorn
  • larva eats acorn
pecan weevil
  • Coleoptera
  • female drills hole with long snout 
  • oviposits 1 egg per pecan 
  • larva eats pecan 
  • larva burrows into soil
  • adult emerges after 2 years (because pecan bears more fruit in alternating years)
whirligig beetle
  • coleoptera
  • scavenger
  • divided eyes to see above and below water
  • spins in circles to create waves which bounce back with hits potential food
  • carries air bubble to breathe underwater 
hemiptera characteristics
  • incomplete metamorphosis 
  • piercing sucking mouthparts
  • pest of crops
  • transmit disease 
"true bugs"
  • mouthparts ("beak") swing forward
  • many species predators
  • base of forewing hardened, back is membranous
  • many have stink glands
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Largest insect order
  • Coleoptera
coleoptera characteristics
  • complete metamorphosis
  • chewing mouthparts
  • forewings hardened
  • hind wings membranous
  • thickened exoskeleton 
  • pests of crops and trees 
  • largest insect order 
metamorphosis change in the structure and habits of an animal
complete metamorphosis
  • egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult 
  • 4 stages often very different in appearance, habitat, host, predators/parasitoids 
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Lady bugs
  • coleoptera
  • "lady bug, lady bug, fly away home, your house is on fire..." refers to hop plants being burned to kill aphids
  • lift front wings and fly with back wings
  • beneficial - eat aphids
  • adults overwinter in large clusters
  • collected and sold for biological control
fireflies
  • Coleoptera!
  • each species has a unique flash pattern
  • male and female have different flash patterns
  • male flashes to attract female
  • some females mimic flash pattern of other species and prey on males
  • larvae are aposematic - glow to deter predators
  • flash in unison only in India and Tennessee
  • produce light with Luciferin, a pigment which yields light when combined with oxygen (98% of energy released as light)
Lepidoptera characteristics
  • complete metamorphosis
  • siphoning mouthparts 
  • wing have scales (modified hairs)
  • larvae feed on plants and spin silk 
  • greatest color variation 
  • major agricultural pest 
Butterfly in other languages
  • greek: psyche 
  • french: papillon 
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entomology vs. etymology
  • entomology - study of insects
  • etymology - study of words
Morpho butterfly
  • morpho = beautiful, well made 
  • upper wings are iridescent blue
  • lower wings are plain brown
Lepidopteran larvae
  • caterpillars
  • leaf-eating machines
  • must molt 4-5 times
  • have soft cuticle
  • need defense : camouflage, warning coloration, toxic spines
generalists vs. specialists
  • generalists: eat many plant species 
  • specialists: eat on 1 (or a few) species
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lepidopteran adults
  • feed to get flight fuel
  • mate abdomen to abdomen 
  • female lays eggs on host plant
butterfly species vs moth species
  • Many many more species of moths than butterflies 
Dan Janzen
  • identify moths in Costa Rica 
  • rear larvae to adults the identify
  • use light screen at night to collect adults 
  • moth scales can cause allergies
Florida Queen butterfly
  • florida queen and viceroy look very similar
  • florida queen finds mate with sex pheromone 
  • male and female do courtship dance
  • male uses "hair pencils" to dust female with pheromone 
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Monarchs
  • larvae feed on milkweed
  • sequester toxic alkaloids (cardenolides)
  • predators leave larvae and adults alone
Mexican holiday
  • return of monarch butterfly represents return of souls of people who died during the year 
  • monarchs: fall - 4th generation adults migrate 2500 miles to Mexico
  • winter dormant in Mexican forests
  • spring: mate and return to the US
assassin bug mouthparts
  • piercing/sucking
bed bugs
  • hemiptera
  • feed at night
  • inject an anesthetic
  • suck human blood
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vector a means of biological transfer
Chagas' disease
  • vector: assassin bug (AKA kissing bug)
  • Disease agent: Trypanasoma cruzi (protozoan)
  • 1 million people die per year 
  • Primarily in South America
  • attacks the heart 
  • hard to diagnose, no cure
  • reservoir host: opossums and armadillos 
  • kissing bug feeds on victim at night, defecates on victim's face, then vector rubs feces and disease into wound 
xenodiagnosis use of a live vector to diagnose disease 
xenodiagnosis of Chagas' disease
  • laboratory kissing bug fees on patient
  • 10 days later look for protozoan (Trypanasoma cruzi) in kissing bug feces
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Aphids
  • mouthparts ("beak") swing down (piercing/sucking)
  • plant feeders - major agricultural pests 
  • membranous wings
  • have many predators
  • tended to by ants for honeydew
  • give birth to nymphs
  • usually wingless, but overpopulation results in winged aphids 
  • plant defense - sticky hairs
honeydew
  • sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids 
  • aphids excess liquid excreted as honeydew
