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Test 2 - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2013
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The Insect Integument prevent desiccation 
protects the organs
receives information from the environment
facilitates movement and reproduction 

epicuticle has several layers, and has wax to seal the insect 

much of integument is chitin 
Resilin elastic - can store energy
what insects have resilin?
Chitin a sugar polymer
provides toughness and flexibility 
Epicuticle on the outside

wax -  a single molecule thick - for water retention 

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Molting or Ecdysis only immatures molt
instars - period between molts
ecdysone - molting hormone
Insect Growth Juvenile Hormone immature status 
Shedding the Old Skin insect distends with air and water
insect distends after leaving old skin 
Digestion/Excretion 3 sections stomodeum, mesenteron, proctodeum
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Stomodeum ingestion and digestion
Mesenteron not lined with chitin
absorption 
Proctodeum lined with chitin
removes waster, regulates water, urea and salts
Filter Chamber specialized structure that allows fluid feeders to obtain more nutrients; increases absorption area
  • some hemipterans: aphids, leafhoppers, scale insects, whiteflies 
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Digestion/Excretion Summary some fluid feeders also have filter chambers to improve nutrient uptake

three sections:
stomodeum: ingestion, digestion 
mesenteron: absorption 
proctodeum: excretion, regulation
Excretion - aquatic and semiaquatic insects ammonia waste
Terrestrial Insects solid uric acid
Digestion - Role of Bacteria What is cellulose?

Few insects produce cellulase
  • bacteria- few beetles
  • protozoans - termites, roaches
  • when hindgut is shed how are protozoans reintroduced?
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Respiration relies very heavily on diffusion 
Spiracles up to ten pairs, one pair per segment
  • abdomen, meta-mesothorax 
Circulation circulatory system does not transport O2
insect blood is called hemolymph
insects have an open circulatory system 

blood dumps off the end of the aorta 
Circulation: Summary circulation serves to distribute and filter, not to move oxygen 
insect circulatory system is open
insect blood is called hemolymph 
circulation is facilitated by the heart or dorsal aorta 

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Insect Nervous System 2 different systems: 
Central nervous system 
Stomatogastric Nervous System 
  • innervates interval organs
made up of neurons (nerve cells): 
Afferent: carry signals to CNS
Efferent: carry signals away from CNS, stimulate muscles and glands
Central Nervous System neuron groups form ganglia
CNS: brain and segmental ganglia
Thoracic ganglia control legs/wings
Central Nervous System Protocerebrum Vision, integration of multiple behaviors
Central Nervous System Deutocerebrum antennal inputs 
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Tritocerebrum connects to stomatogastric system; integrates input from other brain lobes 
Subesophageal Ganglion mouthparts, salivary glands, neck muscles 
Insect Vision simple eyes - Ocelli and Stemmata

Compound eye 
Insect Vision Ocelli do not detect images but rather changes in light intensity 
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Insect Vision Stemmata Form images equivalent in quality to compound eye with much less "hardware"
Found in holometabolous larvae and other forms lacking compound eyes


Insect Chemoreception chemoreception - taste and odor 

may occur on mouthparts, legs, antennae, and ovipositors
Insect Hearing insects hear with tympana
usually located between the thorax and abdomen, but may be else where 
Insects and Plants
  • about half of all insect species are phytophagous 
  • a key primary consumer of plants competing directly with humans 
  • phytophagy has evolved repeatedly - probably from scavenging

plant and insect coevolution - first interaction - herbivory and accidental pollen transfer 
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Coevolution evolution of one group affects evolution of another group (and vice versa)
Insect Plant Interactions many plant insect interactions are not detrimental to the plant 

+ and + = mutualism
+ and 0 = commensalism
+ and - = predation, parasitoids, parasites
- and - = competition 

Beetle Important Early Pollinators well diversified in the mesozoic era 

beetles may eat ovules of plant that was pollinated 
Coevolution Next Steps odors to attract insects from a distance

flower colors + insects color vision - what do diurnal pollinators look like?

nectaries
role of homopteran honeydew?
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Pollination pollination- pollen onto receptive stigma 
wind pollination
mechanical transfer 
  • usually by insects
  • birds, bats, and other animals can also be pollinators 
Plant - Pollinator Interactions Disadvantage of wind pollination Disadvantage of wind pollination: 
  • untargeted
  • decreased likelihood of out-crossing
  • much larger production of pollen needed
  • plants don't disperse well

