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Final Review - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2014
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Two Benefits Humans Receive from Insects -Pollination
-Food and other products
-Control of other pests
-Recycling
Name three reasons for insects success -quick reproduction (short generation time
-flight
-small size
-adaptable exoskeleton
-metamophosis
Name one human disease, one animal disease, and one plant disease vectored by insects. Human- malaria
Animal- heart worm
Plant- Yellow spotted wilt
Name two ways that insects affect the environment. make some area unlivable
move soil
provide food for other organisms
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What is the difference between Eukaryotes and Bacteria (prokaryotes)? Eukaryotes: DNA is contained in membrand
How many times do arthropods typically molt? 3-6
Name three characteristics of this phylum: Arthropoda -Segmented
-Exoskeleton, must molt
-Open circulatory system
-Jointed Appendaged
-sexual reproduction
Name a crustacean Crab
Lobster
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Name an Arachnid Spider, scorpion, ticks
Why do we care about varroa mites? they kill bees
Difference between millipedes and centipedes? Which is venomous? Centipedes have one pair of legs per body segment, millipedes have two pairs of legs per body segment.

Centipedes are venomous
Name three characteristics that separate insects from other arthropods 3 body regions
3 pairs of legs
compound eyes
wings (usually)
trachea
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Name two things that you could do to prevent or manage roach populations Minimize food
Seal hiding places
Use sticky traps
Use baits
Do preying mantises (Mantodea) have complete or incomplete metamorphosis? Incomplete
What do stick insects eat? leaves
Name two advantages that cicadas gain from this extended periodicity.

Overwhelm predators, noise makes it difficult to find a single prey

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Two insects that are the most important vectors of plant viruses Thrips and aphids
Why do we care about wooly adelgids they kill tress
Name the four life stages of complete metamorphosis. egg, larva, pupa, adult
How many wings do flies typically have 2
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What insect is responsible for the most human deaths? mosquito
Do flies have complete or incomplete metamorphosis? complete
Where would you find (and control) mosquito larvae and pupae? Water
Name a difference between butterflies and moths. Antennae, nocturnal/Diurnal
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of the smallest adult insects, how many males could line up in one inch? More than 100
How long is Chan's megastick (longest insect)? 50-60 cm
What percentage of all described animal species are insects? ABout 75%
How many fruit fly genes have direct counterparts with human genes? More than 100
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Insects in the order Emphemeroptera (mayflies) are abundant. Where would typically find them? Near Water
Common disease associate with roaches Asthma
How often do lice leave their host Never unless the host dies
Which order has piercing/sucking mouthparts? Bugs, Hemiptera
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Which of the following aquatic Hemipterans (bugs) can breathe underwater? None
Which common disease is transmitted by kissing bugs Chagas disease
Which family of beetles has most species Weebils
What order of insects comprises the lightning bugs/fireflies Beetles, Coleoptera
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How many people typically die worldwide from malaria in a year? 1 million
How long can the adults fleas wait in the pupae/cocoons? A number of months
What order of insects has the most species? Beetles
The females never leave the host. The males only have two wings, but they are not Diptera. Name the order strepsiperta
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When Hymenopterans (ants,bees,wasps) have wings, how many wings do they have? 4
What sex of wasp hatches from an unfertilized egg? Males
When should you apply this broadcast treatment for fire ant treatment? spring and fall
What do leaf cutter ants eat Fungus
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What is the difference between an arthropod predator and a parasitoid? name one of each

1. PS Predators kill and eat prey. Parasitoids lay eggs in or near a prey item; the prey will eventually die.

 

Predator- spider

parasitoid- some flies, some wasps

What do mud daubers put in their nests? name two of the three mud dauber species Spiders

Pipe organ, black and yellow, blue
How do Hymenopterans survive until next spring? mated females find a place to hibernate
Adult insects typically have two compound eyes and several simple eyes. Name one kind of simple eye. Ocelli or stemmata
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How many times do adult insects typically molt? 0
Which is larger, the first instar or the fifth instar? 5
Most insects store energy for jumping in an elastic protein. What is the name of this protein? Resilin
What kinds of insects have a filter chamber? know the function of a filter chamber

1.         Insects that feed on sap. The filter chamber helps them to obtain more nitrogen, or the filter chamber helps insects remove excess water/sugar.