  • attracts ants
  • can cause fungal growth on plants 
  • may have been the Manna of the Bible
Hemiptera diversity
  • bugs
  • aphids
  • scales
  • cicadas
  • spittlebugs 
insect plant interactions coevolutionary arms race:
  • plant produces toxin
  • insect adapts to toxin
  • plant makes more powerful toxin
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plant defense against herbivores
  • silicone oxide in leaves (like eating glass)
  • proteinase inhibitors (animal can't digest food)
  • secondary plant products (toxic compounds)
trichomes
  • hairs on plant surface
  • may produce toxins 
  • may be sticky
  • may be spines or hooks
plant when wounded
wants to:
  • limit water loss
  • prevent fungal/bacterial infection 
  • deter herbivory 
it may:
  • heal wound to give "scab"
  • produce toxic chemicals
  • exude sap or gum
  • form a gall (with insect inside) 
Jurassic Park**
  • Fossilized plant resin = amber = gem
  • DNA found in fossil insects
  • sequence fossilized DNA
  • Determine relatedness of insect species 
  • recover dinosaur blood (DNA) from fossilized mosquitoes
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Carnivorous plants
  • habitat low in nutrients 
  • digest protein of prey
  • have modified structure to catch insects 
Carnivorous plant types***
  • sundews 
  • venus fly trap
  • bladderworts
  • pitcher plants
sundews
  • bright colors attract insects
  • leaf tentacles have sticky glue 
  • electrical signal causes leaf to curl
  • leaf uses enzymes to digest prey 
venus fly trap
  • has trigger hairs inside leaf
  • touching trigger hairs causes electrical signal
  • 2 signals cause rapid growth of outer leaf cells
  • leaf closes on inset 
  • only found in wetlands of north and south Carolina
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Bladderworts
  • aquatic
  • have a bladder with trap door
  • when prey item hits trigger hair it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000th of a second
pitcher plants
  • flower-like: nectar and color attract insects
  • inside: downward pointing hairs and loose wax
  • fall into pool and are digested
diptera characteristics
  • complete metamorphosis 
  • piercing/sucking or sponging mouthparts 
  • 1 pair membranous wings
  • no hind wings - halteres (stabilizers, replace hind winds)
  • primitive larvae = maggots 
  • many larvae aquatic
  • most harmful order to humans - many members cause disease
flight of diptera
  • flies are best insect fliers
  • hoverflies: 175 wing beats/second
  • halters give stability 
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house flies
  • regurgitates on food
  • enzymes soften food 
  • then uses sponging mouthparts
  • transmits disease mechanically: picks up disease somewhere and carries to another location 
  • can "see" movement very well
  • use leg hairs to taste 
  • oily hairs on feet -> walk on ceiling 
fly farms maggots used to eliminated animal farm waste 
Maggot medical treatment
  • people with poor circulation 
  • leg/arm wounds heal slowly
  • add fly maggots to wound
  • maggots eat dead flesh 
  • prevents amputation 
African sleeping sickness
  • vectoe Tsetse fly
  • Disease: protozoan (genus Trypanasoma)
  • drug treatment is effective 
  • 65,000 deaths/year (kills people and cows)
  • wild animals are reservoir hosts
  • Africans can't raise cattle
  • people of Africa need more protein
  • Tsetse fly = "Guardian of Africa" because natural habitat has been saved
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Tsetse fly female
  • does not lay eggs
  • 1 egg hatches inside 
  • larva develops inside
  • mature larva born
  • larva burrows into soil and pupates
  • adult emerges from soil
  • female only produces 8 larvae
Mosquito life cycle
  • eggs laid in/near water
  • aquatic larvae and pupae - siphon tube for breathing 
  • adults live 1-3 weeks
  • female mates in male swarm 
  • male feeds on flowers
  • female needs 'blood meal'
Insect vectored diseases
  • 1/6 of humans have an insect vectored disease 
What has killed more people than any other disease?
  • malaria
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Ronald Ross**
  • showed that mosquitoes vector malaria 
  • 1897
Walter Reed**
  • showed that mosquitoes vector yellow fever 
mosquito mouthparts
  • piercing/sucking 
  • protective sheath, tube to suck blood, knife-like mouthparts
  • Saliva injector (stops blood clotting)
Yellow Fever
  • vector: Aedes mosquito
  • disease: virus
  • reservoir: monkeys
  • Worst in South America and Africa
  • no effective treatment 
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Dengue fever
  • Vector: Aedes mosquito 
  • disease: virus 
  • South America, Africa, and Asia
  • no effective treatment 
Malaria
  • Vector: Anopholes mosquito
  • disease: Plasmodium protozoan
  • South America, Africa, and Asia
  • effective drug treatment
  • 2 million deaths per year 
  • 600 million new cases per year 
malaria life cycle
  1. Mosquito [M] feeds on infected host [H]
  2. Plasmodium [P] mates in M’s stomach
  3. P moves to M salivary glands
  4. M feeds on new H
  5. P move to H liver
  6. P attack H red blood cells
  7. H red blood cells rupture
  8. Cycle repeats in H: 24, 48, or 96 hours

