Koofers

Final - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2014
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Siphonaptera definition
  • siphon = tube
  • aptera = wingless
Fleas scientific name Siphonaptera 
Siphonaptera characteristics
  • complete metaphorphosis
  • piercing/sucking mouthparts
  • ***no wings
  • ***adults of both sexes are blood-sucking parasites
  • good jumpers/runners
  • narrow body
  • many are disease vectors 
***resilin
  • protein in the back legs of fleas that works like a rubber band 
  • helps them jump 200x their body length
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flea females/reproduction
  • female needs blood for eggs
  • she eats 15x her weight per day
  • lays 2000 eggs
  • eggs hatch in 1-10 days
  • larvae feed on adult feces 
What are fleas attracted to?
  • heat
  • carbon dioxide
  • light
  • movement
flea larvae
  • spin sticky cocoon
  • cocoon is well camouflaged 
  • life cycle is 12-174 days
  • environment (temperature and humidity) is very important 
***Miriam Rothschild
  • world flea expert
  • showed that female flea reacts to sex hormones of pregnant female host and adjusts reproductive cycle to match that of the host; lays eggs on babies of host 
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Bubonic plague***
  • Vector: fleas
  • Disease: bacteria (Yersinia pestis)
  • reservoir = rodents 
  • bacteria multiply in human 
  • swollen lymph glands = Bubo
  • death rate = 75%
  • antibiotic treatment is effective
  • found in Russia, Middle East, and Western US
  • major outbreak in India
***Bubonic plague bacteria cycle
  • bacteria enter flea with blood meal
  • bacteria multiply in flea gut
  • bacteria block entry into gut
  • flea seeks new host
  • flea feeds on new host
  • regurgitates blood with bacteria
  • new host infected 
Elephantiasis***
  • Vector = mosquitos
  • disease organism = roundworm
  • causes swollen appendages
  • 300 million people in SE Asia have E
River Blindness
  • vector: black flies
  • disease: round worms
  • West Africa 
  • 20 million people infected 
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possible use of insects in war
  • modify plague bacteria
  • destroy crops
  • war on drugs
Six-legged soldiers
  • Using insects as weapons of war
  • Jeffery Lockwood 
  • 2009
mimicry
  • resemblance  of an organism to some other organism or object
  • Batesian and mullerian mimicry
  • wing edge of moth/butterfly may mimic caterpillar/snake 
***Natural selection
  • change in frequency of genetic traits in a population through differential survival of individuals bearing those traits 
  • blue jays eat moths, as pollution made trees darker, darker moths selected for because dark moths harder to see
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***Batesian mimicry
  • resemblance of an edible species (mimic) to an unpalatable species (model) to deceive predators 
Batesian mimicry in Viceroy
  • viceroy looks like Monarch
  • monarch larvae eat toxic milkweed
  • Viceroy larvae eats non-toxic willow
  • Monarch adult is toxic - model
  • Viceroy adult is nontoxic - mimic
  • Blue jay "learns" to avoid mimic 
Mullerian mimicry
  • mutual resemblance of 2/more unpalatable species to enhance predator avoidance 
Dead leaf butterfly
  • outer wings look like leaf
  • inner wings have bright color 
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***mimicry changing with seasons
  • Nemoria arizonaria
  • Spring - caterpillar eats oak flowers; mimics flowers
  • summer - eats oak leaves; mimics twigs
Passion vine and butterfly interaction
  • passion vine leaves have toxins to deter insects 
  • some butterfly species can eat only 1 passion vine species
  • ***passion vine leaves mimic each other to confuse butterflies 
  • female butterfly lays 1 egg per leaf (larvae are cannibals)
  • ***passion vine makes "mimic eggs" on leaves 
  • butterfly avoids passion vine leaves with "mimic eggs"
Mantodea meaning
  • mantis = prophet 
Mantids characteristics
  • ***incomplete metamorphosis
  • chewing mouthparts
  • .5 to 6 inches long
  • ***raptorial front legs
  • carnivorous
  • long thorax
  • ***eggs laid in ootheca 
  • cryptic coloration 
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Mantis attacking
  • generalist predator
  • uses antenna to recognize prey  
  • sways back and forth prior to attack
  • spines on front legs to hold prey
  • has elaborate chewing mouthparts
  • ***when they catch something they don't let go 
  • exerts selective pressure - prey with best mimicry survives 
Why female mantis eats male theories:
  • releases male "inhibitions" and his sperm
  • he provides mated female with nutrients
But, male smaller, so hard to eat while mating 
Phasmida meaning
  • phasma = apparition
Walking sticks scientific name
  • Phasmida
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walking sticks characteristics
  • incomplete metamorphosis
  • chewing mouthparts 
  • long and slender body
  • cryptic coloration
  • feed on plants
  • feign death when threatened 
  • autonomy - loss of leg to escape 
ethnoentomology cultural importance of insects
African desert
  • dig toxic beetle pupae from soil 
  • squish insects onto arrows
Darrell Posey
  • PhD - UGA - 1979
  • Ethnoentomology of the Kayapo of central Brazil
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Kayapo
  • Agricultural - but few insect pests
  • main pest = mosquito (body paint)
  • eat: ants, bee larvae, wasp larvae
  • ceremony to acquire power of wasps
  • ***young men hit large wasp nest
  • wasp nest = universe
Vincent Holt
  • Why Not Eat Insects?
  • 1885

Insects are nutritious
  • protein
  • fat
  • vitamins (A&D)
***What do Australian aborigines eat?
  • beetle larvae - witenetty grubs
  • (coleoptera)
  • taste like chicken 
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New Guinea - Sago Palm provides
  • starch = 80% of calories
  • larvae of capricorn beetle = protein snack
insects are rich in protein
  • Botswana: charcoal grilled caterpillars
  • Thailand: steamed bamboo worms, water bugs, steamed hornet grubs
Scott O'Grady
  • shot down over Bosnia
  • Survived by eating bugs
1995 Olympics
  • Chinese female runners broke many track records
  • Illegal drugs?
  • no - caterpillar infected with fungus
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South American Indians eat
  • tarantulas
  • capture tarantulas: avoid venom and toxic hairs
  • BBQ - "taste like shrimp"
****Maria Merian 1647-1715
  • She combined art and entomology
  • born in Germany
  • Went to south America at age 52
  • Painted larvae, pupa, and adult with host plant 
**Greatest insect movie
  • THEM 1954
  • Giant ants mutated by H-bomb, invade Los Angeles sewers 
Forensic Entomology
Study of insects from a legal aspect


