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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Spring 2014
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Anthrax is a (virus, bacterium, parasitoid, mite).
  • bacterium
what is the most important vectored disease? Malaria
what does arthropoda mean?
  • arthro = jointed
  • poda = foot
What are arthropod exoskeletons made of? chitin
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Characteristics of Arthropods
  • chitin exoskeleton
  • segmented body
  • jointed appendages
  • open circulatory system
  • generally have bilateral symmetry
  • sexual reproduction
what does chilopoda mean
  • chilo = lip
  • poda = foot
  • (centepedes)
class name for centipedes chilopoda
characteristics of chilopoda
  • Class of arthropods 
  • centipedes
  • 1 pair of legs per segment
  • predators - eat small arthropods
  • live in soil and humus
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what does diplopoda mean
  • diplo = two
  • poda = foot
  • (millipedes)
Characteristics of diplopoda
  • millipedes
  • two pair legs per segment 
  • feed on decaying organic matter
Millipedes class diplopoda
class crustacea
  • crust = hard, shell-like
  • lobsters, crab, shrimp
  • branched appendages
  • aquatic 
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class arachnida
  • spiders
  • no antennae
  • 2 body segments
  • mainly terrestrial
  • carnivorous
What phylum is the class insects in arthropoda
what does insect mean
  • in = into
  • sect = cut
How many named species of insects are there 1 million
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insecta characteristics
  • 3 body segments (head,thorax, abdomen)
  • 6 legs
  • most adults have wings
  • no lungs - breathe through openings in body
  • 2 antennae
  • can be terrestrial or aquatic
  • only invertebrates that can fly
start of DDT use
  • 40s and 50s
  • new way to collect insects
  • add DDT to gin -> happiness
  • "miracle chemical"
  • larger farm crop yields
pesticide chemical/substance used to kill pests
  • contaminate groundwater
  • persist in deep soil because low oxygen and few bacteria
  • most P untested for cancer 
insecticide substance that kills insects
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Othmar Zeidler
  • synthesized DDT in Germany, 1874
  • PhD
Paul Muller
  • "discovered" DDT in 1938 (that it killed insects)
Frank Mayo
  1. Atlanta chemist during WWII
  2. DDT production was a military secret
  3. process was published in Germany
  4. Where could he find the publication?
DDT and lice
  • 1942 DDT sent by swiss to US
  • secret army lab in Orlando, FL
  • tested DDT against lice (which spread typhus) 
  • US army first used DDT in North Africa and Italy
  • Saved millions of lives in WWII (first war where enemy killed more than disease)
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Silent Spring
  • best seller by Rachel Carson
  • Dedicated to Albert Schweitzer 
  • Vesicol tried to stop publication
  • reduce and control pesticides 
  • Chap 17: "The Other Road" - biological control is another route 
Entomologists and DDT
  • before 1950, E were "figures of fun"
  • After, worked for chemical companies
  • E started to see "side effects"; evaluated "degrees of badness"
  • "Without DDT, insects would inherit the earth"
Ethical issues for entomologists
  • Should E work for chemical companies?
  • E may not get $ if they get the "wrong" result 
  • Can E asses pesticide damage to environment?
Rachel Carson
  • Wrote Silent Spring when she was 55
  • Marine Biologist, John Hopkins
  • US Bureau of Fisheries 
  • Died of Breast cancer
  • Jimmy Carter awarded the medal of Freedom 
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Animal Machines
  • Written by Ruth Harrison in 1964
  • Foreword by Rachel Carson 
Victor Yannacone
  • Environmental Defense fund 
  • led fight against DDT use 
  • "1 ppm is too high"
Turning point in DDT use
  • DDT present in human breast milk -> DDT use banned BY EPA (1972)
DDT
  • cheap and very stable 
  • interferes with nervous system 
  • fat soluble
  • causes reduced calcium in bird eggs
  • banned in US 1972
  • production in US continued for many years, still used in many parts of the world
Generated by Koofers.com
David Pimentel
  • Department on Entomology, Cornell University
  • pesticides application seem to yield $12 billion profit, but hidden environmental and social cost may be $8 billion 
How much of the pesticides applied to crops actually reach the target pest? less than 0.1% 
pesticide cycle
  1. insect becomes resistant to pesticide
  2. must apply more pesticide to kill insect
  3. apply more toxic pesticide
Pesticides and children
  • residue levels calculated for adults
  • developing bodies more susceptible
  • levels 5x too high
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Human sex hormones and pesticides
  • some pesticides mimic human sex hormones (esp. estrogen) 
  • sperm count dropping
  • testicular and breast cancer increasing 

Florida; Lake Apopka
  • major DDT spill 1980
  • lower number of alligators
  • 75% A eggs dead
  • 25% male alligators have small penis
  • many male turtles are intersex
DES
  • a synthetic estrogen
  • 1940-1970 DES was given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages 
  • given to girls who were "too tall", had acne, and stop flow of mothers breast milk 
  • given to chicken and cows to promote growth
  • 20 years later women who's mothers took DES much more likely to develop vaginal cancer
thalidomide
  • given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness
  • 1962 - shown to cause birth defects
  • placenta does not protect fetus from chemicals!