***Natural selection in Africa
  • A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin
  • This change provided resistance to malaria
  • People with 1 copy of the gene survive malaria
  • People with 2 copies have Sickle Cell Anemia
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Mated female mosquito
  1. Eggs do not develop without a Blood Meal
  2. Head produces hormones need for egg production

Termites keep a fungus garden in order to break down what
cellulose

Termites belong to which order?:
Isoptera

(t/f) All adult termites have wings:
  • False
  • only king and queen during nuptial fight 

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List the four castes of a termite colony
soldiers, workers, king, queen

Mayfly adults live for how long
One to two days 

Which is bigger, dragonflies or damselflies? dragonflies
What did termites evolve from? cockroaches
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What are cockroach eggs laid in ootheca
What is the production of sound to attract a mate? stridulation
#1 agricultural pests in the world? locusts
Crickets produce sound by rubbing wings together 
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Luciferin produces light when combined with what? oxygen
what do ladybugs eat aphids
(T/F) Beetles are part of the largest insect order true
What is civetone made by? civet cats
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Why were dung beetles imported to Australia? to cope with dung produced by cattle
(T/F) weevils and dung beetles are in different orders false - both coleoptera!
what is cantharidin made by? blister beetles 
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 mayflies scientific nameEphemeroptera
 dragonflies/damselflies scientific nameOdonata
 cockroach scientific nameBlattodea
 grasshopper/cricket/locust scientific nameOrthoptera
 bugs/aphids/scales/cicadas scientific nameHemiptera
 beetles/weevils scientific nameColeoptera
 butterflies/moths scientific nameLepidoptera
 Flies/mosquitoes scientific nameDiptera
 Ephemeroptera definitionshort-lived, wings
 Ephemeroptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosisincomplete
 Odonata: complete or incomplete metamorphosisincomplete
 Blattodea: complete or incomplete metamorphosisincomplete
 Orthoptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosisincomplete
 Hemiptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosisincomplete
 Coleoptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosiscomplete
 Lepidoptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosiscomplete
 Diptera: complete or incomplete metamorphosiscomplete
 Ephemeroptera life span
  • nymph: 1-3 yrs
  • adult: 1-3 days
  • Note: in between stage is dangerous, must first pump hemolymph into its wings  
 Odonata nymph life span:1-3 years
 Ephemeroptera mouthpartspiercing/sucking
 Odonata mouthpartsbiting
 Blattodea mouthpartschewing
 Orthoptera mouthpartschewing
 Hemiptera mouthpartspiercing/sucking 
 Coleoptera mouthpartschewing
 Lepidoptera mouthpartssiphoning 
 Diptera mouthpartspiercing/sucking or sponging  
 Odonata definitionodus = tooth
 Orthoptera definition
  • ortho = straight
  • ptera = wings
 Hemiptera definition
  • hemi = half
  • ptera = wings
 Coleoptera definition
  • Coleo = sheath
  • ptera = wings
 Lepidoptera definition
  • lepido = scale 
  • ptera = wings
 Diptera definitiontwo wings 
 Ephemeroptera adults
  • live 1-3 days
  • don't feed
  • have 2-3 tails
 water-measurer mouthpartspiercing/sucking
 Fisherpeople and insects
  • fishermen use lures that mimic insects in the stream 
 **Dragonfly vs. Damselfly
  • Dragonflies: bigger, hold wings to side at rest, lays eggs on water surface
  • damselfly: smaller, hold wings straight back at rest, lays eggs in plant stems underwater
 Odonata characteristics
  • incomplete metamorphosis
  • biting mouthparts
  • 2 pair of wings
  • very large eyes, very small antennae - hunt by sight 
  • long abdomen 
  • muscles attached to wings (like birds/bees); front/back wings beat independently 
  • aquatic nymphs
  • both adult and nymphs are predators
  • use leg hairs to catch prey 
 Odonata mating
  • males are territorial
  • mate in "wheel position"
  • male first removes rival sperm 
  • male and female in tandem during egg laying