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Insects as Forensic Indicators:
  • ESTIMATE POSTMORTEM INTERVAL**
  • Assess Death Scene
  • Corpse Transport/Relocation
  • Injury prior to death
  • Drug testing

***ESTIMATE POSTMORTEM INTERVAL
  • Based on blow fly development
  • Most accurate in first 30 days
  • Several blow fly species involved

Blow flies are first to arrive at a corpse
  • Eggs are laid
  • Larvae develop
  • Development is temperature dependant
  • Succession of insects is predictable
Forensic entomologist:
  • Recover insects from body
  • Identify insects
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***BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN HOMICIDE INVESTIGATION
  • Murder took place at night
  • Flies oviposit as soon as they find body
  • Predictable succession
  • Weather station records valid
  • Air temperature determines fly development
Maggot Mass
  • Large group of *BLOW FLY LARVAE in carrion: maintain high temperature



Decomposition studies
  • Test animal (pig) is sacrificed
  • Environmental conditions recorded
  • Succession of insects monitored

Variations:
  • Body buried
  • Body in water
  • Body burned
  • Body in building

Body Farm
  • University of Tennessee
  • Use human bodies
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Corpse relocation:
  • Few insects in soil beneath body
  • Insects from body are “foreign”
Forensic entomology Other aspects:
  • Drug analysis of corpse
  • Insects in food
  • Poaching
***Forensic entomology case study: OREGON
  • Rifle fired at party
  • Neighbor killed
  • Body found 1 month later
  • Insect evidence set time of death
***Forensic entomology case study: Chicago
  • Woman raped by man in ski mask
  • Suspect had a mask in apartment
  • Suspect: “Mask had not been worn”
  • Burrs in mask [& at crime scene]
  • Small caterpillars in burrs
  • Life cycle of moth: eggs laid in summer
  • Mask had been outside the last 6 months
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***Forensic entomology case study: child abuse
  • Young child brought to hospital
  • Suffering from abuse and neglect
  • Difficult to prosecute parents
  • Anal and genital areas had fly maggots
  • Larval age = 5 days
  • Diapers had not been changed for 5 days, used as prosecution for child abuse
  • Similar examples with elderly patients

Ticks and Mites class and subclass
  • Class: Arachnida
  • ***Subclass: Acari
Ticks/Mites characteristics
  • ***2 main body parts: cephalothorax and abdomen; no division in between
  • 8 legs 
  • egg -> larva -> nymph -> adult 
  • ticks parasitize: mammals, birds, reptiles
  • mites are: free-living, plant or animal parasites
Lyme disease
  • 1st described in Connecticut 
  • ***vector: deer tick
  • ***disease agent: bacterium (Borrelia)
  • 15,000 cases/year in US
  • Most prevalent in northeast 
  • Cause unknown
  • may attack nervous system, heart, joints
  • may cause autoimmune response 
  • patient response to Lyme Disease is very variable
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Lyme disease cycle
  • ticks feed on infected mice
  • bacteria multiply in tick vector 
  • ticks feed on man -> circular rash
  • flu-like illness
  • later: arthritis, heart, and nerve problems  
  • treatment: antibiotics
Deer tick
  • ***smaller than dog tick 
  • ***nymph usual vector (1/3 infected)
  • life cycle: year 1 - larvae hatch, feed, and molt; year 2 - nymphs feed, adults emerge and feed
  • birds disperse ticks 
Lyme disease prevention
  • protective clothing in woods
  • check body for ticks 
  • save ticks you remove 
tick removal
  • use fine-pointed tweezers 
  • grasp where tick enters skin
  • pull tick out slowly and firmly
  • save tick 
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Rocky mountain spotted fever
  • vector: dog tick
  • disease agent: bacterium - Rickettsia 
  • 800 cases/year in US
  • most prevalent in West 
Scorpions class and subclass
  • class: Arachnida 
  • Subclass: Scorpiones 
Scorpions characteristics
  • 2 large pincers
  • tail with venom
  • predators
  • North African and Middle Eastern species can kill a human 
  • can survive extreme temps
  • blind - use feelers to find prey
  • male deposits sperm on stalk then pulls female over stalk 
  • female bear live young and care for them 
Baja California
  • 60 scorpion species
  • study island biogeography 
  • nocturnal predators 
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Spiders scientific name
  • Class arachnida
  • Subclass Araneae 
Spider characteristics
  • Cephalothorax joined to abdomen by pedicel
  • Eight legs
  • Most produce silk
  • Most produce venom
  • Males deliver sperm with palps
  • Very few cause harm to humans
**Bolas spider
  • Ball with mucous
  • Moth sex pheromone
tarantulas
  • covered in hairs 
  • can throws hairs at a predator 
  • hairs are barbed and toxic 
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Large-jawed spider:
  • Male produces sperm in abdomen and transfers it to a special web and then to the palps on his cephalothorax
Jumping spider:
  • Male attracts female with mating dance where he puts her in “a trance” with front leg movements

Net Casting spider
  • ***Male “talks” to female by strumming on web
  • Male uses palps to deliver sperm to female
  • Female mates once and stores sperm
  • Male may mate many times

St. Andrews Cross Spider:
  • Female much larger than male
  • ***Male: “plucks” on web to identify himself*
  • He risks death in order to mate

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Orb Weaver:
  • **Stabilimentum [Stb] = zig zag cross strands in web
  • Stb warns birds so they won’t fly into web
  • Some birds may use Stb to find silk for their nest
Black Widow
  • ***Red hourglass on abdomen
  • Bites and injects venom
  • Circulates in blood stream
  • Venom is a neurotoxin
  • Cause muscle cramps
Black Widow Bite
  • Intense pain
  • Nausea and profuse sweating
  • Slurred speech
  • Sometimes diagnosed as appendicitis
  • Venom is 30X more toxic than a rattlesnake

