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Test 2 - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2014
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Order Mecoptera
  • Scorpion fly
  • head usually a prolonged beak
Order Diptera
  • Primarily saprophagous (feed on decay)
Diptera: Family Culicidae
  • Mosquitoes (2500 spp)
  • Eggs laid in water or area that will be flooded
Diptera: Family Syrphidae
  • Hoverflies, flowerflies
  • some myremcophiles
Generated by Koofers.com
Order Diptera: Family Muscidae
  • houseflies
  • transport disease organisms
  • sanitation is key to control
Order Siphonaptera
  • fleas
  • sucking mouthparts with developed palps
  • usually jumping insects
  • all are parasitic as adults
  • rat fleas vector plague
  • fleas are a host for tapeworms
Flea Life Cycle
  • Adult never leaves animal host
  • Eggs fall from animal
  • Larvae mostly feed on adult feces
  • Larvae spin cocoons, pupate, and wait
Flea Control
  • Fleas must have animal host
  • Control fleas on your pet with flea comb and pesticide products
  • Flea eggs -- wash pet bedding
  • Larvae - pupae - adults : vacuum cleaner
Generated by Koofers.com
Order Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)
  • Larvae and adult morphology strongly divergent
  • Larvae supply most food for life cycle
  • Some larvae are very important pests. Some adults are important pollinators
Difference between Butterflies and Moths Butterflies - diurnal, knobbed antennae, usually naked chysalis

Moths - nocturnal, usually drab, filiform antennae, fuzzy coccon
Skippers (butterfly)
  • Stouter body
  • Hooked antennae
Lepidopteran Larvae
  • six true legs attached to thorax
  • fleshy prolegs on abdomen
  • usually six lateral stemmata
  • some - corn earworm, eat a variety of plants
  • others - monarch, specialize on few plants
Generated by Koofers.com
Order Lepidoptera, Family Danaidae
  • milkweed butterflies
  • monarch
  • sequester chemicals from milkweed for protection
Monarch Migration
  • Late summer adults emerge (do not mate or lay eggs)
  • Cluster together and fly to overwintering site
  • Spring: mate and begin to fly north (lay eggs on milkweed)
  • Summer: several generations
Common Lepidopteran Pests
  • Family Noctuidae - corn earworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm
  • Control with Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Spray when they're small


  • Family Pyralidae - indian meal moth, stem borers
  • indian meal moth commonly infests food
  • look for larvae, webbing, adults
  • find and eliminate access to food
  • store foods in freezer/refrigerator
  • seal foods in tightly sealed containers
  • do not spray pesticide around food
Order Trichoptera (caddisfly)
  • Almost all aquatic as larvae
  • Larvae often in cases
  • pupate in case; adults must swim to the top
  • closely related to the order Lepidoptera
Generated by Koofers.com
Order Hymenoptera (ant, bee, wasp)
  • Four wings, hind wings smaller
  • Primarily chewing type mouthparts
  • Ovipositor sometimes modified into a sting (females only)
  • many social as well as solitary species
  • many bees and ant species are eusocial, with workers, soldiers, reproductives
  • haploid/diploid
  • males produced from unfertilized eggs
  • females come from fertilized eggs
Family Formicidae (ants)
  • 9000 species globally
  • all are social
  • colonies can exist for years
  • Queen - may be several
  • Workers, soldiers - all female
  • males live just long enough for mating
Argentine Ants: Global Power
  • Colony stretches 3700 miles across Europe
  • California colony covers 560 miles
  • Japan supercolony
Fire Ants
  • Over the entire southern US (imported around 1920s or 30s)
  • Came from South America
  • Females bite and sting
Generated by Koofers.com
Forming a new ant colony
  • Swarming depends on warmth/humidity
  • Mating occurs in the air
  • new queens lose wings, males die
Managing Fire Ants
  • Use a broadcast treatment spring and fall (baits - food plus poison, broadcast insecticides)
  • treat individual mounds
Leaf Cutter Ants
  • Nearly all tropical
  • Very few animals known to grow their own food
  • pieces of leaves are brought into the colony
  • fungus is grown on the leaves
  • fungus is only known food source
  • fungus and ants not known to exist separately
Parasitoids
  • Predators kill and eat multiple prey
  • Parasites do not usually kill their hosts
  • Parasitoids lay eggs in or near the host (host ultimately killed)
Generated by Koofers.com
Parasitoid Wasp
  • solitary
  • not aggressive
  • female lay eggs in host
  • specialize in one or few types of prey
Order Hymenoptera: Family Sphecidae
  • mud daubers
  • females make mud nests
  • provision the nests with spiders
  • often build in the same site for years