 insect behaviorreaction of insects to specific conditions 
 ootheca**egg case cockroaches lay their eggs in 
 blattodea characteristics
  • incomplete metamorphosis 
  • chewing mouthparts, 2 pair of wings, flattened body
  • nocturnal omnivore 
  • adapted to living with humans, 20 species are domestic pests
  • peripheral vision
  • antennae detect food/water (keep antennae clean)
  • tail hairs sensitive to movement 
 omnivoreeats plant and animal material
 cockroaches and spread of disease
  • spread disease (bacteria) manually
  • can cause allergies
 cockroach defenses against pest control bait
  • smell at a distance
  • touch with antennae
  • touch with hairs on mouthparts
  • chew and taste
 termites evolved from cockroaches**
  • roach fossils 300 million years old
  • some roaches eat wood
  • like termites, roaches have protozoans to digest cellulose
  • protozoans passes on to baby roaches via feces
  • female roaches carry young by carrying ootheca
 **stridulation
  • production of sound to attract mate 
 Orthoptera characteristics
  • incomplete metamorph.
  • chewing mouthparts
  • narrow front wings, fan-like back wings 
  • strong hind legs
  • males produce sound ("call" to find mate) - sound receptors on leg/abdomen
  • oviposit eggs in soil/on a plant
  • eat plants - major agricultural pests
 Dangers of calling for a mate
  • some predators/parasites attracted to call
  • mate at night to reduce danger from predators
  • safer to be a strong "silent" male
 cricket songs
  • each species different
  • higher temperature = more chirps/second
  • call to establish territory, call female, or warm of predator
 Crickets and grasshoppers sound production
  • crickets and some grasshoppers: rub wing against wing
  • grasshopper, locusts: rub leg against wing
  • wings/legs have bumps and ridges - file and scraper
  • wing can be amplifier
 cricket uses
  • court case to lower rent
  • In China: raise for fights
  • sell for fish bait
  • a cricket genus = Gryllus (food)
 Locusts
  • nymphs stay in soil several years during drought 
  • blew/flew to Americas from Africa
  • #1 agricultural pest in the world
  • 2 phases: solitary and gregarious 
  • stimulation of hairs on back legs of solitary locust -> swarming (gregarious phase)
  • swarm may cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects 
 locust swarms in africa
  • eat 2000 tons per day
  • travel 65 miles per day
  • oviposit in soil
  • 1 female -> 500 nymphs
 lubber grasshopper
  • bright colors (aposematic)
  • noxious foam from mouth/thorax
 elephant dung beetles
  • Coleoptera
  • dung is a valuable food source!
  • many insects attracted to dung
  • dung beetles have specialized mouth parts
  • roll dung into balls
 Civet cats
  • feed on dung beetles
  • produce civetone in anal gland
  • civetone used in perfumes
 **Australia and dung beetles
  • cows were imported
  • insects couldn't cope with the dung
  • grassland lost
  • solution: imported more dung beetles 
 Scarab (ancient Egypt)
  • Coleoptera
  • stone beetle
  • symbol of the soul
  • was the sun god Ra
  • beetle metamorphosis may have inspired the construction of pyramids 
 Spanish fly
  • Coleoptera
  • AKA blister beetle
  • produces toxin: cantharidin 
  • Hippocrates used cantharidin as medicine 
  • Marquis de Sade used cantharidin as aphrodisiac
  • cantharidin causes burning sensation in groin
  • cantharidin destroys mucous linings in body
 acorn weevil
  • Coleoptera
  • female has long snout 
  • drills hole in acorn then oviposits in hole
  • lays 1 egg per acorn
  • larva eats acorn
 pecan weevil
  • Coleoptera
  • female drills hole with long snout 
  • oviposits 1 egg per pecan 
  • larva eats pecan 
  • larva burrows into soil
  • adult emerges after 2 years (because pecan bears more fruit in alternating years)
 whirligig beetle
  • coleoptera
  • scavenger
  • divided eyes to see above and below water
  • spins in circles to create waves which bounce back with hits potential food
  • carries air bubble to breathe underwater 
 hemiptera characteristics
  • incomplete metamorphosis 
  • piercing sucking mouthparts
  • pest of crops
  • transmit disease 
"true bugs"
  • mouthparts ("beak") swing forward
  • many species predators
  • base of forewing hardened, back is membranous
  • many have stink glands
 Largest insect order
  • Coleoptera
 coleoptera characteristics
  • complete metamorphosis
  • chewing mouthparts
  • forewings hardened