Brown Recluse****
  • ***Violin on the cephalothorax
  • ***Venom causes skin necrosis
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***1st Silk Production
  • China 2640 BC
  • Si-Ling-Chi was the Goddess of Silkworms
***Secret of silk production:
  • went first form China to Japan
  • Marco-Polo brought back to Europe 
  • Silk production in GA from 1680-1760
  • ****Gypsy moth was imported to New England to make better silk; became a huge pest
  • Japanese Farms: larvae becomes 12,000X heavier; 220lbs of leaves yields 1lb of silk
***Randy Lewis
  • ***Cloned spider silk
  • Medicine: structure, bandages, ligaments
  • Fabrics: parachutes, clothing, canoes
***Hymenoptera meaning
  • ***Hymena: God of Marriage, refers to union of fore and hind wings
  • Ptera = wings
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Ants, bees, wasps scientific name Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera characteristics
  • Complete metamorphosis
  • Chewing mouthparts
  • **2 Pair membranous wings
  • Female selects sex of young
  • Females produce venom
  • Variety of lifestyles: Parasites, predators, solitary, social
  • **Most beneficial order
  • Compact wings that fold back
  • Back wings hooked to front wings
  • Wings beat as if one pair
***Velvet ant
  • solitary wasp***
Adult females:
  • Wingless, hairy, and brightly colored
  • Parasitize hymenoptera nests
  • Extremely painful sting
Parasitoid
  • Insect whose larvae consumer their host
Three Level Interactions
    1. Plant
    2. Herbivore
    3. Parasitoid
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        Mud Dauber Wasps
        Female:
        • Builds nest with mud
        • Puts live spiders in nest cells
        • Lays 1 egg per cell
        --------------------------------
        • Parasitoids find nest
        • Male: Helps to guard nest
        Bark Beetles
        • Infest trees
        • Beetles carry fungus
        • Fungus modifies tree terpenes
        • New terpenes attract more beetles
        • Terpenes attract parasitoid wasps
        Joe Lewis
        • USDA Tifton, GA
        • Caterpillar feeds
        • Plant damage signals parasitic wasp (cut grass smell)
        • To find host, the wasp uses: Smell of wounded plant, Frass, Host cuticle
        • Teach wasps to find specific crop = $
        What lays the largest insect egg? Carpenter bees
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        Carpenter Bees
        • Male [M] is territorial
        • Female [F] builds nest and gathers pollen
        • F lays egg [largest insect egg]**
        • Cells with F eggs are larger than cells with M eggs
        • Daughter: guards and rescues nest
        Blueberry Bee [BB]:
        • Nectar and pollen of blueberry flowers hard to reach
        • Female BB collects pollen by “buzzing”
        • BB uses long tongue to collect nectar
        • Other bees cut flower and “rob” nectar
        How many times can a honey bee mate? only once
        new queen
        • Workers make large queen cells
        • workers feed queen larva Royal Jelly
        • Queen larva is much larger than W larvae
        • Queen emerges and kills any rival queens
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        Drone bee
        • = male [unfertilized egg]
        • large eyes
        • mates with a new queen and dies
        • Sperm is viable for 5 years

        worker bee
        [= female: fertilized egg]:
        • 1st: Nurse Bee
        • 2nd: Produce Wax
        • 3rd: Guard Bee
        • 4th: Forager
        - Collect pollen to feed larvae, pollen baskets on legs
        - Flower nectar → honey flavor

        Melittin
        • protein in bee sting venom
        • causes cells to burst 
        How many times can a honey bee sting? only once
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        Bee sting:
        • Stinger is barbed
        • Bee dies
        • Venom contains a protein, Melittin [M]**
        • M causes your cells to “burst”!
        • Poison sac keeps pumping venom
        what is honey bee barf (regurgitated nectar)
        Honey Bee Dance
        • Direction to flowers
        • Distance to flowers
        • Sample of nectar
        Getting Honey
        • Remove wax
        • Extraction
        • ***Teaspoon = 1,000 bees
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        AFRICANIZED BEES
        • brought to Brazil in 1956
        • more aggressive
        • now in Texas, AZ, NM, Nevada and California
        Pollination
        • Transfer of Pollen from Anthers (male part) to Stigma (female part)*****
        • 70% of all flowering plants pollinated by insects!
        INSECT POLLINATION
        • ***Plant’s goal = attract insects
        • Shape and ultraviolet pattern of flowers: guide insects to pollen (and nectar)
        Lily
        • Flower smells and looks like a corpse
        • Blow flies: attracted and trapped
        • Flies dusted with pollen
        • Flies go to next flower → pollination
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        hammer Orchid and Solitary Wasp [W]
        • Flower is shaped like female W
        • Flower scent = female W pheromone
        • Male W tries to mate with flower
        • Hinged flower swings male W into pollen
        • Male W pollinates next orchid

        Social Wasps in Georgia
        • Yellowjackets (2 species): Nest in ground
        • Hornets (2 species): Closed nest
        • Paper Wasps (5 species): Open nest
        Wasp Nest
        • Queen starts nest: pedicel and cells
        • Lays eggs
        • Larvae are fed insects
        • Larvae spin silk → Pupae
        • Adults emerge
        Paper wasp nest composition
        • Paper = Plant fiber [Wasps chew on wood]
        • Glue = [Protein from wasp saliva]

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        Stinging social wasps
        • (only females!)
        • Stinger: end of abdomen (modified ovipositor)
        • Attack when nest is threatened

        Paper Wasp Nest Defense
        • Wasps apply fatty acids to base of nest to repel ants [stem turns black]
        • Wasps defend together [use alarm pheromone]
        Wasp Nest Defense
        • Wasps apply chemical to base of nest
        • Chemical repels ants
        • Chemical = fatty acids
        • These acids are “funeral compounds” in ants
        • Ants with these acids get carried to graveyard!
        Cape Canaveral:
        Paper Wasps mate in fall
        Males select site on high towers
        Males rub sex pheromone on site
        Females attracted → mating
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        Wasps and hornets kin recognition use Cuticular hydrocarbons
        **Two Hornets in GA
        • Baldfaced hornet: black and white, exposed grey, bag nest
        • European hornet: yellow and black hidden nest
        Yellowjacket colonies: Disintegrate in very late Fall
        ***Fire Ants:
        • Family: Formicidae
        • Genus: Solenopsis
        • **Origin: South America
        • Entry into U.S.: Mobile, AL 1929
        • **2 Species: Red and Black
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        blue birds and fire ants Blue birds do not do as well if fire ants are present; compete for the same food
        fire ant characteristics
        • Destroy young fruit
        • Benefit: attack pest insects
        • Attracted to electric circuits
        • Venom = Alkaloids
        • Reproductive males and females: wings
        • Queen: lays 5 million eggs
        • Queen: much larger than workers
        • Egg: has attractant and fungicide
        • 4th Instar larvae eat solids

        Biological control of Fire Ant:
        1.) Nematodes
        2.) FA pheromone as bait
        3.) Parasitoid fly eats the FA head