  • females can sting, but are unagressive
Three Species of Mud Daubers in GA
  • Organ pipe mud daubers
  • Black and yellow mud daubers
  • Blue mud daubers
Bumblebees, Hornets, Yellow Jackets, and Paper Wasps
  • form a social colony
  • fertilized females overwinter and start new nests in the spring
  • in area where winter is mild, a colony may persist for several years
Generated by Koofers.com
The Insect Integument
  • prevents desiccation
  • protects the organs
  • receives information from the environment
  • facilitates movement and reproduction
  • epicuticle has several layers, and has wax to seal the insect, water retention
  • much of integument is chitin
  • Resilin - elastic, can store energy
  • Chitin - a sugar polymer, provides toughness and flexibility
Molting or Ecdysis
  • Only immatures molt
  • Instars - period between molts
  • Ecdysone - molting hormone
  • Juvenile hormone - immature status
Shedding the Old Skin
  • Insect distends with air or water
  • Insect distends after leaving old skin
Digestion/Excretion
  • Three sections: stomendeum, mesenteron, proctodeum
  • filter chamber - specialized structure that allows fluid feeders to obtain more nutrients; increases absorption area
  • aquatic/semiaquatic insects - ammonia waste
  • terrestial insects -  solid uric acid
Generated by Koofers.com
Stomodeum
  • Ingestion and digestion
Mesenteron
  • Not lined with chitin, absorption
Proctodeum
  • Lined with chitin
  • removes waste, regulates water, urea salts
Insects that produce cellulase
  • Bacteria - few beetles
  • Protozoans - termites, roaches
Generated by Koofers.com
Respiration
  • Relies very heavily on diffusion
  • Gases enter through openings in the cuticle: spiracles
Spiracles
  • Up to ten pairs, one pair per segment
Circulation
  • Circulatory system does not transport oxygen
  • Insect blood is called hemolymph
  • Insects have an open circulatory system
  • Blood dumps out of the end of the aorta
  • serves to distribute and filter
  • facilitated by the heart or dorsal aorta
Insect Nervous System
  • 2 systems: Central Nervous Systems, Stomatogastric Nervous System
  • made up of neurons (nerve cells)
  • afferent: carry signals to CNS
  • efferent: carry signals away from CNS, stimulate muscles and glands
  • neuron groups form ganglia
  • CNS: brain and segmental ganglia
  • Thoracic ganglia control legs/wings
  • Protocerebrum: Vision, integration of multiple behaviors
  • Deutocerebrum: Antennal inputs
  • Tritocerebrum: connects to stomatograstric system; integrates inputs from other brain lobes
  • Subesophageal Ganglion: mouthparts, salivary glands, neck muscles
Generated by Koofers.com
Insect Vision
  • simple eyes -- ocelli and stemmata
  • compound eye
  • ocelli - do not detect images, but rather changes in light intensity
  • stemmata - form images equivalent in quality to compound eye with much less "hardware"; found in holometabolous larvae and other forms lacking compound eyes
Insect Chemoreception
  • Chemoreception - taste and odor
  • May occur on mouthparts, legs, antennae, and ovipositors
Insect Hearing
  • insects hear with tympana
  • usually located between the thorax and abdomen, but may be elsewhere
Insects and Plants
  • About half of all insect species are phytophagous
  • Insects compete directly with humans on plants
  • phytophagy has evolved repeatedly, probably from scavenging
  • coevolution - evolution of one group affects evolution of another group
  • many plant-insect interactions are not detrimental to the plant
  • + and + mutualism
  • + and neutral, commensalism
  • + and - predation, parasitoids, parasites
  • - and - competition
Generated by Koofers.com
Insect/Plant Coevolution
  • First interaction - herbivory and accidental pollen transfer
  • Odors to attract insects from distance
  • Insects' color vision
Beetles - important early pollinators
  • Well diversified in the Mesozoic era
  • Beetles may eat ovules of plant that was pollinated
Pollination
  • Pollination: pollen onto receptive stigma
  • Wind pollination
  • Mechanical transfer, usually by insects; birds, bats, and other animals can also be pollinators
Advantages/Disadvantages of Wind Pollination
  • Disadvantage of wind pollination
  1.  untargeted
  2. decreased likelihood of out-crossing
  3. much larger production of pollen needed
  4. plants don't disperse


  • Advantages
  1.  not dependent on a "third party"
  2.  no need to supply "reward"
Generated by Koofers.com
Advantages/Disadvantages of Insect Pollination
  • Advantages
  1. Facilitates out-crossing, even if plants very dispersed
  2. coupled with seed dispersal by birds and other factors, helps plants colonize new habitats more rapidly
  3. reliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization, which results in greater divesification


