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Exam 3 (FINAL) - new info - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2013
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SIPHONAPTERA fleas
"siphon" "aptera" tube
wingless
fleas

·       Complete metamorphosis

·       Piercing/sucking mouthparts, narrow body

·       Adults of both sexes are blood-sucking parasites

·       Good jumpers and runners

·       Many are disease vectors

·       Environment (temp. and humidity) is very important

·       Can jump 200x their length

fleas (reproduction)

·       Female needs blood for eggs

·       Female eats 15x her weight per day

·       Female lays 2000 eggs

·       Eggs hatch in 1-10 days

·       Larvae feed on adult feces

·       Larvae spins a sticky cocoon

·       Cocoon is well camouflaged

·       Life cycle: 12-174 days

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resilin a protein in the back legs of pleas that works like a rubber band    
fleas are attracted to:

·       Heat

·       CO2

·       Light

·       Movement 

Miriam Rothschild

a world flea expert.

·       She showed that female flea reacts to sex hormones of a pregnant female host.

·       Female flea adjusts her reproductive cycle to match that of her host.

·       Female flea lays her eggs on babies of host. 

Bubonic Plague

·       Bacteria multiply in human

·       Swollen lymph glands = Bubo

·       Death rate: 75%

·       Vector: fleas

·       Disease: bacteria

·       Yersinia pestis

·       Antibiotic treatment is effective

·       Found in: Russia, Middle East, western US

·       Major outbreak in India

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Bubonic Plague: resevoir

·       rodents

-        Bacteria enter flea with blood meal

-        Bacteria multiply in flea gut

-        Bacteria block entry to gut

-        Flea seeks new host

-        Flea feeds on new host

-        Regurgitates blood with bacteria

-        Host is infected

Elephantiasis: vector mosquitoes
Elephantiasis: disease organism roundworms
Elephantiasis

·       It causes swollen appendages

·       300 million people in Southeast Asia have it

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River Blindness: vector black flies
River Blindness: disease organism roundworms
River Blindness

·       West Africa, 20 million people infected

·       Infected fly transmits larval worms to person

·       Worms grow very slowly

·       Adult worms produce young

·       Cause itchy and loose skin, gradual loss of sight

·       No effective treatment

·       Carter Foundation fights it

possible uses of insects in war:

·       Modify plaque bacteria

·       Destroy crop

·       War on drugs

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Middle East 1345

·       Catapulted flea-covered corpses into besieged city to spread plague 

Six-legged Soldiers used insects as weapons of war; by Jeffrey Lockwood, 2009    
ethnoentomology cultural importance of insects    
Darrell Posey PhD at UGA in 1979 – ethnoentomology of the Kayapo of Central Brazil    
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Kayapo use of insects

·       Place ant colony near crop

·       Cultivate ant plants

·       Wasp colony in banana tree

·       Ceremony to acquire power of wasps

·       Young men hit large wasp nest

·       Wasp nest: the Universe

"Why Not Eat Insects?" Vincent Holt

Insects are nutritious:

·       Protein

·       Fat

·       Vitamins (A and D)

Australian Aborigines eat beetle larvae: Witchetty Grubs (taste like chicken)    
Sago Palm provides: 1. Starch = 80% calories.   
2. Larvae of Capricorn beetle = protein snack    
insects are rich in protein (2 countries)

Botswana – charcoal grilled caterpillars

Thailand – steamed bamboo worms

-        water bugs

-        steamed hornet grubs

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insects in the arts
insects in music “Flight of the Bumble-Bee” – Rimsky-Korsakov    
Maria Merian

-        combined art and entomology

-        born in Germany

-        went to South America at age 52

-        painted larvae, pupae and adult insects with hostplant

insects in movies

-        friendly insects humanized

-        people use no common sense

-        frequent biological errors: very large insects cant breathe

“THEM” (1954) – giant ants mutated by H-bomb invade LA sewers    
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forensic entomology study of insects from a legal aspect 

Forensic entomologist: recover insects from body, identify insects

   
estimate postmortem interval

·       Based on blow fly development

·       Most accurate in first 30 days

·       Several blow fly species involved

insects as forensic indicators

·       Estimate postmortem interval

·       Assess death scene

·       Corpse transport/relocation

·       Injury prior to death

·       Drug testing

·       Drug analysis of corpse

·       Insects in food

Poaching 
What insect is first to arrive at a corpse? BLOWFLIES

·       Eggs are laid

·       Larvae develop

·       Development is temperature dependant

·       Succession of insects if predictable 

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basic assumptions in homicide investigation