        **Trophallaxis Exchange of liquid between members of a colony
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        Myrmecology The study of ants
        Superorganism social insect colony similar to single organism
        ***Spermatheca
        •  sac in female abdomen for sperm storage (female only needs to mate once)***
        Weaver Ants
        • nest made of leaves bound together with silk from ant larvae
        • Symbiosis: caterpillar secretes fluid for ants ants protect caterpillar, caterpillar produces sound to attract ants
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        Army Ants
        • Central and south america 
        • workers link together with leg hooks
        • Nomads: they have no nest
        • Workers: blind or poor eyesight
        Leaf Cutter Ants
        • cuts leaves
        • Carry leaves to nest  (leaf carrying ants=parasol ants)
        • LCA feed on fungus that grows on leaves
        Cecropia plants and ants
        • ***azteca ants protect cecropia***
        • cecropia provides sugar packets for ant larvae ants live in cecropia stems
        Ant control
        • don’t breathe on them
        • limited use of insecticide
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        ***Anthrax is what type of organism
        a bacterium
        ***female wasp determining sex
        • unfertilized = male
        • fertilized = female
        ***B.t. toxin does what?
        destroys the stomach of the insect that eats it
        ***In order to make an insect virus kill a pest insect more quickly... a gene for a toxin from a mite was put into the DNA of an insect virus
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        ***Who is the scientist responsible for our system of binomial nomenclature? Linnaeus
        ***Period of arrested development is: Diapause
        ***Jointed appendages on the thorax are used for:
        • Locomotion

        ***Insect blood is: Hemolymph
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        ***An important polymer that is found in insect cuticle is: Chitin
        ***T/F: Primitive insects have wings that fold False
        ***T/F: A pheromone is a chemical produced by an animal that affects another animal of a different species False
        ***Bombardier beetles produce:
        Quinones

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        ***Termites keep a fungus garden in order to break down... cellulose
        *** Termites belong to which order? isoptera
        ***t/f: All adult termites have wings false
        ***List the four castes of a termite colony: Soldiers, workers, king, queen
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        ***Mayfly adults live for:
        • 1-3 days
        ***T/F: Mayflies have incomplete metamorphosis.
        True

        ***What is the name of the insect order for which the translation is: “short-lived” “wings?”
        Ephemeroptera

        ***T/F: Dragonflies are smaller than damselflies. False
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        ***Termites evolved from: Cockroaches
        ***T/F: Some cockroaches feed on wood and they have a symbiotic relationship with protozoans that digest the cellulose in the wood True
        ***The eggs of a cockroach are laid: In an ootheca
        ***Production of sound to attract a mate: Stridulation
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        ***The #1 agricultural pest in the world: Locusts 
        ***Crickets produce sounds by rubbing a leg against a wing: False
        ***What is the insect order where the translation of the order name is “straight” “wings”? Orthoptera
        ***Grasshoppers have what mouthparts:
        Chewing mouthparts

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        ***Luciferin is a pigment which yields light when combined with: oxygen
        ***Ladybugs on hop plants may be feeding on:
        aphids

        ***t/f: Beetles belong to the largest insect order
        true

        ***what is the insect order where the translation of the order name is “sheath” wings?
        coleoptera

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        ***Civetone, a seventeen carbon cyclic ketone, is made by:
        Civet cats

        ***T/F: Dung beetles were imported into Australia to cope with the dung produced by cattle
        True

        ***T/F: Weevils and dung beetles are in different orders
        False

        ***Cantharidin is made by: Blister beetles
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        ***What is the name of the insect order where the translation means: “tube” and “wingless”?
        Siphonaptera

        ***The vector of Elephantiasis
        Mosquitoes

        ***Yersinia Pestis, the disease agent that causes Bubonic Plague, is a:
        Bacterium

        ***Vector of River Blindness
        Black Flies

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        ***What did Rothschild show adjusts their reproductive cycle in order to match that of their host: Fleas
        ***People living in New Guinea eat insects that have been feeding on the Sago Palm. These insects are the larvae of
        Beetles


        ***Darrell Posey worked with
        Kayapo Indians

        ***Why Not Eat Insects? was written by
        Vincent Holt

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        ***1995 female runners from China broke several track records, these athletes were eating
        fungus-infected Caterpillars

        ***Young men of the Kayapo Indians have a ceremony where they acquire the power of: Wasps
        ***To what subclass do ticks and mites belong?
        Acari


        *** A person is most likely to get Lyme Disease from a deer tick when it is
        Nymph

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        ***Main body parts of a tick are:
        Cephalothorax and abdomen

        ***To what class do scorpions belong?
        Arachnida

        ***The disease agent that causes Lyme Disease is Borrelia (bacterium)
        ***To what subclass do spiders belong?
        Araneae

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        ***The movements of the front legs are very important for the mating dance of the male:
        Jumping spider

        ***The male spider delivers sperm to a female spider with:
        palps

        ***The zig zag cross strands in the web of an orb spider are called the
        Stabilimentum

        ***Spider that captures males moths b/c it produces same compound as pheromone produced by female moths is the: bolas spider
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        ***Silk is a protein made of:
        “small” amino acids 

        ***The “violin” of a brown recluse spider is found on:
        the cephalothorax 

        ***A black widow spider has a red hourglass on:
        the abdomen 

        ***True or false: Silk was commercially produced in GA from 1680-1760
        True

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        ***Randy Lewis cloned the gene for:
        spider silk

        ***t/f: Wasps apply fatty acids to the base of their nest to repel ants
        True

        ***What is the nest of a paper wasp made of?
        Paper and Glue (Plant fiber and Protein from wasp saliva)

        ***How many species of hornets do we have in Georgia?
        2 species

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        ***Stinger of a social wasp is a modified…
        Ovipositor
        ***T/F: Fire ants are attracted to electrical circuits
        True

        ***Fire ants compete for food with:
        Blue birds

        ***Fire ants came to the US from:
        South America

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        ***Ants, bees and wasps are able to recognize their nestmates because they have:
        unique patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons

        ***Exchange of liquid between members of the colony is called: Trophallaxis
        Mayo
        (associated with DDT- tested DDT on lice which spread typhus)

        Yannacone
        (Environmental Defense Fund- led fight against DDT use)

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        Pimentel
        found that less than 0.1% of pesticides reach target pest)

        Janzen
        (Costa RIca- studies ants in Acacia trees)

        Muller
        (“discovered” DDT)/

        Zeidler
        (synthesized DDT in Germany)/ 

        Generated by Koofers.com
        Ross
        (mosquitoes vector malaria)/ 

        Reed
        (mosquitoes vector yellow fever)

        Wilson (named species of plants and animals-1.82million- theory of island biogeography)
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        List View: Terms & Definitions