  • Disadvantages
  1. Third party involved
  2. plant must produce award
Nectar
  • rich in sugars
  • amino acids, proteins, and lipids
Plant-Pollinator Interactions
  • Plants - reward for services
  • plant gets its pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas
  • pollen is a reward with lipid, starch, or protein
  • nectar is an important food reward
  • nectar from floral and extra-floral nectaries
  • edible flower parts are another reward
  • Costs to the pollinator include energy
  • Risks exposure to predator/parasites
  • Costs to the plant include resources, risk of being robbed, and attraction of herbivores
Nonedible pollinator rewards
  • Heat
  • Insect mimics
  • Other mimics
Generated by Koofers.com
Pollination Patterns
  • Beetles: clumsy fliers, hard exoskeleton
  • usually associated with dish/bowl flowers (magnolias)
  • Some flies, but not most have elongated mouthparts
  • Fly flowers typically shallow, with nectar exposed
  • Flowers often drab or white, with musty or "bad" smell
  • Lepidoptera - long tongue
  • Flowers erect, often with place to land
  • Sweet odors
  • Colorful - red is common
  • Moth flowers - less color, more odor
Pollination Patterns for Bees
  • Bees - largest group of efficient pollinators
  • Both sexes take nectar
  • Bee adaptations for plant interactions
  • Plant adaptations for bees
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Order Mecoptera
  • Scorpion fly
  • head usually a prolonged beak
 Order Diptera
  • Primarily saprophagous (feed on decay)
 Diptera: Family Culicidae
  • Mosquitoes (2500 spp)
  • Eggs laid in water or area that will be flooded
 Diptera: Family Syrphidae
  • Hoverflies, flowerflies
  • some myremcophiles
 Order Diptera: Family Muscidae
  • houseflies
  • transport disease organisms
  • sanitation is key to control
 Order Siphonaptera
  • fleas
  • sucking mouthparts with developed palps
  • usually jumping insects
  • all are parasitic as adults
  • rat fleas vector plague
  • fleas are a host for tapeworms
 Flea Life Cycle
  • Adult never leaves animal host
  • Eggs fall from animal
  • Larvae mostly feed on adult feces
  • Larvae spin cocoons, pupate, and wait
 Flea Control
  • Fleas must have animal host
  • Control fleas on your pet with flea comb and pesticide products
  • Flea eggs -- wash pet bedding
  • Larvae - pupae - adults : vacuum cleaner
 Order Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)
  • Larvae and adult morphology strongly divergent
  • Larvae supply most food for life cycle
  • Some larvae are very important pests. Some adults are important pollinators
 Difference between Butterflies and MothsButterflies - diurnal, knobbed antennae, usually naked chysalis

Moths - nocturnal, usually drab, filiform antennae, fuzzy coccon
 Skippers (butterfly)
  • Stouter body
  • Hooked antennae
 Lepidopteran Larvae
  • six true legs attached to thorax
  • fleshy prolegs on abdomen
  • usually six lateral stemmata
  • some - corn earworm, eat a variety of plants
  • others - monarch, specialize on few plants
 Order Lepidoptera, Family Danaidae
  • milkweed butterflies
  • monarch
  • sequester chemicals from milkweed for protection
 Monarch Migration
  • Late summer adults emerge (do not mate or lay eggs)
  • Cluster together and fly to overwintering site
  • Spring: mate and begin to fly north (lay eggs on milkweed)
  • Summer: several generations
 Common Lepidopteran Pests
  • Family Noctuidae - corn earworm, cabbage looper, fall armyworm
  • Control with Bacillus thuringiensis
  • Spray when they're small


  • Family Pyralidae - indian meal moth, stem borers
  • indian meal moth commonly infests food
  • look for larvae, webbing, adults
  • find and eliminate access to food
  • store foods in freezer/refrigerator
  • seal foods in tightly sealed containers
  • do not spray pesticide around food
 Order Trichoptera (caddisfly)
  • Almost all aquatic as larvae
  • Larvae often in cases
  • pupate in case; adults must swim to the top
  • closely related to the order Lepidoptera
 Order Hymenoptera (ant, bee, wasp)
  • Four wings, hind wings smaller
  • Primarily chewing type mouthparts
  • Ovipositor sometimes modified into a sting (females only)
  • many social as well as solitary species
  • many bees and ant species are eusocial, with workers, soldiers, reproductives
  • haploid/diploid
  • males produced from unfertilized eggs
  • females come from fertilized eggs
 Family Formicidae (ants)
  • 9000 species globally
  • all are social
  • colonies can exist for years
  • Queen - may be several
  • Workers, soldiers - all female
  • males live just long enough for mating
 Argentine Ants: Global Power
  • Colony stretches 3700 miles across Europe
  • California colony covers 560 miles
  • Japan supercolony
 Fire Ants