·       Murder took place at night

·       Flies oviposit as soon as they find a body

·       Predictable succession

·       Weather station records valid

·       Air temperature determines fly development

maggot mass large group of blow fly larvae in carrion; maintain high temperature    
decomposition studies

·       Test animal (pig) is sacrificed

·       Environmental conditions recorded

·       Succession of insects monitored

variations of deaths

·       Body buried

·       Body in water

·       Body burned

·       Body in building 

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body farm

 use human bodies 

at University of Tennessee

corpse relocation

·       Few insects in soil beneath body

·       Insects from body are foreign

case study in Oregon

·       Rifle fired at party

·       Neighbor killed

·       Body found 1 month later

·       Insect evidence set time of death

case study (young child)

·       oung child brought to hospital

·       Suffering from abuse and neglect

·       Difficult to prosecute parents

·       Anal and genital areas had fly maggots

·       Larval age = 5 days

·       Diapers had not been changed for 5 days

·       Similar examples with elderly patients

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case study in Chicago

·       oman raped by man in ski mask

·       Suspect had a mask in apartment

·       Suspect: “Mask had not been worn”

·       Burrs in mask and at crime scene

·       Small caterpillars in burrs

·       Life cycle of moth: eggs laid in summer

·       Mark had been outside in last 6 months

case study in Tennessee

·       Female skeleton found Jan. 29

·       Large paper wasp nest in skull

·       Skull must have been dry in spring

·       Blow fly puparia in skill

·       Blow flies in skill in warm season

·       Woman died at least 18 months ago

ARACHNIDA ticks and mites
ARACHNIDA subclass Acari
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ticks and mites

·       2 main body parts: cephalothorax and abdomen – no division between

·       Usually 8 legs

·       Egg-larva-nymph-adult

·       Ticks parasitize: mammals, birds, reptiles

·       Mites are: free living, plant or animal parasites

Lyme Disease: vector deer tick
Lyme Disease: disease agent bacterium – Borrelia    
Lyme Disease

·       Described first in Connecticut, most prevalent in northeast

·       Ticks feed on infected mice and on man

·       Bacteria multiply in tick vector

·       A bite leads to a circular rash -> Flu-like illness -> arthritis, heart and nerve problems

·       Treatment: antibiotics; cause is unknown

·       May attack nervous system, heart, and joints

·       May cause an immune response to self

Patient response to Lyme Disease is very variable 
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deer tick

·       Much smaller than dog tick

·       Nymph usual vector (1/3 infected)

·       Life cycle: Year 1- larvae hatch, feed and molt. Year 2- nymphs feed, adults emerge and feed

·       Birds disperse ticks

Lyme Disease prevention

·       Protective clothing in woods

·       Check body for ticks

·       Save ticks you remove

tick removal

·       Use fine-pointed tweezers

·       Grasp tick where it enters skin

·       Pull tick out slowly and firmly

·       Save tick

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: vector dog tick
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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: disease agent bacterium – Rickettsia    
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

·       800 cases/year in US

·       Most prevalent in west

ARACHNIDA scorpions
ARACHNIDA: subclass Scorpiones    
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scorpions

·       Two large pincers

·       Tail with venom

·       Predators

·       North African and Middle Eastern species can kill a human

·       Can survive extreme temperatures

·       Are blind, use feeders on legs to find prey

·       Males deposit sperm on stalk, then pulls female over stalk

·       Females bear live young and care for them

ARACHNIDA spiders
ARACHNIDA: subclass Araneae    
spiders

·       Cephalothorax joined to abdomen by pedicel

·       8 legs

·       Most produce silk

·       Most produce venom

·       Males deliver sperm with palps

·       Very few cause harm to humans

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spider diversity (8 types)

1.     Sun Spider

2.     Trapdoor Spider

3.     Whirling Spider

4.     Net-Casting Spider

5.     Bolas Spider: Ball with mucous, moth sex phermone

6.     Mexican Tarantula

7.     Bird Eating Spider

8.     Purse-Web Spider: camouflaged web

large-jawed spider Male produces sperm in abdomen and transfers it to a special web and then to the palps on his cephalothorax    
jumping spider Male attracts female with mating dance where he puts her in a “trance” with front leg movements. 
net-casting spider