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How do insects breathe oxygen and co2 diffuse in and out of spiracles
what is insect blood called hemolymph
What do insects in Diptera normally feed on? They are saprophagous (feed on decay)
Hymenopterans, which comes to attack you if you disturb the nest ? M,F, or Both females
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Sometimes Argentine ants have tremendous colonies. How large? 3000-4000 miles long
Where did imported fire ants come from? South America
Where do fire ants mate? In the air
which mud dauber gender/s can sting and which are aggressive? Females can sting but are not
males can't
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Which of the following is the outermost layer of the insect integument (exoskeleton) Epidermis
Most of the insect integument is made of chitin. What is chitin most made of? Sugar
Protocerebrum function vision
deutocerebrum function antennae
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tritocerebrum function rest of body
where would one find stemmata on insect head
Where do insects detect taste and odor? Antennae, mouthparts, legs, ovipositors
Where are their (insects) ears located? Bonus if you know what they are called. Usually between thorax and abdomen

tympana
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Where would find insects in the order Trichoptera (caddis flies) Near the water
Stomodeum function Ingestion
Mesenteron function absorption
Proctodeum function removes waste
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Where would you find spiracles on terrestrial insects thorax and abdomen
what percentage of instects are phytophagous (eat plants) 50%
Which of the following nutrients is found in plant nectar? Sugar, amino acids, lipids All of the above
How many extra-floral nectaries are typical in flowers of plants with flowers? Function 0, attract predators to eat plant pests
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What group of insects is the most efficient at pollination? bees
In what life stage(s) do butterflies/moths/skippers overwinter? all

egg, larva, pupa, adult
why are native plants important for maintaining butterfly populations larvae will only eat certain plants
What kinds of insects are internal feeders? Complete metamorphosis (endopterygotes)
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How many families of plants might a generalist typically eat? Less than 3
What two orders of insects are the most important vectors of plant diseases? Hemiptera and Thysanoptera
Fungal disease devastated some trees. What insects primarily transmit these diseases? Bark beetles
For animals one order is, by far, the most important disease vector. What is it? Diptera (flies)
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Example of Mutualism with insects Insects and flowers
Example of commensalism with insects insect lives on plant or animal without causing injury    
Examples of competition with insects Two insects try to get the same resource    
Which order of insects is considered to be an important early pollinator Beetles
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Name two ways that plants attract insect pollinators odor, scent, heat, pollen
Name one advantage and one disadvantage (to the plant) of insect pollination.

 Disadv. Plant must produce reward, may attract herbivores, dependence on a third party

Adv – targeted, allows greater spread into new areas, more efficient (less pollen needed)

Name one advantage and one disadvantage (to the plant) of wind pollination.

Disadv – much produce more pollen, untargeted, limits spread into new areas

Adv – no third party needed, no need to produce reward for pollinators

 

Name two non-food rewards that a plant uses to attract insects. name the type of plant that does this heat- lilies, cycads

Female mimics- orchids
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Name one cost (or risk) to the plant and the pollinator.

Plant – must produce reward, may attract herbivores

Pollinator – must expend energy, at risk from predators/parasitoids

Name two adaptations that plants have for bee to make pollination more efficient. colors, nectar, landing platform
Name two adaptations that bees have to make collection of pollen more efficient. plumose body, feed on nectar/pollen, vision
Monarch butterflies only feed on one plant. What advantage do they receive by feeding on this plant? Milkweed
pick up a toxin
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three general ways that plants protect themselves against insect herbivores. give examples of each Mechanical- spines
chemical-alkaloids
tolerance-survive defoliation
Name two ways that insects cope with plant defensive mechanisms avoidance, feed on certain parts of plants, detoxification
advantage of plants releasing volatile compounds when attacked may deter herbivores
Why do some plants eat insects? Bonus if you can name one plant that eats insects.