Plant Pollinator Interactions Advantages of wind pollination Advantages
  • not dependent on a "third party"
  • no need to supply "reward"
Plant Pollinator Interactions Advantages of insect Pollination
  • facilitates out-crossing, even if plants very dispersed 
  • coupled with seed dispersal by birds and other factors helps plants colonize new habitats more rapidly
  • reliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization which results in greater diversification
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Plant Pollinator Interactions Disadvantages of Insect Pollination third party involved
plant must produce reward 
Nectar rich in sugars 
amino acids, proteins, and lipids
Plant Pollinator Interactions Plants- reward for services
  • plant gets its pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas
  • pollen is a reward with lipid, starch, or protein
  • nectar is an important food reward 
Plant Pollinator Interactions Insects - reward for services nectar from floral and extra-floral nectaries
  • extra-floral nectaries rarely important in pollination
  • what is the function of extra-floral nectaries?

edible flower parts are another reward 
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Non-edible Pollinator rewards Heat - usually involves beetles, flowers metabolize lipids and starches, includes water lilies palms and cycads, heat also helps disperse scents, difference from outside temp may be 5 C or more
Insect Mimics - several hundred spp of orchids in europe and Australia , wasps sawflies and ants are al deceived by some flowers, flower mimics female -scent and sight, flower mimic prey -"aphids" attacked by wasps, flower mimics territorial bee- males attack 
Other Mimics - flowers mimic other flowers that offer rewards, smells like a dead animal attracts flies

Plant-Pollinator Interactions Costs to Pollinator energy
  • thermoregulation
  • traveling
  • extraction of reward
Risks
  • exposure to predators/parasites
Costs to the plant
  • resources to produce reward
  • risks of being robbed - how do you try to avoid this?
  • attraction of herbivores 
Pollination Patterns Beetles clumsy fliers, hard exoskelton
inefficient pollinators - mess and soil
usually associated with dish/bowl flowers (magnolias)
chewing mouthparts so pollen is often the reward
Pollination Patterns Flies a lot of variation
some flies but most have elongated mouthparts 
fly flowers typically shallow, with nectar exposed
flowers often drab or white with musty or bad smell 
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Pollination Patterns Lepidoptera long tongue 
flowers erect often with places to land
sweet odors
colorful-red is common
moth flowers - less color, more odor 

Pollination Patterns Bees largest group of efficient pollinators
both sexes take nectar
bee adaptations for plant interactions
  • plumose hairs, pollen transport structures, modifications of the tongue, diet of nectar pollen, social behavior in some species 
plant adaptations for bees
  • colors in bees range of vision - uv reflectance common, red uncommon for bee flowers
  • sparate petals, odors open at certain times, landing platfom 
Butterfly Life Cycle Egg - a few days

Larva -  a few weeks
       wandering phase - looking for a place to pupate

Pupa - variable

Adult - a few weeks 
Overwintering Different types of Lepidoptera spend winter in each life cycle

some do not overwinter; they spend the winter in warmer climates

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General Principles Larval Food - depends on species 
Adult Food - continuous nectar sources 
Don't use insecticides on larval or adult food sources
Most insecticides are broad spectrum - kill many different insects
adult attracted to red, yellow,orange, pink, and purple blossoms that are flat-topped clustered and have short flower tubes
adults feed in sunshine
water/mineral sources must be shallow 
Good Butterfly Plants Diversity is good 

native plants are important
  • coevolution of plants and butterflies
  • butterflies may be fooled - larvae don't survive 
Common Georgia Butterflies Monarch larval food - milkweed 
Common Georgia Butterflies Viceroy mimics the poisonous monarch or vice versa

viceroy butterflies are also poisonous 
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Phytophagus Insects approximately 50% of all insect species feed on plants 

insects are the dominant herbivores on the planet 
Phytophagus Feeding Patterns External Feeders consume foliage fruit and roots directly 
suck plant juices
KNOW SOME EXAMPLES 
Phytophagus Feeding Patterns Internal Feeders Only endopterygotes
  • complete metamorphosis
Almost always larvae 
Gall Insects galls - caused by abnormal growth of plant cells
insects galls - wasps, aphids, thrips, moth caterpillars and beetles
open galls - leaf grows around insect colony
      aphids, thrips, and others
closed galls - no opening
      typically one larva inside 
      endopterygotes 
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Leafminers larvae feed inside the leaf
only larvae 
diptera,hymenoptera,lepidoptera, coleoptera 
Categories of Insect Herbivores Generalists feed on multiple species of plants
most feed on less than three families of plants 
Categories of Insect Herbivores Specialists may feed on a single species 

creosote bush grasshopper is the only one species among 8000 worldwide that eats a single species of bush - the creosote bush 
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 The Insect Integumentprevent desiccation 
protects the organs
receives information from the environment
facilitates movement and reproduction 