·       Male talks to female by strumming on web

·       Male uses palps to deliver sperm to female

·       Female mates once and stores sperm

·       Male may mate many times

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St. Andrews Cross Spider

·       Female much larger than male

·       Male: plucks on web to identify himself

·       He risks death in order to mate

Orb Weaver Spider

·       Stabilimentum (stb) = zig zag cross strands in web

·       Stb warns birds so they wont fly into web

·       Some birds may use stb to find silk for their nest

tarantulas

·       Covered with hairs

·       Can throw hairs at predator

·       Hairs are barbed and toxic

What % of spiders can harm humans? 0.1% (30 species)
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black widow spider

·       Red hourglass on abdomen

·       Bites and injects venom; venom circulates in blood; venom is a neurotoxin

·       Causes muscle to cramp à intense pain

black wider spider bite

·       Bite causes:

-        Intense pain (peaks at 30 min)

-        Nausea and profuse sweating

-        Slurred speech, body may go rigid

-        May diagnose appendicitis

Venom is 30x more toxic than rattlesnake    
brown recluse spider

·       “Violin” on cephalothorax

·       Venom causes skin necrosis

Where was the first silk production? China
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Who was “Goddess of the Silkworms”? Si-Ling-Chi
secrets of silkworm production

·       Went first from China to Japan

·       Marco Polo brought back to Europe

silkworm larvae

·       Make cocoon of silk

·       Feed only on mulberry (hostplant)

·       Silk is a protein

·       Protein has small amino acids

silkworm production in US

·       Silk produced in Georgia 1680-1760

·       Gypsy moth imported to New England to make better silk. Gypsy moth became major pest insect.

Silk production on a Japanese farm: larvae becomes heavier, 220 pounds of leaves yields 1 pound of silk

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Randy Lewis

cloned spider silk gene

·       Medicine: sutures bandages, ligaments

·       Fabrics: parachutes, clothes, canoes

HYMENOPTERA ants, bees, wasps
"hymeno" "ptera"

Hymeno: god of marriage – refers to union of fore and hind wings

Ptera: wings

HYMENOPTERA

·       Complete metamorphosis

·       Chewing mouthparts

·       2 pair membranous wings; Compact wings that fold back, back wings hooked to front wings, wings beat as if one pair

·       Female selects sex of young, and produces venom

·       Display intelligence

·       Variety of lifestyles: parasites, predators, solitary, social

·       Most beneficial order

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velvet ant

= solitary wasp

·       Adult females:

-        Wingless, hairy, and brightly colored

-        Parasite hymenoptera nests

-        Extremely painful sting

Mud Dauber Wasps

·       Female:

-        Builds nest with mud

-        Puts live spiders in nest cells

-        Lays 1 egg per cell

·       Parasitoids find nest.

·       Male helps to guard nest

parasitoid insect whose larvae consume their host    
3 Level Interactions (parasitoid)

·       Plant

·       Herbivore

·       Parasitoid 

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Bark Beetles

·       Infest trees

·       Beetles carry fungus

·       Fungus modifies tree terpenes

·       New terpenes attract more beetles

·       Terpenes attract parasitoid wasps

Joe Lewis

USDA Tifton, GA

·       Caterpillar feeds

·       Plant damage signals parasitic wasp (cut grass smell)

·       To find host, the wasp uses: smell of wounded plant, frass, host cuticle

·       Teach wasps to find specific crop = $ 

war on Bioterrorism

train wasps to detect toxins

solitary bee

·       Digs nest and collects pollen; bees have branched hairs on legs for pollen

·       Marks nest with chemical scent

·       Lays egg – larvae eats pollen

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mining bee

·       Pollen is rich in protein

·       Bees are vegetarians

·       Solitary, but nest in clusters

·       Use chemical communication

·       Memorize nest location

carpenter bee

·       Male is territorial

·       Female builds nest and gathers pollen

·       Female lays eggs – largest insect egg

·       Cells with female eggs are larger than cells with male eggs

·       Daughter: guards and reuses nest

blueberry bee

·       Nectar and pollen of blueberry flowers hard to reach

·       Female bee collects pollen by buzzing

·       Bee uses long tongue to collect nectar

·       Other bees cut flower and rob nectar

pollination

transfer of pollen from anthers (male) to stigma (female). 70% of all plants pollinated by insects