  • now used to treat leprosy
Generated by Koofers.com
Captan
  • probably carcinogenic
  • applied to florida strawberries 
  • canada has set lower tolerance levels
  • Are US tolerances safe?
  • still provides economic benefits to growers 
IPM
  1. know the pest
  2. judicious use of pesticides
  3. host plant resistance
  4. biological control
IPM "know the pest "
  • life cycle
  • how it reproduces
  • when is the pest a problem
  • in which stage is it the most susceptible 
  • attack pest when it is
IPM "Judicious use of pesticides"
  • apply when present and vulnerable 
  • use of scouts or pheromone traps to monitor
  • monitor environmental conditions
  • low volume sprayers 
Generated by Koofers.com
IPM "host plant resistance"
  • breeding programs 
  • intro of resistance by crossing new varieties - chemical and physicals 
  • intro of resistance by recombinant DNA technology - designer genes, B.t.
Ethical issues with plant resistance
  1. seed companies take genes from plants in 3rd world countries
  2. produce insect-resistance plants
  3. Should they share profits?
IPM "biological control"
  • sterilization
  • beneficial insects
  • bacteria that attacks insects (B.t.)
  • viruses that attack insects
sterilization
  • pest insects: rear in lab, sterilize, release, insects mate in field and produce no progeny (but insects are hard to rear in lab)
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parasitoid
  • insect who's larvae consume their host
  • beneficial insects (ex: parasitic wasps and flies)
predator
  • animal that kills and eats animals
  • ex: praying mantids, dragonflies, paper wasps, spiders
how can a female wasp determine the sex of her young
  • If she lays the egg unfertilized = male
  • fertilized = female 
B.t.
  • Genus Bacillus 
  • bacteria that attacks insects but not toxic to higher animals 
  • must be eaten - toxins destroy insect stomachs
  • several varieties each specific to 1 group of insects 
  • NOT slow acting 
  • Anthrax is a bacillus organism 
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UGA and American Cyanamid
  • mite toxin is insect specific - narrow host range
  • toxin gene inserted into virus DNA
  • pest insect dies very quickly
  • no effect on humans/other animals 
  • also use toxins from scorpions and spiders
taxonomy
  • classifying organisms into categories
  • Phylum -> class -> order -> family -> genus -> species 
*Carlos Linnaeus
  • Swedish naturalist 
  • 1753
  • Linnaean binomial system (designed the system) 
species organisms that closely resemble one another and can produce fertile offspring 
Generated by Koofers.com
ten reasons why insects are so successful
  1. hard exoskeleton
  2. jointed appendages
  3. wings
  4. small size
  5. metamorphosis
  6. escape from adverse conditions
  7. method of reproduction
  8. short generation time 
  9. specialization in lifestyle 
  10. solve the water problem 
insects hard exoskeleton (+) provides protection
(+) muscles attach to exoskeleton
(+) exoskeleton limits water loss
(-) but, when an insect grows it must molt 
insects jointed appendages
  • jointed appendages used for feeding 
  • on head, used for feeding
  • on thorax, used for locomotion
  • on abdomen, used for reproduction 
insects wings - help to:
  • escape from predators
  • find food
  • find mates
- most adult insects have wings
- primitive insect wings don't fold, advanced insect wings fold

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insect small size
  • (+): can hide/escape from predators
  • (+): light enough to be blown by wind
  • (-): large surface area to volume ratio
  • (-): water evaporates quickly
insect metamorphosis - incomplete (~13% of species)
  • egg -> nymph -> adult
- complete (~87% of species [more!])
  • egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult
(+): nymph/larva may occupy different habitat than adult
insects escape from adverse conditions
  • migration
  • diapause (period of arrested development) - happens in fall, triggered by short days
insect method of reproduction
  • sexual: (+) provides genetic variation
  • parthenogenesis - reproduction without mating; (+) don't need to find a mate 
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insect short generation (+): increases genetic variation
(+): better utilization of limited food source 
insect specialization in lifestyle (+): develop special skills
(-): greatly impacted if host decreases
how insects solve the water problem
  • extract water from host sugar
  • limit water evaporation with cuticular lipids
  • limit water excretion - nitrogen excretion; most insects excrete uric acid (which is water insoluble and non-toxic)
insect circulatory system
  • open system
  • hemolymph = insect blood
  • distributes nutrients and hormones 
Generated by Koofers.com
pheromone
  • chemical produced by an animal that affects another animal of the same species 
  • find mate, alarm, aggregation, trail
aposematic bright coloration warns potential predators of chemical substance 
bombardier beetle
  • sprays toxic chemical, Quinones, to avoid ant attack 
  • spray can be aimed
  • mouse kills and forces abdomen into soil
Bolas spider
  • emits smell that replicates female moth pheromone to attract male moths
  • catches by spinning silk strand with sticky ball on the end 
Generated by Koofers.com
how are insect chemicals identified gas chromatography/mass spectrometry 
ecology the relationship between organisms and their environment 
mutualism relationship between two species that benefits both parties 
symbiosis intimate relationship between two species usually involving coevolution 
Generated by Koofers.com
coevolution occurrence of genetically determined traits in 2 species selected by mutual interactions controlled by these traits 
Dan Janzen
  • in Costa Rica 
  • ants live in Acacia tree, ants and tree have mutualistic relationship 
  • ants protect tree from leaf-eating insects
  • tree gives ants home (live in thorns), sugar to eat from glands at leaf base, and ants eat beitian bodies (rich in fat) from leaf tip 
biodiversity
  • variation in living organisms
  • humans have disproportionate impact on all other species
  • species loss greater than ever 
  • deforestation = 27 million acres/year
  • researchers should use biodiversity to increase food product yield 
E. O. Wilson
  • Harvard
  • 1992 - "The Diversity of Life"
  • Island biogeography
Generated by Koofers.com
island biogeography
E.O. Wilson
  1. deforestation creates "islands"
  2. how many species can exist in these "islands"?
  3. how big should a protected national park be?
# of named species of plants and animals
  • 1.82 million
  • insects are hard to name because numerous different species look the same 
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Anthrax is a (virus, bacterium, parasitoid, mite).
  • bacterium
 what is the most important vectored disease?Malaria
 what does arthropoda mean?
  • arthro = jointed
  • poda = foot
 What are arthropod exoskeletons made of?chitin
 Characteristics of Arthropods
  • chitin exoskeleton
  • segmented body
  • jointed appendages
  • open circulatory system
  • generally have bilateral symmetry
  • sexual reproduction
 what does chilopoda mean
  • chilo = lip
  • poda = foot
  • (centepedes)
 class name for centipedeschilopoda
 characteristics of chilopoda
  • Class of arthropods 
  • centipedes
  • 1 pair of legs per segment
  • predators - eat small arthropods
  • live in soil and humus
 what does diplopoda mean
  • diplo = two
  • poda = foot
  • (millipedes)
 Characteristics of diplopoda
  • millipedes
  • two pair legs per segment 
  • feed on decaying organic matter
 Millipedes classdiplopoda
 class crustacea
  • crust = hard, shell-like
  • lobsters, crab, shrimp
  • branched appendages
  • aquatic 
 class arachnida
  • spiders
  • no antennae
  • 2 body segments
  • mainly terrestrial
  • carnivorous
 What phylum is the class insects inarthropoda
 what does insect mean
  • in = into
  • sect = cut
 How many named species of insects are there1 million
 insecta characteristics
  • 3 body segments (head,thorax, abdomen)
  • 6 legs
  • most adults have wings
  • no lungs - breathe through openings in body
  • 2 antennae
  • can be terrestrial or aquatic
  • only invertebrates that can fly
 start of DDT use
  • 40s and 50s
  • new way to collect insects
  • add DDT to gin -> happiness
  • "miracle chemical"
  • larger farm crop yields
 pesticidechemical/substance used to kill pests
  • contaminate groundwater
  • persist in deep soil because low oxygen and few bacteria
  • most P untested for cancer 
 insecticidesubstance that kills insects
 Othmar Zeidler
  • synthesized DDT in Germany, 1874
  • PhD
 Paul Muller
  • "discovered" DDT in 1938 (that it killed insects)