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         Siphonaptera definition
        • siphon = tube
        • aptera = wingless
         Fleas scientific nameSiphonaptera 
         Siphonaptera characteristics
        • complete metaphorphosis
        • piercing/sucking mouthparts
        • ***no wings
        • ***adults of both sexes are blood-sucking parasites
        • good jumpers/runners
        • narrow body
        • many are disease vectors 
         ***resilin
        • protein in the back legs of fleas that works like a rubber band 
        • helps them jump 200x their body length
         flea females/reproduction
        • female needs blood for eggs
        • she eats 15x her weight per day
        • lays 2000 eggs
        • eggs hatch in 1-10 days
        • larvae feed on adult feces 
         What are fleas attracted to?
        • heat
        • carbon dioxide
        • light
        • movement
         flea larvae
        • spin sticky cocoon
        • cocoon is well camouflaged 
        • life cycle is 12-174 days
        • environment (temperature and humidity) is very important 
         ***Miriam Rothschild
        • world flea expert
        • showed that female flea reacts to sex hormones of pregnant female host and adjusts reproductive cycle to match that of the host; lays eggs on babies of host 
         Bubonic plague***
        • Vector: fleas
        • Disease: bacteria (Yersinia pestis)
        • reservoir = rodents 
        • bacteria multiply in human 
        • swollen lymph glands = Bubo
        • death rate = 75%
        • antibiotic treatment is effective
        • found in Russia, Middle East, and Western US
        • major outbreak in India
         ***Bubonic plague bacteria cycle
        • bacteria enter flea with blood meal
        • bacteria multiply in flea gut
        • bacteria block entry into gut
        • flea seeks new host
        • flea feeds on new host
        • regurgitates blood with bacteria
        • new host infected 
         Elephantiasis***
        • Vector = mosquitos
        • disease organism = roundworm
        • causes swollen appendages
        • 300 million people in SE Asia have E
         River Blindness
        • vector: black flies
        • disease: round worms
        • West Africa 
        • 20 million people infected 
         possible use of insects in war
        • modify plague bacteria
        • destroy crops
        • war on drugs
         Six-legged soldiers
        • Using insects as weapons of war
        • Jeffery Lockwood 
        • 2009
         mimicry
        • resemblance  of an organism to some other organism or object
        • Batesian and mullerian mimicry
        • wing edge of moth/butterfly may mimic caterpillar/snake 
         ***Natural selection
        • change in frequency of genetic traits in a population through differential survival of individuals bearing those traits 
        • blue jays eat moths, as pollution made trees darker, darker moths selected for because dark moths harder to see
         ***Batesian mimicry
        • resemblance of an edible species (mimic) to an unpalatable species (model) to deceive predators 
         Batesian mimicry in Viceroy
        • viceroy looks like Monarch
        • monarch larvae eat toxic milkweed
        • Viceroy larvae eats non-toxic willow
        • Monarch adult is toxic - model
        • Viceroy adult is nontoxic - mimic
        • Blue jay "learns" to avoid mimic 
         Mullerian mimicry
        • mutual resemblance of 2/more unpalatable species to enhance predator avoidance 
         Dead leaf butterfly
        • outer wings look like leaf
        • inner wings have bright color 
         ***mimicry changing with seasons
        • Nemoria arizonaria
        • Spring - caterpillar eats oak flowers; mimics flowers
        • summer - eats oak leaves; mimics twigs
         Passion vine and butterfly interaction
        • passion vine leaves have toxins to deter insects 
        • some butterfly species can eat only 1 passion vine species
        • ***passion vine leaves mimic each other to confuse butterflies 
        • female butterfly lays 1 egg per leaf (larvae are cannibals)
        • ***passion vine makes "mimic eggs" on leaves 
        • butterfly avoids passion vine leaves with "mimic eggs"
         Mantodea meaning
        • mantis = prophet 
         Mantids characteristics
        • ***incomplete metamorphosis
        • chewing mouthparts
        • .5 to 6 inches long
        • ***raptorial front legs
        • carnivorous
        • long thorax
        • ***eggs laid in ootheca 
        • cryptic coloration 
         Mantis attacking
        • generalist predator
        • uses antenna to recognize prey  
        • sways back and forth prior to attack
        • spines on front legs to hold prey
        • has elaborate chewing mouthparts
        • ***when they catch something they don't let go 
        • exerts selective pressure - prey with best mimicry survives 
         Why female mantis eats maletheories:
        • releases male "inhibitions" and his sperm
        • he provides mated female with nutrients
        But, male smaller, so hard to eat while mating 
         Phasmida meaning
        • phasma = apparition
         Walking sticks scientific name
        • Phasmida
         walking sticks characteristics
        • incomplete metamorphosis
        • chewing mouthparts 
        • long and slender body
        • cryptic coloration
        • feed on plants
        • feign death when threatened 
        • autonomy - loss of leg to escape 
         ethnoentomologycultural importance of insects
         African desert
        • dig toxic beetle pupae from soil 
        • squish insects onto arrows
         Darrell Posey
        • PhD - UGA - 1979
        • Ethnoentomology of the Kayapo of central Brazil
         Kayapo
        • Agricultural - but few insect pests
        • main pest = mosquito (body paint)
        • eat: ants, bee larvae, wasp larvae
        • ceremony to acquire power of wasps
        • ***young men hit large wasp nest
        • wasp nest = universe
         Vincent Holt
        • Why Not Eat Insects?
        • 1885

         Insects are nutritious
        • protein
        • fat
        • vitamins (A&D)
         ***What do Australian aborigines eat?
        • beetle larvae - witenetty grubs
        • (coleoptera)
        • taste like chicken 
         New Guinea - Sago Palm provides
        • starch = 80% of calories
        • larvae of capricorn beetle = protein snack
         insects are rich in protein
        • Botswana: charcoal grilled caterpillars
        • Thailand: steamed bamboo worms, water bugs, steamed hornet grubs
         Scott O'Grady
        • shot down over Bosnia
        • Survived by eating bugs
         1995 Olympics
        • Chinese female runners broke many track records
        • Illegal drugs?
        • no - caterpillar infected with fungus
         South American Indians eat
        • tarantulas
        • capture tarantulas: avoid venom and toxic hairs
        • BBQ - "taste like shrimp"
         ****Maria Merian 1647-1715
        • She combined art and entomology
        • born in Germany
        • Went to south America at age 52
        • Painted larvae, pupa, and adult with host plant 
         **Greatest insect movie
        • THEM 1954
        • Giant ants mutated by H-bomb, invade Los Angeles sewers 
         Forensic Entomology
        Study of insects from a legal aspect