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lily

·       Flower smells and looks like a corpse

·       Blow flies: attracted and trapped

·       Flies dusted wit pollen

·       Flies go to next flower à pollenation

hammer orchid and solitary wasp

·       Flower is shaped like female wasp

·       Flower scent = female wasp phermone

·       Male wasp tries to mate with flower

·       Hinged flower swings male wasp into pollen

·       Male wasp pollinates next orchid

Queen Bee vs. workers rules colony with Gueen phermone; workers do not reproduce    
new Queen

·       Workers make large queen cells

·       Workers feed queen larva Royal Jelly

·       Queen larva is much larger than worker larvae

·       Queen emerges and kills any rival queens

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drone

·       Male unfertilized egg

·       Drone has large eyes

·       Mates with a new queen and dies

·       Sperm is viable for 5 years

smoke (bees) Bees eat honey and become docile    
worker: female fertilized egg

·       1st: nurse bee

·       2nd: produce wax

·       3rd: guard bee

·       4th: forager

bee sting

·       Stinger is barbed

·       Bee dies

·       Poison sac keeps pumping venom

·       Venom contains a protein called Melittin, which causes your cells to burst

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honeybee dance

·       Direction to flowers

·       Distance to flowers

·       Sample of nectar

altruism

self-destructive behavior performed for the benefit of others 

Africanized bees

·       Brought to Brazil in 1956

·       Are more aggressive

·       Are now in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and California

social wasps in Georgia

·       Yellowjackets (2 species): nest in ground

·       Hornets (2 species): closed nest

·       Paper wasps (5 species): open nest polistes

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wasp nest

·       Queen starts nest: pedicel and cells

·       Lays eggs

·       Larvae are fed insects

·       Larvae spin silk à pupae

·       Adults emerge 

Where is the stinger on a social wasp? end of abdomen (modified ovipositor)    
When do wasps attack?

·       Attack when nest is threatened

paper wasp nest defense

·       Wasps apply fatty acids to base of nest to repel ants (stem turns black)

·       These acids are funeral compounds in ants

·       Ants with these acids get carried to graveyard

 Wasps defend together (use alarm phermone)

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paper wasp nest composition (2 components)

·       Paper = plant fiber (wasps chew on wood)

·       Glue = protein from wasp saliva

kin recognition wasps and hornets use cuticular hydrocarbons 
baldfaced hornet black and white exposed grey, bag nest    
European hornet yellow and black hidden nest    
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When do yellow jacket colonies disintegrate? late fall
Fire Ants: family Formicidae    
Fire Ants: genus Solenopsis    
Fire Ants (1)

Origin: South America

Entry into US: Mobile, AL 1929

2 species: red and black 

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Fire Ants: venom alkaloids    
Fire Ants (2)

·       Destroy young fruit

·       Benefit: attack pest insects

·       Attracted to electric circuits

·       Only 4th instar larvae can eat solids

·       Only reproductive male and female adults have wings

·       Reproductive males and females: wings

·       Queen: lays 5 million eggs, much larger than workers

Egg has attractant and fungicide    
chemical control vs. biological control (fire ants)

Chemical control: 8,000 chemicals

Biological control of Fire Ants:

-        Nematodes

-        Fire Ant phermone as bait

-        Parasitoid fly eats the Fire Ant head

What bird competes with fire ants for food? Blue Birds
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Trophallaxis exchange of liquid through members of a colony
Myrmecology study of ants
How long to ant colonies live? How many times does the Queen mate? 2-18 years

Queen mates once and stores sperm
spermatheca sac in female abdomen for sperm storage (female only needs to mate once)    
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weaver ants nests nest are made of leaves bound together with silk from ant larvae    
symbiosis Symbiosis is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species.
Caterpillar secretes fluid for ants. Ants protect caterpillar. Caterpillar produces sound to attract ants. 
army ants

·       Central and South America

·       Workers link together with leg hooks

·       Nomads: they have no nest

·       Workers: blind or poor eyesight

leaf cutter ants

·       Cut leaves

·       Carry leaves to nest (Parasol Ants)

·       Feed on fungus that grows on leaves

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ant control

don’t breathe on them; limited use of insecticides 

cecropia and azteca ants

Cecropia: plants and ants

Azteca ants protect cecropia.

Cecropia provides sugar packets for Azteca Anta larvae.

Azteca Ants live in cecropia. 