  • hind wings membranous
  • thickened exoskeleton 
  • pests of crops and trees 
  • largest insect order 
 metamorphosischange in the structure and habits of an animal
 complete metamorphosis
  • egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult 
  • 4 stages often very different in appearance, habitat, host, predators/parasitoids 
 Lady bugs
  • coleoptera
  • "lady bug, lady bug, fly away home, your house is on fire..." refers to hop plants being burned to kill aphids
  • lift front wings and fly with back wings
  • beneficial - eat aphids
  • adults overwinter in large clusters
  • collected and sold for biological control
 fireflies
  • Coleoptera!
  • each species has a unique flash pattern
  • male and female have different flash patterns
  • male flashes to attract female
  • some females mimic flash pattern of other species and prey on males
  • larvae are aposematic - glow to deter predators
  • flash in unison only in India and Tennessee
  • produce light with Luciferin, a pigment which yields light when combined with oxygen (98% of energy released as light)
 Lepidoptera characteristics
  • complete metamorphosis
  • siphoning mouthparts 
  • wing have scales (modified hairs)
  • larvae feed on plants and spin silk 
  • greatest color variation 
  • major agricultural pest 
 Butterfly in other languages
  • greek: psyche 
  • french: papillon 
 entomology vs. etymology
  • entomology - study of insects
  • etymology - study of words
 Morpho butterfly
  • morpho = beautiful, well made 
  • upper wings are iridescent blue
  • lower wings are plain brown
 Lepidopteran larvae
  • caterpillars
  • leaf-eating machines
  • must molt 4-5 times
  • have soft cuticle
  • need defense : camouflage, warning coloration, toxic spines
 generalists vs. specialists
  • generalists: eat many plant species 
  • specialists: eat on 1 (or a few) species
 lepidopteran adults
  • feed to get flight fuel
  • mate abdomen to abdomen 
  • female lays eggs on host plant
 butterfly species vs moth species
  • Many many more species of moths than butterflies 
 Dan Janzen
  • identify moths in Costa Rica 
  • rear larvae to adults the identify
  • use light screen at night to collect adults 
  • moth scales can cause allergies
 Florida Queen butterfly
  • florida queen and viceroy look very similar
  • florida queen finds mate with sex pheromone 
  • male and female do courtship dance
  • male uses "hair pencils" to dust female with pheromone 
 Monarchs
  • larvae feed on milkweed
  • sequester toxic alkaloids (cardenolides)
  • predators leave larvae and adults alone
 Mexican holiday
  • return of monarch butterfly represents return of souls of people who died during the year 
  • monarchs: fall - 4th generation adults migrate 2500 miles to Mexico
  • winter dormant in Mexican forests
  • spring: mate and return to the US
 assassin bug mouthparts
  • piercing/sucking
 bed bugs
  • hemiptera
  • feed at night
  • inject an anesthetic
  • suck human blood
 vectora means of biological transfer
 Chagas' disease
  • vector: assassin bug (AKA kissing bug)
  • Disease agent: Trypanasoma cruzi (protozoan)
  • 1 million people die per year 
  • Primarily in South America
  • attacks the heart 
  • hard to diagnose, no cure
  • reservoir host: opossums and armadillos 
  • kissing bug feeds on victim at night, defecates on victim's face, then vector rubs feces and disease into wound 
 xenodiagnosisuse of a live vector to diagnose disease 
 xenodiagnosis of Chagas' disease
  • laboratory kissing bug fees on patient
  • 10 days later look for protozoan (Trypanasoma cruzi) in kissing bug feces
 Aphids
  • mouthparts ("beak") swing down (piercing/sucking)
  • plant feeders - major agricultural pests 
  • membranous wings
  • have many predators
  • tended to by ants for honeydew
  • give birth to nymphs
  • usually wingless, but overpopulation results in winged aphids 
  • plant defense - sticky hairs
 honeydew
  • sweet, sticky substance excreted by aphids 
  • aphids excess liquid excreted as honeydew
  • attracts ants
  • can cause fungal growth on plants 
  • may have been the Manna of the Bible
 Hemiptera diversity
  • bugs
  • aphids
  • scales
  • cicadas
  • spittlebugs 
 insect plant interactionscoevolutionary arms race:
  • plant produces toxin
  • insect adapts to toxin
  • plant makes more powerful toxin
 plant defense against herbivores
  • silicone oxide in leaves (like eating glass)
  • proteinase inhibitors (animal can't digest food)