 Frank Mayo
  1. Atlanta chemist during WWII
  2. DDT production was a military secret
  3. process was published in Germany
  4. Where could he find the publication?
 DDT and lice
  • 1942 DDT sent by swiss to US
  • secret army lab in Orlando, FL
  • tested DDT against lice (which spread typhus) 
  • US army first used DDT in North Africa and Italy
  • Saved millions of lives in WWII (first war where enemy killed more than disease)
 Silent Spring
  • best seller by Rachel Carson
  • Dedicated to Albert Schweitzer 
  • Vesicol tried to stop publication
  • reduce and control pesticides 
  • Chap 17: "The Other Road" - biological control is another route 
 Entomologists and DDT
  • before 1950, E were "figures of fun"
  • After, worked for chemical companies
  • E started to see "side effects"; evaluated "degrees of badness"
  • "Without DDT, insects would inherit the earth"
 Ethical issues for entomologists
  • Should E work for chemical companies?
  • E may not get $ if they get the "wrong" result 
  • Can E asses pesticide damage to environment?
 Rachel Carson
  • Wrote Silent Spring when she was 55
  • Marine Biologist, John Hopkins
  • US Bureau of Fisheries 
  • Died of Breast cancer
  • Jimmy Carter awarded the medal of Freedom 
 Animal Machines
  • Written by Ruth Harrison in 1964
  • Foreword by Rachel Carson 
 Victor Yannacone
  • Environmental Defense fund 
  • led fight against DDT use 
  • "1 ppm is too high"
 Turning point in DDT use
  • DDT present in human breast milk -> DDT use banned BY EPA (1972)
 DDT
  • cheap and very stable 
  • interferes with nervous system 
  • fat soluble
  • causes reduced calcium in bird eggs
  • banned in US 1972
  • production in US continued for many years, still used in many parts of the world
 David Pimentel
  • Department on Entomology, Cornell University
  • pesticides application seem to yield $12 billion profit, but hidden environmental and social cost may be $8 billion 
 How much of the pesticides applied to crops actually reach the target pest?less than 0.1% 
 pesticide cycle
  1. insect becomes resistant to pesticide
  2. must apply more pesticide to kill insect
  3. apply more toxic pesticide
 Pesticides and children
  • residue levels calculated for adults
  • developing bodies more susceptible
  • levels 5x too high
 Human sex hormones and pesticides
  • some pesticides mimic human sex hormones (esp. estrogen) 
  • sperm count dropping
  • testicular and breast cancer increasing 

 Florida; Lake Apopka
  • major DDT spill 1980
  • lower number of alligators
  • 75% A eggs dead
  • 25% male alligators have small penis
  • many male turtles are intersex
 DES
  • a synthetic estrogen
  • 1940-1970 DES was given to 5 million pregnant women to reduce miscarriages 
  • given to girls who were "too tall", had acne, and stop flow of mothers breast milk 
  • given to chicken and cows to promote growth
  • 20 years later women who's mothers took DES much more likely to develop vaginal cancer
 thalidomide
  • given to pregnant women to combat morning sickness
  • 1962 - shown to cause birth defects
  • placenta does not protect fetus from chemicals!
  • now used to treat leprosy
 Captan
  • probably carcinogenic
  • applied to florida strawberries 
  • canada has set lower tolerance levels
  • Are US tolerances safe?
  • still provides economic benefits to growers 
 IPM
  1. know the pest
  2. judicious use of pesticides
  3. host plant resistance
  4. biological control
 IPM "know the pest "
  • life cycle
  • how it reproduces
  • when is the pest a problem
  • in which stage is it the most susceptible 
  • attack pest when it is
 IPM "Judicious use of pesticides"
  • apply when present and vulnerable 
  • use of scouts or pheromone traps to monitor
  • monitor environmental conditions
  • low volume sprayers 
 IPM "host plant resistance"
  • breeding programs 
  • intro of resistance by crossing new varieties - chemical and physicals 
  • intro of resistance by recombinant DNA technology - designer genes, B.t.
 Ethical issues with plant resistance
  1. seed companies take genes from plants in 3rd world countries
  2. produce insect-resistance plants
  3. Should they share profits?
 IPM "biological control"
  • sterilization
  • beneficial insects
  • bacteria that attacks insects (B.t.)
  • viruses that attack insects
 sterilization
  • pest insects: rear in lab, sterilize, release, insects mate in field and produce no progeny (but insects are hard to rear in lab)
 parasitoid
  • insect who's larvae consume their host
  • beneficial insects (ex: parasitic wasps and flies)
 predator
  • animal that kills and eats animals
  • ex: praying mantids, dragonflies, paper wasps, spiders
 how can a female wasp determine the sex of her young
  • If she lays the egg unfertilized = male
  • fertilized = female 
 B.t.