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 SIPHONAPTERAfleas
 "siphon" "aptera"tube
wingless
 fleas

·       Complete metamorphosis

·       Piercing/sucking mouthparts, narrow body

·       Adults of both sexes are blood-sucking parasites

·       Good jumpers and runners

·       Many are disease vectors

·       Environment (temp. and humidity) is very important

·       Can jump 200x their length

 fleas (reproduction)

·       Female needs blood for eggs

·       Female eats 15x her weight per day

·       Female lays 2000 eggs

·       Eggs hatch in 1-10 days

·       Larvae feed on adult feces

·       Larvae spins a sticky cocoon

·       Cocoon is well camouflaged

·       Life cycle: 12-174 days

 resilina protein in the back legs of pleas that works like a rubber band    
 fleas are attracted to:

·       Heat

·       CO2

·       Light

·       Movement 

 Miriam Rothschild

a world flea expert.

·       She showed that female flea reacts to sex hormones of a pregnant female host.

·       Female flea adjusts her reproductive cycle to match that of her host.

·       Female flea lays her eggs on babies of host. 

 Bubonic Plague

·       Bacteria multiply in human

·       Swollen lymph glands = Bubo

·       Death rate: 75%

·       Vector: fleas

·       Disease: bacteria

·       Yersinia pestis

·       Antibiotic treatment is effective

·       Found in: Russia, Middle East, western US

·       Major outbreak in India

 Bubonic Plague: resevoir

·       rodents

-        Bacteria enter flea with blood meal

-        Bacteria multiply in flea gut

-        Bacteria block entry to gut

-        Flea seeks new host

-        Flea feeds on new host

-        Regurgitates blood with bacteria

-        Host is infected

 Elephantiasis: vectormosquitoes
 Elephantiasis: disease organismroundworms
 Elephantiasis

·       It causes swollen appendages

·       300 million people in Southeast Asia have it

 River Blindness: vectorblack flies
 River Blindness: disease organismroundworms
 River Blindness

·       West Africa, 20 million people infected

·       Infected fly transmits larval worms to person

·       Worms grow very slowly

·       Adult worms produce young

·       Cause itchy and loose skin, gradual loss of sight

·       No effective treatment

·       Carter Foundation fights it

 possible uses of insects in war:

·       Modify plaque bacteria

·       Destroy crop

·       War on drugs

 Middle East 1345

·       Catapulted flea-covered corpses into besieged city to spread plague 

 Six-legged Soldiersused insects as weapons of war; by Jeffrey Lockwood, 2009    
 ethnoentomologycultural importance of insects    
 Darrell PoseyPhD at UGA in 1979 – ethnoentomology of the Kayapo of Central Brazil    
 Kayapo use of insects

·       Place ant colony near crop

·       Cultivate ant plants

·       Wasp colony in banana tree

·       Ceremony to acquire power of wasps

·       Young men hit large wasp nest

·       Wasp nest: the Universe

 "Why Not Eat Insects?"Vincent Holt

Insects are nutritious:

·       Protein

·       Fat

·       Vitamins (A and D)

Australian Aborigines eat beetle larvae: Witchetty Grubs (taste like chicken)    
 Sago Palm provides:1. Starch = 80% calories.   
2. Larvae of Capricorn beetle = protein snack    
 insects are rich in protein (2 countries)

Botswana – charcoal grilled caterpillars

Thailand – steamed bamboo worms

-        water bugs

-        steamed hornet grubs

 insects in the arts 
 insects in music“Flight of the Bumble-Bee” – Rimsky-Korsakov    
 Maria Merian

-        combined art and entomology

-        born in Germany

-        went to South America at age 52

-        painted larvae, pupae and adult insects with hostplant

 insects in movies

-        friendly insects humanized

-        people use no common sense

-        frequent biological errors: very large insects cant breathe

“THEM” (1954) – giant ants mutated by H-bomb invade LA sewers    
 forensic entomologystudy of insects from a legal aspect 

Forensic entomologist: recover insects from body, identify insects

   
 estimate postmortem interval

·       Based on blow fly development

·       Most accurate in first 30 days

·       Several blow fly species involved

 insects as forensic indicators

·       Estimate postmortem interval

·       Assess death scene

·       Corpse transport/relocation

·       Injury prior to death

·       Drug testing

·       Drug analysis of corpse

·       Insects in food

Poaching 
 What insect is first to arrive at a corpse?BLOWFLIES

·       Eggs are laid

·       Larvae develop

·       Development is temperature dependant

·       Succession of insects if predictable 

 basic assumptions in homicide investigation

·       Murder took place at night

·       Flies oviposit as soon as they find a body

·       Predictable succession

·       Weather station records valid

·       Air temperature determines fly development

 maggot masslarge group of blow fly larvae in carrion; maintain high temperature    
 decomposition studies