         Insects as Forensic Indicators:
        • ESTIMATE POSTMORTEM INTERVAL**
        • Assess Death Scene
        • Corpse Transport/Relocation
        • Injury prior to death
        • Drug testing

         ***ESTIMATE POSTMORTEM INTERVAL
        • Based on blow fly development
        • Most accurate in first 30 days
        • Several blow fly species involved

         Blow flies are first to arrive at a corpse
        • Eggs are laid
        • Larvae develop
        • Development is temperature dependant
        • Succession of insects is predictable
         Forensic entomologist:
        • Recover insects from body
        • Identify insects
         ***BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN HOMICIDE INVESTIGATION
        • Murder took place at night
        • Flies oviposit as soon as they find body
        • Predictable succession
        • Weather station records valid
        • Air temperature determines fly development
         Maggot Mass
        • Large group of *BLOW FLY LARVAE in carrion: maintain high temperature



         Decomposition studies
        • Test animal (pig) is sacrificed
        • Environmental conditions recorded
        • Succession of insects monitored

        Variations:
        • Body buried
        • Body in water
        • Body burned
        • Body in building

         Body Farm
        • University of Tennessee
        • Use human bodies
         Corpse relocation:
        • Few insects in soil beneath body
        • Insects from body are “foreign”
         Forensic entomology Other aspects:
        • Drug analysis of corpse
        • Insects in food
        • Poaching
         ***Forensic entomology case study: OREGON
        • Rifle fired at party
        • Neighbor killed
        • Body found 1 month later
        • Insect evidence set time of death
         ***Forensic entomology case study: Chicago
        • Woman raped by man in ski mask
        • Suspect had a mask in apartment
        • Suspect: “Mask had not been worn”
        • Burrs in mask [& at crime scene]
        • Small caterpillars in burrs
        • Life cycle of moth: eggs laid in summer
        • Mask had been outside the last 6 months
         ***Forensic entomology case study: child abuse
        • Young child brought to hospital
        • Suffering from abuse and neglect
        • Difficult to prosecute parents
        • Anal and genital areas had fly maggots
        • Larval age = 5 days
        • Diapers had not been changed for 5 days, used as prosecution for child abuse
        • Similar examples with elderly patients

         Ticks and Mites class and subclass
        • Class: Arachnida
        • ***Subclass: Acari
         Ticks/Mites characteristics
        • ***2 main body parts: cephalothorax and abdomen; no division in between
        • 8 legs 
        • egg -> larva -> nymph -> adult 
        • ticks parasitize: mammals, birds, reptiles
        • mites are: free-living, plant or animal parasites
         Lyme disease
        • 1st described in Connecticut 
        • ***vector: deer tick
        • ***disease agent: bacterium (Borrelia)
        • 15,000 cases/year in US
        • Most prevalent in northeast 
        • Cause unknown
        • may attack nervous system, heart, joints
        • may cause autoimmune response 
        • patient response to Lyme Disease is very variable
         Lyme disease cycle
        • ticks feed on infected mice
        • bacteria multiply in tick vector 
        • ticks feed on man -> circular rash
        • flu-like illness
        • later: arthritis, heart, and nerve problems  
        • treatment: antibiotics
         Deer tick
        • ***smaller than dog tick 
        • ***nymph usual vector (1/3 infected)
        • life cycle: year 1 - larvae hatch, feed, and molt; year 2 - nymphs feed, adults emerge and feed
        • birds disperse ticks 
         Lyme disease prevention
        • protective clothing in woods
        • check body for ticks 
        • save ticks you remove 
         tick removal
        • use fine-pointed tweezers 
        • grasp where tick enters skin
        • pull tick out slowly and firmly
        • save tick 
         Rocky mountain spotted fever
        • vector: dog tick
        • disease agent: bacterium - Rickettsia 
        • 800 cases/year in US
        • most prevalent in West 
         Scorpions class and subclass
        • class: Arachnida 
        • Subclass: Scorpiones 
         Scorpions characteristics
        • 2 large pincers
        • tail with venom
        • predators
        • North African and Middle Eastern species can kill a human 
        • can survive extreme temps
        • blind - use feelers to find prey
        • male deposits sperm on stalk then pulls female over stalk 
        • female bear live young and care for them 
         Baja California
        • 60 scorpion species
        • study island biogeography 
        • nocturnal predators 
         Spiders scientific name
        • Class arachnida
        • Subclass Araneae 
         Spider characteristics
        • Cephalothorax joined to abdomen by pedicel
        • Eight legs
        • Most produce silk
        • Most produce venom
        • Males deliver sperm with palps
        • Very few cause harm to humans
         **Bolas spider
        • Ball with mucous
        • Moth sex pheromone
         tarantulas
        • covered in hairs 
        • can throws hairs at a predator 
        • hairs are barbed and toxic 
         Large-jawed spider:
        • Male produces sperm in abdomen and transfers it to a special web and then to the palps on his cephalothorax
         Jumping spider:
        • Male attracts female with mating dance where he puts her in “a trance” with front leg movements

         Net Casting spider
        • ***Male “talks” to female by strumming on web
        • Male uses palps to deliver sperm to female
        • Female mates once and stores sperm
        • Male may mate many times

         St. Andrews Cross Spider:
        • Female much larger than male
        • ***Male: “plucks” on web to identify himself*
        • He risks death in order to mate

         Orb Weaver:
        • **Stabilimentum [Stb] = zig zag cross strands in web
        • Stb warns birds so they won’t fly into web
        • Some birds may use Stb to find silk for their nest
         Black Widow
        • ***Red hourglass on abdomen
        • Bites and injects venom
        • Circulates in blood stream
        • Venom is a neurotoxin
        • Cause muscle cramps
         Black Widow Bite
        • Intense pain
        • Nausea and profuse sweating
        • Slurred speech
        • Sometimes diagnosed as appendicitis
        • Venom is 30X more toxic than a rattlesnake