epicuticle has several layers, and has wax to seal the insect 

much of integument is chitin 
 Resilinelastic - can store energy
what insects have resilin?
 Chitina sugar polymer
provides toughness and flexibility 
 Epicuticleon the outside

wax -  a single molecule thick - for water retention 

 Molting or Ecdysisonly immatures molt
instars - period between molts
ecdysone - molting hormone
 Insect Growth Juvenile Hormoneimmature status 
 Shedding the Old Skininsect distends with air and water
insect distends after leaving old skin 
 Digestion/Excretion 3 sectionsstomodeum, mesenteron, proctodeum
 Stomodeumingestion and digestion
 Mesenteronnot lined with chitin
absorption 
 Proctodeumlined with chitin
removes waster, regulates water, urea and salts
 Filter Chamberspecialized structure that allows fluid feeders to obtain more nutrients; increases absorption area
  • some hemipterans: aphids, leafhoppers, scale insects, whiteflies 
 Digestion/Excretion Summarysome fluid feeders also have filter chambers to improve nutrient uptake

three sections:
stomodeum: ingestion, digestion 
mesenteron: absorption 
proctodeum: excretion, regulation
 Excretion - aquatic and semiaquatic insectsammonia waste
 Terrestrial Insectssolid uric acid
 Digestion - Role of BacteriaWhat is cellulose?

Few insects produce cellulase
  • bacteria- few beetles
  • protozoans - termites, roaches
  • when hindgut is shed how are protozoans reintroduced?
 Respirationrelies very heavily on diffusion 
 Spiraclesup to ten pairs, one pair per segment
  • abdomen, meta-mesothorax 
 Circulationcirculatory system does not transport O2
insect blood is called hemolymph
insects have an open circulatory system 

blood dumps off the end of the aorta 
 Circulation: Summarycirculation serves to distribute and filter, not to move oxygen 
insect circulatory system is open
insect blood is called hemolymph 
circulation is facilitated by the heart or dorsal aorta 

 Insect Nervous System2 different systems: 
Central nervous system 
Stomatogastric Nervous System 
  • innervates interval organs
made up of neurons (nerve cells): 
Afferent: carry signals to CNS
Efferent: carry signals away from CNS, stimulate muscles and glands
 Central Nervous Systemneuron groups form ganglia
CNS: brain and segmental ganglia
Thoracic ganglia control legs/wings
 Central Nervous System ProtocerebrumVision, integration of multiple behaviors
 Central Nervous System Deutocerebrumantennal inputs 
 Tritocerebrumconnects to stomatogastric system; integrates input from other brain lobes 
 Subesophageal Ganglionmouthparts, salivary glands, neck muscles 
 Insect Visionsimple eyes - Ocelli and Stemmata

Compound eye 
 Insect Vision Ocellido not detect images but rather changes in light intensity 
 Insect Vision StemmataForm images equivalent in quality to compound eye with much less "hardware"
Found in holometabolous larvae and other forms lacking compound eyes


 Insect Chemoreceptionchemoreception - taste and odor 

may occur on mouthparts, legs, antennae, and ovipositors
 Insect Hearinginsects hear with tympana
usually located between the thorax and abdomen, but may be else where 
 Insects and Plants
  • about half of all insect species are phytophagous 
  • a key primary consumer of plants competing directly with humans 
  • phytophagy has evolved repeatedly - probably from scavenging

plant and insect coevolution - first interaction - herbivory and accidental pollen transfer 
 Coevolutionevolution of one group affects evolution of another group (and vice versa)
 Insect Plant Interactionsmany plant insect interactions are not detrimental to the plant 

+ and + = mutualism
+ and 0 = commensalism
+ and - = predation, parasitoids, parasites
- and - = competition 

 Beetle Important Early Pollinatorswell diversified in the mesozoic era 

beetles may eat ovules of plant that was pollinated 
 Coevolution Next Stepsodors to attract insects from a distance

flower colors + insects color vision - what do diurnal pollinators look like?

nectaries
role of homopteran honeydew?
 Pollinationpollination- pollen onto receptive stigma 
wind pollination
mechanical transfer 
  • usually by insects
  • birds, bats, and other animals can also be pollinators 
 Plant - Pollinator Interactions Disadvantage of wind pollinationDisadvantage of wind pollination: 
  • untargeted
  • decreased likelihood of out-crossing
  • much larger production of pollen needed
  • plants don't disperse well