·       Test animal (pig) is sacrificed

·       Environmental conditions recorded

·       Succession of insects monitored

 variations of deaths

·       Body buried

·       Body in water

·       Body burned

·       Body in building 

 body farm

 use human bodies 

at University of Tennessee

 corpse relocation

·       Few insects in soil beneath body

·       Insects from body are foreign

 case study in Oregon

·       Rifle fired at party

·       Neighbor killed

·       Body found 1 month later

·       Insect evidence set time of death

 case study (young child)

·       oung child brought to hospital

·       Suffering from abuse and neglect

·       Difficult to prosecute parents

·       Anal and genital areas had fly maggots

·       Larval age = 5 days

·       Diapers had not been changed for 5 days

·       Similar examples with elderly patients

 case study in Chicago

·       oman raped by man in ski mask

·       Suspect had a mask in apartment

·       Suspect: “Mask had not been worn”

·       Burrs in mask and at crime scene

·       Small caterpillars in burrs

·       Life cycle of moth: eggs laid in summer

·       Mark had been outside in last 6 months

 case study in Tennessee

·       Female skeleton found Jan. 29

·       Large paper wasp nest in skull

·       Skull must have been dry in spring

·       Blow fly puparia in skill

·       Blow flies in skill in warm season

·       Woman died at least 18 months ago

 ARACHNIDAticks and mites
 ARACHNIDA subclassAcari
 ticks and mites

·       2 main body parts: cephalothorax and abdomen – no division between

·       Usually 8 legs

·       Egg-larva-nymph-adult

·       Ticks parasitize: mammals, birds, reptiles

·       Mites are: free living, plant or animal parasites

 Lyme Disease: vectordeer tick
 Lyme Disease: disease agentbacterium – Borrelia    
 Lyme Disease

·       Described first in Connecticut, most prevalent in northeast

·       Ticks feed on infected mice and on man

·       Bacteria multiply in tick vector

·       A bite leads to a circular rash -> Flu-like illness -> arthritis, heart and nerve problems

·       Treatment: antibiotics; cause is unknown

·       May attack nervous system, heart, and joints

·       May cause an immune response to self

Patient response to Lyme Disease is very variable 
 deer tick

·       Much smaller than dog tick

·       Nymph usual vector (1/3 infected)

·       Life cycle: Year 1- larvae hatch, feed and molt. Year 2- nymphs feed, adults emerge and feed

·       Birds disperse ticks

 Lyme Disease prevention

·       Protective clothing in woods

·       Check body for ticks

·       Save ticks you remove

 tick removal

·       Use fine-pointed tweezers

·       Grasp tick where it enters skin

·       Pull tick out slowly and firmly

·       Save tick

 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: vectordog tick
 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: disease agentbacterium – Rickettsia    
 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

·       800 cases/year in US

·       Most prevalent in west

 ARACHNIDAscorpions
 ARACHNIDA: subclassScorpiones    
 scorpions

·       Two large pincers

·       Tail with venom

·       Predators

·       North African and Middle Eastern species can kill a human

·       Can survive extreme temperatures

·       Are blind, use feeders on legs to find prey

·       Males deposit sperm on stalk, then pulls female over stalk

·       Females bear live young and care for them

 ARACHNIDAspiders
 ARACHNIDA: subclassAraneae    
 spiders

·       Cephalothorax joined to abdomen by pedicel

·       8 legs

·       Most produce silk

·       Most produce venom

·       Males deliver sperm with palps

·       Very few cause harm to humans

 spider diversity (8 types)

1.     Sun Spider

2.     Trapdoor Spider

3.     Whirling Spider

4.     Net-Casting Spider

5.     Bolas Spider: Ball with mucous, moth sex phermone

6.     Mexican Tarantula

7.     Bird Eating Spider

8.     Purse-Web Spider: camouflaged web

 large-jawed spiderMale produces sperm in abdomen and transfers it to a special web and then to the palps on his cephalothorax    
 jumping spiderMale attracts female with mating dance where he puts her in a “trance” with front leg movements. 
 net-casting spider