         Brown Recluse****
        • ***Violin on the cephalothorax
        • ***Venom causes skin necrosis
         ***1st Silk Production
        • China 2640 BC
        • Si-Ling-Chi was the Goddess of Silkworms
         ***Secret of silk production:
        • went first form China to Japan
        • Marco-Polo brought back to Europe 
        • Silk production in GA from 1680-1760
        • ****Gypsy moth was imported to New England to make better silk; became a huge pest
        • Japanese Farms: larvae becomes 12,000X heavier; 220lbs of leaves yields 1lb of silk
         ***Randy Lewis
        • ***Cloned spider silk
        • Medicine: structure, bandages, ligaments
        • Fabrics: parachutes, clothing, canoes
         ***Hymenoptera meaning
        • ***Hymena: God of Marriage, refers to union of fore and hind wings
        • Ptera = wings
         Ants, bees, wasps scientific nameHymenoptera
         Hymenoptera characteristics
        • Complete metamorphosis
        • Chewing mouthparts
        • **2 Pair membranous wings
        • Female selects sex of young
        • Females produce venom
        • Variety of lifestyles: Parasites, predators, solitary, social
        • **Most beneficial order
        • Compact wings that fold back
        • Back wings hooked to front wings
        • Wings beat as if one pair
         ***Velvet ant
        • solitary wasp***
        Adult females:
        • Wingless, hairy, and brightly colored
        • Parasitize hymenoptera nests
        • Extremely painful sting
         Parasitoid
        • Insect whose larvae consumer their host
        Three Level Interactions
          1. Plant
          2. Herbivore
          3. Parasitoid
               Mud Dauber Wasps
              Female:
              • Builds nest with mud
              • Puts live spiders in nest cells
              • Lays 1 egg per cell
              --------------------------------
              • Parasitoids find nest
              • Male: Helps to guard nest
               Bark Beetles
              • Infest trees
              • Beetles carry fungus
              • Fungus modifies tree terpenes
              • New terpenes attract more beetles
              • Terpenes attract parasitoid wasps
               Joe Lewis
              • USDA Tifton, GA
              • Caterpillar feeds
              • Plant damage signals parasitic wasp (cut grass smell)
              • To find host, the wasp uses: Smell of wounded plant, Frass, Host cuticle
              • Teach wasps to find specific crop = $
               What lays the largest insect egg?Carpenter bees
               Carpenter Bees
              • Male [M] is territorial
              • Female [F] builds nest and gathers pollen
              • F lays egg [largest insect egg]**
              • Cells with F eggs are larger than cells with M eggs
              • Daughter: guards and rescues nest
               Blueberry Bee [BB]:
              • Nectar and pollen of blueberry flowers hard to reach
              • Female BB collects pollen by “buzzing”
              • BB uses long tongue to collect nectar
              • Other bees cut flower and “rob” nectar
               How many times can a honey bee mate?only once
               new queen
              • Workers make large queen cells
              • workers feed queen larva Royal Jelly
              • Queen larva is much larger than W larvae
              • Queen emerges and kills any rival queens
               Drone bee
              • = male [unfertilized egg]
              • large eyes
              • mates with a new queen and dies
              • Sperm is viable for 5 years

               worker bee
              [= female: fertilized egg]:
              • 1st: Nurse Bee
              • 2nd: Produce Wax
              • 3rd: Guard Bee
              • 4th: Forager
              - Collect pollen to feed larvae, pollen baskets on legs
              - Flower nectar → honey flavor

               Melittin
              • protein in bee sting venom
              • causes cells to burst 
               How many times can a honey bee sting?only once
               Bee sting:
              • Stinger is barbed
              • Bee dies
              • Venom contains a protein, Melittin [M]**
              • M causes your cells to “burst”!
              • Poison sac keeps pumping venom
               what is honeybee barf (regurgitated nectar)
               Honey Bee Dance
              • Direction to flowers
              • Distance to flowers
              • Sample of nectar
               Getting Honey
              • Remove wax
              • Extraction
              • ***Teaspoon = 1,000 bees
               AFRICANIZED BEES
              • brought to Brazil in 1956
              • more aggressive
              • now in Texas, AZ, NM, Nevada and California
               Pollination
              • Transfer of Pollen from Anthers (male part) to Stigma (female part)*****
              • 70% of all flowering plants pollinated by insects!
               INSECT POLLINATION
              • ***Plant’s goal = attract insects
              • Shape and ultraviolet pattern of flowers: guide insects to pollen (and nectar)
               Lily
              • Flower smells and looks like a corpse
              • Blow flies: attracted and trapped
              • Flies dusted with pollen
              • Flies go to next flower → pollination
               hammer Orchid and Solitary Wasp [W]
              • Flower is shaped like female W
              • Flower scent = female W pheromone
              • Male W tries to mate with flower
              • Hinged flower swings male W into pollen
              • Male W pollinates next orchid

               Social Wasps in Georgia
              • Yellowjackets (2 species): Nest in ground
              • Hornets (2 species): Closed nest
              • Paper Wasps (5 species): Open nest
               Wasp Nest
              • Queen starts nest: pedicel and cells
              • Lays eggs
              • Larvae are fed insects
              • Larvae spin silk → Pupae
              • Adults emerge
               Paper wasp nest composition
              • Paper = Plant fiber [Wasps chew on wood]
              • Glue = [Protein from wasp saliva]

               Stinging social wasps
              • (only females!)
              • Stinger: end of abdomen (modified ovipositor)
              • Attack when nest is threatened

               Paper Wasp Nest Defense
              • Wasps apply fatty acids to base of nest to repel ants [stem turns black]
              • Wasps defend together [use alarm pheromone]
               Wasp Nest Defense
              • Wasps apply chemical to base of nest
              • Chemical repels ants
              • Chemical = fatty acids
              • These acids are “funeral compounds” in ants
              • Ants with these acids get carried to graveyard!
               Cape Canaveral:
              Paper Wasps mate in fall
              Males select site on high towers
              Males rub sex pheromone on site
              Females attracted → mating
               Wasps and hornets kin recognitionuse Cuticular hydrocarbons
               **Two Hornets in GA
              • Baldfaced hornet: black and white, exposed grey, bag nest
              • European hornet: yellow and black hidden nest
               Yellowjacket colonies:Disintegrate in very late Fall
               ***Fire Ants:
              • Family: Formicidae
              • Genus: Solenopsis
              • **Origin: South America
              • Entry into U.S.: Mobile, AL 1929
              • **2 Species: Red and Black
               blue birds and fire antsBlue birds do not do as well if fire ants are present; compete for the same food
               fire ant characteristics
              • Destroy young fruit
              • Benefit: attack pest insects
              • Attracted to electric circuits
              • Venom = Alkaloids
              • Reproductive males and females: wings
              • Queen: lays 5 million eggs
              • Queen: much larger than workers
              • Egg: has attractant and fungicide
              • 4th Instar larvae eat solids

               Biological control of Fire Ant:
              1.) Nematodes
              2.) FA pheromone as bait
              3.) Parasitoid fly eats the FA head