  • Genus Bacillus 
  • bacteria that attacks insects but not toxic to higher animals 
  • must be eaten - toxins destroy insect stomachs
  • several varieties each specific to 1 group of insects 
  • NOT slow acting 
  • Anthrax is a bacillus organism 
 UGA and American Cyanamid
  • mite toxin is insect specific - narrow host range
  • toxin gene inserted into virus DNA
  • pest insect dies very quickly
  • no effect on humans/other animals 
  • also use toxins from scorpions and spiders
 taxonomy
  • classifying organisms into categories
  • Phylum -> class -> order -> family -> genus -> species 
 *Carlos Linnaeus
  • Swedish naturalist 
  • 1753
  • Linnaean binomial system (designed the system) 
 speciesorganisms that closely resemble one another and can produce fertile offspring 
 ten reasons why insects are so successful
  1. hard exoskeleton
  2. jointed appendages
  3. wings
  4. small size
  5. metamorphosis
  6. escape from adverse conditions
  7. method of reproduction
  8. short generation time 
  9. specialization in lifestyle 
  10. solve the water problem 
 insects hard exoskeleton(+) provides protection
(+) muscles attach to exoskeleton
(+) exoskeleton limits water loss
(-) but, when an insect grows it must molt 
 insects jointed appendages
  • jointed appendages used for feeding 
  • on head, used for feeding
  • on thorax, used for locomotion
  • on abdomen, used for reproduction 
 insects wings- help to:
  • escape from predators
  • find food
  • find mates
- most adult insects have wings
- primitive insect wings don't fold, advanced insect wings fold

 insect small size
  • (+): can hide/escape from predators
  • (+): light enough to be blown by wind
  • (-): large surface area to volume ratio
  • (-): water evaporates quickly
 insect metamorphosis- incomplete (~13% of species)
  • egg -> nymph -> adult
- complete (~87% of species [more!])
  • egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult
(+): nymph/larva may occupy different habitat than adult
 insects escape from adverse conditions
  • migration
  • diapause (period of arrested development) - happens in fall, triggered by short days
 insect method of reproduction
  • sexual: (+) provides genetic variation
  • parthenogenesis - reproduction without mating; (+) don't need to find a mate 
 insect short generation(+): increases genetic variation
(+): better utilization of limited food source 
 insect specialization in lifestyle(+): develop special skills
(-): greatly impacted if host decreases
 how insects solve the water problem
  • extract water from host sugar
  • limit water evaporation with cuticular lipids
  • limit water excretion - nitrogen excretion; most insects excrete uric acid (which is water insoluble and non-toxic)
 insect circulatory system
  • open system
  • hemolymph = insect blood
  • distributes nutrients and hormones 
 pheromone
  • chemical produced by an animal that affects another animal of the same species 
  • find mate, alarm, aggregation, trail
 aposematicbright coloration warns potential predators of chemical substance 
 bombardier beetle
  • sprays toxic chemical, Quinones, to avoid ant attack 
  • spray can be aimed
  • mouse kills and forces abdomen into soil
 Bolas spider
  • emits smell that replicates female moth pheromone to attract male moths
  • catches by spinning silk strand with sticky ball on the end 
 how are insect chemicals identifiedgas chromatography/mass spectrometry 
 ecologythe relationship between organisms and their environment 
 mutualismrelationship between two species that benefits both parties 
 symbiosisintimate relationship between two species usually involving coevolution 
 coevolutionoccurrence of genetically determined traits in 2 species selected by mutual interactions controlled by these traits 
 Dan Janzen
  • in Costa Rica 
  • ants live in Acacia tree, ants and tree have mutualistic relationship 
  • ants protect tree from leaf-eating insects
  • tree gives ants home (live in thorns), sugar to eat from glands at leaf base, and ants eat beitian bodies (rich in fat) from leaf tip 
 biodiversity
  • variation in living organisms
  • humans have disproportionate impact on all other species
  • species loss greater than ever 
  • deforestation = 27 million acres/year
  • researchers should use biodiversity to increase food product yield 
 E. O. Wilson
  • Harvard
  • 1992 - "The Diversity of Life"
  • Island biogeography
 island biogeography
E.O. Wilson
  1. deforestation creates "islands"
  2. how many species can exist in these "islands"?
  3. how big should a protected national park be?
 # of named species of plants and animals
  • 1.82 million
  • insects are hard to name because numerous different species look the same 
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