·       Male talks to female by strumming on web

·       Male uses palps to deliver sperm to female

·       Female mates once and stores sperm

·       Male may mate many times

 St. Andrews Cross Spider

·       Female much larger than male

·       Male: plucks on web to identify himself

·       He risks death in order to mate

 Orb Weaver Spider

·       Stabilimentum (stb) = zig zag cross strands in web

·       Stb warns birds so they wont fly into web

·       Some birds may use stb to find silk for their nest

 tarantulas

·       Covered with hairs

·       Can throw hairs at predator

·       Hairs are barbed and toxic

 What % of spiders can harm humans?0.1% (30 species)
 black widow spider

·       Red hourglass on abdomen

·       Bites and injects venom; venom circulates in blood; venom is a neurotoxin

·       Causes muscle to cramp à intense pain

 black wider spider bite

·       Bite causes:

-        Intense pain (peaks at 30 min)

-        Nausea and profuse sweating

-        Slurred speech, body may go rigid

-        May diagnose appendicitis

Venom is 30x more toxic than rattlesnake    
 brown recluse spider

·       “Violin” on cephalothorax

·       Venom causes skin necrosis

 Where was the first silk production?China
 Who was “Goddess of the Silkworms”?Si-Ling-Chi
 secrets of silkworm production

·       Went first from China to Japan

·       Marco Polo brought back to Europe

 silkworm larvae

·       Make cocoon of silk

·       Feed only on mulberry (hostplant)

·       Silk is a protein

·       Protein has small amino acids

 silkworm production in US

·       Silk produced in Georgia 1680-1760

·       Gypsy moth imported to New England to make better silk. Gypsy moth became major pest insect.

Silk production on a Japanese farm: larvae becomes heavier, 220 pounds of leaves yields 1 pound of silk

 Randy Lewis

cloned spider silk gene

·       Medicine: sutures bandages, ligaments

·       Fabrics: parachutes, clothes, canoes

 HYMENOPTERAants, bees, wasps
 "hymeno" "ptera"

Hymeno: god of marriage – refers to union of fore and hind wings

Ptera: wings

 HYMENOPTERA

·       Complete metamorphosis

·       Chewing mouthparts

·       2 pair membranous wings; Compact wings that fold back, back wings hooked to front wings, wings beat as if one pair

·       Female selects sex of young, and produces venom

·       Display intelligence

·       Variety of lifestyles: parasites, predators, solitary, social

·       Most beneficial order

 velvet ant

= solitary wasp

·       Adult females:

-        Wingless, hairy, and brightly colored

-        Parasite hymenoptera nests

-        Extremely painful sting

 Mud Dauber Wasps

·       Female:

-        Builds nest with mud

-        Puts live spiders in nest cells

-        Lays 1 egg per cell

·       Parasitoids find nest.

·       Male helps to guard nest

 parasitoidinsect whose larvae consume their host    
 3 Level Interactions (parasitoid)

·       Plant

·       Herbivore

·       Parasitoid 

 Bark Beetles

·       Infest trees

·       Beetles carry fungus

·       Fungus modifies tree terpenes

·       New terpenes attract more beetles

·       Terpenes attract parasitoid wasps

 Joe Lewis

USDA Tifton, GA

·       Caterpillar feeds

·       Plant damage signals parasitic wasp (cut grass smell)

·       To find host, the wasp uses: smell of wounded plant, frass, host cuticle

·       Teach wasps to find specific crop = $ 

 war on Bioterrorism

train wasps to detect toxins

 solitary bee

·       Digs nest and collects pollen; bees have branched hairs on legs for pollen

·       Marks nest with chemical scent

·       Lays egg – larvae eats pollen

 mining bee

·       Pollen is rich in protein

·       Bees are vegetarians

·       Solitary, but nest in clusters

·       Use chemical communication

·       Memorize nest location

 carpenter bee

·       Male is territorial

·       Female builds nest and gathers pollen

·       Female lays eggs – largest insect egg

·       Cells with female eggs are larger than cells with male eggs

·       Daughter: guards and reuses nest

 blueberry bee

·       Nectar and pollen of blueberry flowers hard to reach

·       Female bee collects pollen by buzzing

·       Bee uses long tongue to collect nectar

·       Other bees cut flower and rob nectar

 pollination

transfer of pollen from anthers (male) to stigma (female). 70% of all plants pollinated by insects

 lily

·       Flower smells and looks like a corpse

·       Blow flies: attracted and trapped

·       Flies dusted wit pollen

·       Flies go to next flower à pollenation

 hammer orchid and solitary wasp

·       Flower is shaped like female wasp

·       Flower scent = female wasp phermone

·       Male wasp tries to mate with flower

·       Hinged flower swings male wasp into pollen

·       Male wasp pollinates next orchid

 Queen Bee vs. workersrules colony with Gueen phermone; workers do not reproduce    
 new Queen