To gain nutrition lacking in the soil. Venus fly trap, pitcher plant, bladderwort

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 Two Benefits Humans Receive from Insects-Pollination
-Food and other products
-Control of other pests
-Recycling
 Name three reasons for insects success-quick reproduction (short generation time
-flight
-small size
-adaptable exoskeleton
-metamophosis
 Name one human disease, one animal disease, and one plant disease vectored by insects.Human- malaria
Animal- heart worm
Plant- Yellow spotted wilt
 Name two ways that insects affect the environment.make some area unlivable
move soil
provide food for other organisms
 What is the difference between Eukaryotes and Bacteria (prokaryotes)?Eukaryotes: DNA is contained in membrand
 How many times do arthropods typically molt?3-6
 Name three characteristics of this phylum: Arthropoda-Segmented
-Exoskeleton, must molt
-Open circulatory system
-Jointed Appendaged
-sexual reproduction
 Name a crustaceanCrab
Lobster
 Name an ArachnidSpider, scorpion, ticks
 Why do we care about varroa mites?they kill bees
 Difference between millipedes and centipedes? Which is venomous?Centipedes have one pair of legs per body segment, millipedes have two pairs of legs per body segment.

Centipedes are venomous
 Name three characteristics that separate insects from other arthropods3 body regions
3 pairs of legs
compound eyes
wings (usually)
trachea
 Name two things that you could do to prevent or manage roach populationsMinimize food
Seal hiding places
Use sticky traps
Use baits
 Do preying mantises (Mantodea) have complete or incomplete metamorphosis?Incomplete
 What do stick insects eat?leaves
 Name two advantages that cicadas gain from this extended periodicity.

Overwhelm predators, noise makes it difficult to find a single prey

 Two insects that are the most important vectors of plant virusesThrips and aphids
 Why do we care about wooly adelgidsthey kill tress
 Name the four life stages of complete metamorphosis.egg, larva, pupa, adult
 How many wings do flies typically have2
 What insect is responsible for the most human deaths?mosquito
 Do flies have complete or incomplete metamorphosis?complete
 Where would you find (and control) mosquito larvae and pupae?Water
 Name a difference between butterflies and moths.Antennae, nocturnal/Diurnal
 of the smallest adult insects, how many males could line up in one inch?More than 100
 How long is Chan's megastick (longest insect)?50-60 cm
 What percentage of all described animal species are insects?ABout 75%
 How many fruit fly genes have direct counterparts with human genes?More than 100
 Insects in the order Emphemeroptera (mayflies) are abundant. Where would typically find them?Near Water
 Common disease associate with roachesAsthma
 How often do lice leave their hostNever unless the host dies
 Which order has piercing/sucking mouthparts?Bugs, Hemiptera
 Which of the following aquatic Hemipterans (bugs) can breathe underwater?None
 Which common disease is transmitted by kissing bugsChagas disease
 Which family of beetles has most speciesWeebils
 What order of insects comprises the lightning bugs/firefliesBeetles, Coleoptera
 How many people typically die worldwide from malaria in a year?1 million
 How long can the adults fleas wait in the pupae/cocoons?A number of months
 What order of insects has the most species?Beetles
 The females never leave the host. The males only have two wings, but they are not Diptera. Name the orderstrepsiperta
 When Hymenopterans (ants,bees,wasps) have wings, how many wings do they have?4
 What sex of wasp hatches from an unfertilized egg?Males
 When should you apply this broadcast treatment for fire ant treatment?spring and fall
 What do leaf cutter ants eatFungus
 What is the difference between an arthropod predator and a parasitoid? name one of each

1. PS Predators kill and eat prey. Parasitoids lay eggs in or near a prey item; the prey will eventually die.

 

Predator- spider

parasitoid- some flies, some wasps

 What do mud daubers put in their nests? name two of the three mud dauber speciesSpiders

Pipe organ, black and yellow, blue
 How do Hymenopterans survive until next spring?mated females find a place to hibernate
 Adult insects typically have two compound eyes and several simple eyes. Name one kind of simple eye.Ocelli or stemmata
 How many times do adult insects typically molt?0
 Which is larger, the first instar or the fifth instar?5
 Most insects store energy for jumping in an elastic protein. What is the name of this protein?Resilin
 What kinds of insects have a filter chamber? know the function of a filter chamber

1.         Insects that feed on sap. The filter chamber helps them to obtain more nitrogen, or the filter chamber helps insects remove excess water/sugar.