 Plant Pollinator Interactions Advantages of wind pollinationAdvantages
  • not dependent on a "third party"
  • no need to supply "reward"
 Plant Pollinator Interactions Advantages of insect Pollination
  • facilitates out-crossing, even if plants very dispersed 
  • coupled with seed dispersal by birds and other factors helps plants colonize new habitats more rapidly
  • reliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization which results in greater diversification
 Plant Pollinator Interactions Disadvantages of Insect Pollinationthird party involved
plant must produce reward 
 Nectarrich in sugars 
amino acids, proteins, and lipids
 Plant Pollinator Interactions Plants- reward for services
  • plant gets its pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas
  • pollen is a reward with lipid, starch, or protein
  • nectar is an important food reward 
 Plant Pollinator Interactions Insects - reward for servicesnectar from floral and extra-floral nectaries
  • extra-floral nectaries rarely important in pollination
  • what is the function of extra-floral nectaries?

edible flower parts are another reward 
 Non-edible Pollinator rewardsHeat - usually involves beetles, flowers metabolize lipids and starches, includes water lilies palms and cycads, heat also helps disperse scents, difference from outside temp may be 5 C or more
Insect Mimics - several hundred spp of orchids in europe and Australia , wasps sawflies and ants are al deceived by some flowers, flower mimics female -scent and sight, flower mimic prey -"aphids" attacked by wasps, flower mimics territorial bee- males attack 
Other Mimics - flowers mimic other flowers that offer rewards, smells like a dead animal attracts flies

 Plant-Pollinator Interactions Costs to Pollinatorenergy
  • thermoregulation
  • traveling
  • extraction of reward
Risks
  • exposure to predators/parasites
Costs to the plant
  • resources to produce reward
  • risks of being robbed - how do you try to avoid this?
  • attraction of herbivores 
 Pollination Patterns Beetlesclumsy fliers, hard exoskelton
inefficient pollinators - mess and soil
usually associated with dish/bowl flowers (magnolias)
chewing mouthparts so pollen is often the reward
 Pollination Patterns Fliesa lot of variation
some flies but most have elongated mouthparts 
fly flowers typically shallow, with nectar exposed
flowers often drab or white with musty or bad smell 
 Pollination Patterns Lepidopteralong tongue 
flowers erect often with places to land
sweet odors
colorful-red is common
moth flowers - less color, more odor 

 Pollination Patterns Beeslargest group of efficient pollinators
both sexes take nectar
bee adaptations for plant interactions
  • plumose hairs, pollen transport structures, modifications of the tongue, diet of nectar pollen, social behavior in some species 
plant adaptations for bees
  • colors in bees range of vision - uv reflectance common, red uncommon for bee flowers
  • sparate petals, odors open at certain times, landing platfom 
 Butterfly Life CycleEgg - a few days

Larva -  a few weeks
       wandering phase - looking for a place to pupate

Pupa - variable

Adult - a few weeks 
 OverwinteringDifferent types of Lepidoptera spend winter in each life cycle

some do not overwinter; they spend the winter in warmer climates

 General PrinciplesLarval Food - depends on species 
Adult Food - continuous nectar sources 
Don't use insecticides on larval or adult food sources
Most insecticides are broad spectrum - kill many different insects
adult attracted to red, yellow,orange, pink, and purple blossoms that are flat-topped clustered and have short flower tubes
adults feed in sunshine
water/mineral sources must be shallow 
 Good Butterfly PlantsDiversity is good 

native plants are important
  • coevolution of plants and butterflies
  • butterflies may be fooled - larvae don't survive 
 Common Georgia Butterflies Monarchlarval food - milkweed 
 Common Georgia Butterflies Viceroymimics the poisonous monarch or vice versa

viceroy butterflies are also poisonous 
 Phytophagus Insectsapproximately 50% of all insect species feed on plants 

insects are the dominant herbivores on the planet 
 Phytophagus Feeding Patterns External Feedersconsume foliage fruit and roots directly 
suck plant juices
KNOW SOME EXAMPLES 
 Phytophagus Feeding Patterns Internal FeedersOnly endopterygotes
  • complete metamorphosis
Almost always larvae 
 Gall Insectsgalls - caused by abnormal growth of plant cells
insects galls - wasps, aphids, thrips, moth caterpillars and beetles
open galls - leaf grows around insect colony
      aphids, thrips, and others
closed galls - no opening
      typically one larva inside 
      endopterygotes 
 Leafminerslarvae feed inside the leaf
only larvae 
diptera,hymenoptera,lepidoptera, coleoptera 
 Categories of Insect Herbivores Generalistsfeed on multiple species of plants
most feed on less than three families of plants 
 Categories of Insect Herbivores Specialistsmay feed on a single species 

creosote bush grasshopper is the only one species among 8000 worldwide that eats a single species of bush - the creosote bush 
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