·       Workers make large queen cells

·       Workers feed queen larva Royal Jelly

·       Queen larva is much larger than worker larvae

·       Queen emerges and kills any rival queens

 drone

·       Male unfertilized egg

·       Drone has large eyes

·       Mates with a new queen and dies

·       Sperm is viable for 5 years

 smoke (bees)Bees eat honey and become docile    
 worker: female fertilized egg

·       1st: nurse bee

·       2nd: produce wax

·       3rd: guard bee

·       4th: forager

 bee sting

·       Stinger is barbed

·       Bee dies

·       Poison sac keeps pumping venom

·       Venom contains a protein called Melittin, which causes your cells to burst

 honeybee dance

·       Direction to flowers

·       Distance to flowers

·       Sample of nectar

 altruism

self-destructive behavior performed for the benefit of others 

 Africanized bees

·       Brought to Brazil in 1956

·       Are more aggressive

·       Are now in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and California

 social wasps in Georgia

·       Yellowjackets (2 species): nest in ground

·       Hornets (2 species): closed nest

·       Paper wasps (5 species): open nest polistes

 wasp nest

·       Queen starts nest: pedicel and cells

·       Lays eggs

·       Larvae are fed insects

·       Larvae spin silk à pupae

·       Adults emerge 

 Where is the stinger on a social wasp?end of abdomen (modified ovipositor)    
 When do wasps attack?

·       Attack when nest is threatened

 paper wasp nest defense

·       Wasps apply fatty acids to base of nest to repel ants (stem turns black)

·       These acids are funeral compounds in ants

·       Ants with these acids get carried to graveyard

 Wasps defend together (use alarm phermone)

 paper wasp nest composition (2 components)

·       Paper = plant fiber (wasps chew on wood)

·       Glue = protein from wasp saliva

 kin recognitionwasps and hornets use cuticular hydrocarbons 
 baldfaced hornetblack and white exposed grey, bag nest    
 European hornetyellow and black hidden nest    
 When do yellow jacket colonies disintegrate?late fall
 Fire Ants: familyFormicidae    
 Fire Ants: genusSolenopsis    
 Fire Ants (1)

Origin: South America

Entry into US: Mobile, AL 1929

2 species: red and black 

 Fire Ants: venomalkaloids    
 Fire Ants (2)

·       Destroy young fruit

·       Benefit: attack pest insects

·       Attracted to electric circuits

·       Only 4th instar larvae can eat solids

·       Only reproductive male and female adults have wings

·       Reproductive males and females: wings

·       Queen: lays 5 million eggs, much larger than workers

Egg has attractant and fungicide    
 chemical control vs. biological control (fire ants)

Chemical control: 8,000 chemicals

Biological control of Fire Ants:

-        Nematodes

-        Fire Ant phermone as bait

-        Parasitoid fly eats the Fire Ant head

 What bird competes with fire ants for food?Blue Birds
 Trophallaxisexchange of liquid through members of a colony
 Myrmecologystudy of ants
 How long to ant colonies live? How many times does the Queen mate?2-18 years

Queen mates once and stores sperm
 spermathecasac in female abdomen for sperm storage (female only needs to mate once)    
 weaver ants nestsnest are made of leaves bound together with silk from ant larvae    
 symbiosisSymbiosis is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species.
Caterpillar secretes fluid for ants. Ants protect caterpillar. Caterpillar produces sound to attract ants. 
 army ants

·       Central and South America

·       Workers link together with leg hooks

·       Nomads: they have no nest

·       Workers: blind or poor eyesight

 leaf cutter ants

·       Cut leaves

·       Carry leaves to nest (Parasol Ants)

·       Feed on fungus that grows on leaves

 ant control

don’t breathe on them; limited use of insecticides 

 cecropia and azteca ants

Cecropia: plants and ants

Azteca ants protect cecropia.

Cecropia provides sugar packets for Azteca Anta larvae.

Azteca Ants live in cecropia. 

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