  • secondary plant products (toxic compounds)
 trichomes
  • hairs on plant surface
  • may produce toxins 
  • may be sticky
  • may be spines or hooks
 plant when wounded
wants to:
  • limit water loss
  • prevent fungal/bacterial infection 
  • deter herbivory 
it may:
  • heal wound to give "scab"
  • produce toxic chemicals
  • exude sap or gum
  • form a gall (with insect inside) 
 Jurassic Park**
  • Fossilized plant resin = amber = gem
  • DNA found in fossil insects
  • sequence fossilized DNA
  • Determine relatedness of insect species 
  • recover dinosaur blood (DNA) from fossilized mosquitoes
 Carnivorous plants
  • habitat low in nutrients 
  • digest protein of prey
  • have modified structure to catch insects 
 Carnivorous plant types***
  • sundews 
  • venus fly trap
  • bladderworts
  • pitcher plants
 sundews
  • bright colors attract insects
  • leaf tentacles have sticky glue 
  • electrical signal causes leaf to curl
  • leaf uses enzymes to digest prey 
 venus fly trap
  • has trigger hairs inside leaf
  • touching trigger hairs causes electrical signal
  • 2 signals cause rapid growth of outer leaf cells
  • leaf closes on inset 
  • only found in wetlands of north and south Carolina
 Bladderworts
  • aquatic
  • have a bladder with trap door
  • when prey item hits trigger hair it is sucked into bladder in 1/1000th of a second
 pitcher plants
  • flower-like: nectar and color attract insects
  • inside: downward pointing hairs and loose wax
  • fall into pool and are digested
 diptera characteristics
  • complete metamorphosis 
  • piercing/sucking or sponging mouthparts 
  • 1 pair membranous wings
  • no hind wings - halteres (stabilizers, replace hind winds)
  • primitive larvae = maggots 
  • many larvae aquatic
  • most harmful order to humans - many members cause disease
 flight of diptera
  • flies are best insect fliers
  • hoverflies: 175 wing beats/second
  • halters give stability 
 house flies
  • regurgitates on food
  • enzymes soften food 
  • then uses sponging mouthparts
  • transmits disease mechanically: picks up disease somewhere and carries to another location 
  • can "see" movement very well
  • use leg hairs to taste 
  • oily hairs on feet -> walk on ceiling 
 fly farmsmaggots used to eliminated animal farm waste 
 Maggot medical treatment
  • people with poor circulation 
  • leg/arm wounds heal slowly
  • add fly maggots to wound
  • maggots eat dead flesh 
  • prevents amputation 
 African sleeping sickness
  • vectoe Tsetse fly
  • Disease: protozoan (genus Trypanasoma)
  • drug treatment is effective 
  • 65,000 deaths/year (kills people and cows)
  • wild animals are reservoir hosts
  • Africans can't raise cattle
  • people of Africa need more protein
  • Tsetse fly = "Guardian of Africa" because natural habitat has been saved
 Tsetse fly female
  • does not lay eggs
  • 1 egg hatches inside 
  • larva develops inside
  • mature larva born
  • larva burrows into soil and pupates
  • adult emerges from soil
  • female only produces 8 larvae
 Mosquito life cycle
  • eggs laid in/near water
  • aquatic larvae and pupae - siphon tube for breathing 
  • adults live 1-3 weeks
  • female mates in male swarm 
  • male feeds on flowers
  • female needs 'blood meal'
 Insect vectored diseases
  • 1/6 of humans have an insect vectored disease 
 What has killed more people than any other disease?
  • malaria
 Ronald Ross**
  • showed that mosquitoes vector malaria 
  • 1897
 Walter Reed**
  • showed that mosquitoes vector yellow fever 
 mosquito mouthparts
  • piercing/sucking 
  • protective sheath, tube to suck blood, knife-like mouthparts
  • Saliva injector (stops blood clotting)
 Yellow Fever
  • vector: Aedes mosquito
  • disease: virus
  • reservoir: monkeys
  • Worst in South America and Africa
  • no effective treatment 
 Dengue fever
  • Vector: Aedes mosquito 
  • disease: virus 
  • South America, Africa, and Asia
  • no effective treatment 
 Malaria
  • Vector: Anopholes mosquito
  • disease: Plasmodium protozoan
  • South America, Africa, and Asia
  • effective drug treatment
  • 2 million deaths per year 
  • 600 million new cases per year 
 malaria life cycle
  1. Mosquito [M] feeds on infected host [H]
  2. Plasmodium [P] mates in M’s stomach
  3. P moves to M salivary glands
  4. M feeds on new H
  5. P move to H liver
  6. P attack H red blood cells
  7. H red blood cells rupture
  8. Cycle repeats in H: 24, 48, or 96 hours