               **TrophallaxisExchange of liquid between members of a colony
               MyrmecologyThe study of ants
               Superorganismsocial insect colony similar to single organism
               ***Spermatheca
              •  sac in female abdomen for sperm storage (female only needs to mate once)***
               Weaver Ants
              • nest made of leaves bound together with silk from ant larvae
              • Symbiosis: caterpillar secretes fluid for ants ants protect caterpillar, caterpillar produces sound to attract ants
               Army Ants
              • Central and south america 
              • workers link together with leg hooks
              • Nomads: they have no nest
              • Workers: blind or poor eyesight
               Leaf Cutter Ants
              • cuts leaves
              • Carry leaves to nest  (leaf carrying ants=parasol ants)
              • LCA feed on fungus that grows on leaves
               Cecropia plants and ants
              • ***azteca ants protect cecropia***
              • cecropia provides sugar packets for ant larvae ants live in cecropia stems
               Ant control
              • don’t breathe on them
              • limited use of insecticide
               ***Anthrax is what type of organism
              a bacterium
               ***female wasp determining sex
              • unfertilized = male
              • fertilized = female
               ***B.t. toxin does what?
              destroys the stomach of the insect that eats it
               ***In order to make an insect virus kill a pest insect more quickly...a gene for a toxin from a mite was put into the DNA of an insect virus
               ***Who is the scientist responsible for our system of binomial nomenclature?Linnaeus
               ***Period of arrested development is:Diapause
               ***Jointed appendages on the thorax are used for:
              • Locomotion

               ***Insect blood is:Hemolymph
               ***An important polymer that is found in insect cuticle is:Chitin
               ***T/F: Primitive insects have wings that foldFalse
               ***T/F: A pheromone is a chemical produced by an animal that affects another animal of a different speciesFalse
               ***Bombardier beetles produce:
              Quinones

               ***Termites keep a fungus garden in order to break down...cellulose
               *** Termites belong to which order?isoptera
               ***t/f: All adult termites have wingsfalse
               ***List the four castes of a termite colony:Soldiers, workers, king, queen
               ***Mayfly adults live for:
              • 1-3 days
               ***T/F: Mayflies have incomplete metamorphosis.
              True

               ***What is the name of the insect order for which the translation is: “short-lived” “wings?”
              Ephemeroptera

               ***T/F: Dragonflies are smaller than damselflies.False
               ***Termites evolved from:Cockroaches
               ***T/F: Some cockroaches feed on wood and they have a symbiotic relationship with protozoans that digest the cellulose in the woodTrue
               ***The eggs of a cockroach are laid:In an ootheca
               ***Production of sound to attract a mate:Stridulation
               ***The #1 agricultural pest in the world:Locusts 
               ***Crickets produce sounds by rubbing a leg against a wing:False
               ***What is the insect order where the translation of the order name is “straight” “wings”?Orthoptera
               ***Grasshoppers have what mouthparts:
              Chewing mouthparts

               ***Luciferin is a pigment which yields light when combined with:oxygen
               ***Ladybugs on hop plants may be feeding on:
              aphids

               ***t/f: Beetles belong to the largest insect order
              true

               ***what is the insect order where the translation of the order name is “sheath” wings?
              coleoptera

               ***Civetone, a seventeen carbon cyclic ketone, is made by:
              Civet cats

               ***T/F: Dung beetles were imported into Australia to cope with the dung produced by cattle
              True

               ***T/F: Weevils and dung beetles are in different orders
              False

               ***Cantharidin is made by:Blister beetles
               ***What is the name of the insect order where the translation means: “tube” and “wingless”?
              Siphonaptera

               ***The vector of Elephantiasis
              Mosquitoes

               ***Yersinia Pestis, the disease agent that causes Bubonic Plague, is a:
              Bacterium

               ***Vector of River Blindness
              Black Flies

               ***What did Rothschild show adjusts their reproductive cycle in order to match that of their host:Fleas
               ***People living in New Guinea eat insects that have been feeding on the Sago Palm. These insects are the larvae of
              Beetles


               ***Darrell Posey worked with
              Kayapo Indians

               ***Why Not Eat Insects? was written by
              Vincent Holt

               ***1995 female runners from China broke several track records, these athletes were eating
              fungus-infected Caterpillars

               ***Young men of the Kayapo Indians have a ceremony where they acquire the power of:Wasps
               ***To what subclass do ticks and mites belong?
              Acari


               *** A person is most likely to get Lyme Disease from a deer tick when it is
              Nymph

               ***Main body parts of a tick are:
              Cephalothorax and abdomen

               ***To what class do scorpions belong?
              Arachnida

               ***The disease agent that causes Lyme Disease isBorrelia (bacterium)
               ***To what subclass do spiders belong?
              Araneae

               ***The movements of the front legs are very important for the mating dance of the male:
              Jumping spider

               ***The male spider delivers sperm to a female spider with:
              palps

               ***The zig zag cross strands in the web of an orb spider are called the
              Stabilimentum

               ***Spider that captures males moths b/c it produces same compound as pheromone produced by female moths is the:bolas spider
               ***Silk is a protein made of:
              “small” amino acids 

               ***The “violin” of a brown recluse spider is found on:
              the cephalothorax 

               ***A black widow spider has a red hourglass on:
              the abdomen 

               ***True or false: Silk was commercially produced in GA from 1680-1760
              True

               ***Randy Lewis cloned the gene for:
              spider silk

               ***t/f: Wasps apply fatty acids to the base of their nest to repel ants
              True

               ***What is the nest of a paper wasp made of?
              Paper and Glue (Plant fiber and Protein from wasp saliva)

               ***How many species of hornets do we have in Georgia?
              2 species

               ***Stinger of a social wasp is a modified…
              Ovipositor
               ***T/F: Fire ants are attracted to electrical circuits
              True

               ***Fire ants compete for food with:
              Blue birds

               ***Fire ants came to the US from:
              South America

               ***Ants, bees and wasps are able to recognize their nestmates because they have:
              unique patterns of cuticular hydrocarbons

               ***Exchange of liquid between members of the colony is called:Trophallaxis
               Mayo
              (associated with DDT- tested DDT on lice which spread typhus)

               Yannacone
              (Environmental Defense Fund- led fight against DDT use)

               Pimentel
              found that less than 0.1% of pesticides reach target pest)

               Janzen
              (Costa RIca- studies ants in Acacia trees)

               Muller
              (“discovered” DDT)/

               Zeidler
              (synthesized DDT in Germany)/ 

               Ross
              (mosquitoes vector malaria)/ 

               Reed
              (mosquitoes vector yellow fever)

               Wilson(named species of plants and animals-1.82million- theory of island biogeography)
              36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"