 How do insects breatheoxygen and co2 diffuse in and out of spiracles
 what is insect blood calledhemolymph
 What do insects in Diptera normally feed on?They are saprophagous (feed on decay)
 Hymenopterans, which comes to attack you if you disturb the nest ? M,F, or Bothfemales
 Sometimes Argentine ants have tremendous colonies. How large?3000-4000 miles long
 Where did imported fire ants come from?South America
 Where do fire ants mate?In the air
 which mud dauber gender/s can sting and which are aggressive?Females can sting but are not
males can't
 Which of the following is the outermost layer of the insect integument (exoskeleton)Epidermis
 Most of the insect integument is made of chitin. What is chitin most made of?Sugar
 Protocerebrum functionvision
 deutocerebrum functionantennae
 tritocerebrum functionrest of body
 where would one find stemmataon insect head
 Where do insects detect taste and odor?Antennae, mouthparts, legs, ovipositors
 Where are their (insects) ears located? Bonus if you know what they are called.Usually between thorax and abdomen

tympana
 Where would find insects in the order Trichoptera (caddis flies)Near the water
 Stomodeum functionIngestion
 Mesenteron functionabsorption
 Proctodeum functionremoves waste
 Where would you find spiracleson terrestrial insects thorax and abdomen
 what percentage of instects are phytophagous (eat plants)50%
 Which of the following nutrients is found in plant nectar? Sugar, amino acids, lipidsAll of the above
 How many extra-floral nectaries are typical in flowers of plants with flowers? Function0, attract predators to eat plant pests
 What group of insects is the most efficient at pollination?bees
 In what life stage(s) do butterflies/moths/skippers overwinter?all

egg, larva, pupa, adult
 why are native plants important for maintaining butterfly populationslarvae will only eat certain plants
 What kinds of insects are internal feeders?Complete metamorphosis (endopterygotes)
 How many families of plants might a generalist typically eat?Less than 3
 What two orders of insects are the most important vectors of plant diseases?Hemiptera and Thysanoptera
 Fungal disease devastated some trees. What insects primarily transmit these diseases?Bark beetles
 For animals one order is, by far, the most important disease vector. What is it?Diptera (flies)
 Example of Mutualism with insectsInsects and flowers
 Example of commensalism with insectsinsect lives on plant or animal without causing injury    
 Examples of competition with insectsTwo insects try to get the same resource    
 Which order of insects is considered to be an important early pollinatorBeetles
 Name two ways that plants attract insect pollinatorsodor, scent, heat, pollen
 Name one advantage and one disadvantage (to the plant) of insect pollination.

 Disadv. Plant must produce reward, may attract herbivores, dependence on a third party

Adv – targeted, allows greater spread into new areas, more efficient (less pollen needed)

 Name one advantage and one disadvantage (to the plant) of wind pollination.

Disadv – much produce more pollen, untargeted, limits spread into new areas

Adv – no third party needed, no need to produce reward for pollinators

 

 Name two non-food rewards that a plant uses to attract insects. name the type of plant that does thisheat- lilies, cycads

Female mimics- orchids
 Name one cost (or risk) to the plant and the pollinator.

Plant – must produce reward, may attract herbivores

Pollinator – must expend energy, at risk from predators/parasitoids

 Name two adaptations that plants have for bee to make pollination more efficient.colors, nectar, landing platform
 Name two adaptations that bees have to make collection of pollen more efficient.plumose body, feed on nectar/pollen, vision
 Monarch butterflies only feed on one plant. What advantage do they receive by feeding on this plant?Milkweed
pick up a toxin
 three general ways that plants protect themselves against insect herbivores. give examples of eachMechanical- spines
chemical-alkaloids
tolerance-survive defoliation
 Name two ways that insects cope with plant defensive mechanismsavoidance, feed on certain parts of plants, detoxification
 advantage of plants releasing volatile compounds when attackedmay deter herbivores
 Why do some plants eat insects? Bonus if you can name one plant that eats insects.

To gain nutrition lacking in the soil. Venus fly trap, pitcher plant, bladderwort

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