 ***Natural selection in Africa
  • A mutation changed structure of hemoglobin
  • This change provided resistance to malaria
  • People with 1 copy of the gene survive malaria
  • People with 2 copies have Sickle Cell Anemia
 Mated female mosquito
  1. Eggs do not develop without a Blood Meal
  2. Head produces hormones need for egg production

 Termites keep a fungus garden in order to break down what
cellulose

 Termites belong to which order?:
Isoptera

 (t/f) All adult termites have wings:
  • False
  • only king and queen during nuptial fight 

 List the four castes of a termite colony
soldiers, workers, king, queen

 Mayfly adults live for how long
One to two days 

 Which is bigger, dragonflies or damselflies?dragonflies
 What did termites evolve from?cockroaches
 What are cockroach eggs laid inootheca
 What is the production of sound to attract a mate?stridulation
 #1 agricultural pests in the world?locusts
 Crickets produce sound byrubbing wings together 
 Luciferin produces light when combined with what?oxygen
 what do ladybugs eataphids
 (T/F) Beetles are part of the largest insect ordertrue
 What is civetone made by?civet cats
 Why were dung beetles imported to Australia?to cope with dung produced by cattle
 (T/F) weevils and dung beetles are in different ordersfalse - both coleoptera!
 what is cantharidin made by?blister beetles 
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