  • Over the entire southern US (imported around 1920s or 30s)
  • Came from South America
  • Females bite and sting
 Forming a new ant colony
  • Swarming depends on warmth/humidity
  • Mating occurs in the air
  • new queens lose wings, males die
 Managing Fire Ants
  • Use a broadcast treatment spring and fall (baits - food plus poison, broadcast insecticides)
  • treat individual mounds
 Leaf Cutter Ants
  • Nearly all tropical
  • Very few animals known to grow their own food
  • pieces of leaves are brought into the colony
  • fungus is grown on the leaves
  • fungus is only known food source
  • fungus and ants not known to exist separately
 Parasitoids
  • Predators kill and eat multiple prey
  • Parasites do not usually kill their hosts
  • Parasitoids lay eggs in or near the host (host ultimately killed)
 Parasitoid Wasp
  • solitary
  • not aggressive
  • female lay eggs in host
  • specialize in one or few types of prey
 Order Hymenoptera: Family Sphecidae
  • mud daubers
  • females make mud nests
  • provision the nests with spiders
  • often build in the same site for years
  • females can sting, but are unagressive
 Three Species of Mud Daubers in GA
  • Organ pipe mud daubers
  • Black and yellow mud daubers
  • Blue mud daubers
 Bumblebees, Hornets, Yellow Jackets, and Paper Wasps
  • form a social colony
  • fertilized females overwinter and start new nests in the spring
  • in area where winter is mild, a colony may persist for several years
 The Insect Integument
  • prevents desiccation
  • protects the organs
  • receives information from the environment
  • facilitates movement and reproduction
  • epicuticle has several layers, and has wax to seal the insect, water retention
  • much of integument is chitin
  • Resilin - elastic, can store energy
  • Chitin - a sugar polymer, provides toughness and flexibility
 Molting or Ecdysis
  • Only immatures molt
  • Instars - period between molts
  • Ecdysone - molting hormone
  • Juvenile hormone - immature status
 Shedding the Old Skin
  • Insect distends with air or water
  • Insect distends after leaving old skin
 Digestion/Excretion
  • Three sections: stomendeum, mesenteron, proctodeum
  • filter chamber - specialized structure that allows fluid feeders to obtain more nutrients; increases absorption area
  • aquatic/semiaquatic insects - ammonia waste
  • terrestial insects -  solid uric acid
 Stomodeum
  • Ingestion and digestion
 Mesenteron
  • Not lined with chitin, absorption
 Proctodeum
  • Lined with chitin
  • removes waste, regulates water, urea salts
 Insects that produce cellulase
  • Bacteria - few beetles
  • Protozoans - termites, roaches
 Respiration
  • Relies very heavily on diffusion
  • Gases enter through openings in the cuticle: spiracles
 Spiracles
  • Up to ten pairs, one pair per segment
 Circulation
  • Circulatory system does not transport oxygen
  • Insect blood is called hemolymph
  • Insects have an open circulatory system
  • Blood dumps out of the end of the aorta
  • serves to distribute and filter
  • facilitated by the heart or dorsal aorta
 Insect Nervous System
  • 2 systems: Central Nervous Systems, Stomatogastric Nervous System
  • made up of neurons (nerve cells)
  • afferent: carry signals to CNS
  • efferent: carry signals away from CNS, stimulate muscles and glands
  • neuron groups form ganglia
  • CNS: brain and segmental ganglia
  • Thoracic ganglia control legs/wings
  • Protocerebrum: Vision, integration of multiple behaviors
  • Deutocerebrum: Antennal inputs
  • Tritocerebrum: connects to stomatograstric system; integrates inputs from other brain lobes
  • Subesophageal Ganglion: mouthparts, salivary glands, neck muscles
 Insect Vision
  • simple eyes -- ocelli and stemmata
  • compound eye
  • ocelli - do not detect images, but rather changes in light intensity
  • stemmata - form images equivalent in quality to compound eye with much less "hardware"; found in holometabolous larvae and other forms lacking compound eyes
 Insect Chemoreception
  • Chemoreception - taste and odor
  • May occur on mouthparts, legs, antennae, and ovipositors
 Insect Hearing
  • insects hear with tympana
  • usually located between the thorax and abdomen, but may be elsewhere
 Insects and Plants
  • About half of all insect species are phytophagous
  • Insects compete directly with humans on plants
  • phytophagy has evolved repeatedly, probably from scavenging
  • coevolution - evolution of one group affects evolution of another group
  • many plant-insect interactions are not detrimental to the plant
  • + and + mutualism
  • + and neutral, commensalism
  • + and - predation, parasitoids, parasites
  • - and - competition
 Insect/Plant Coevolution
  • First interaction - herbivory and accidental pollen transfer
  • Odors to attract insects from distance
  • Insects' color vision
 Beetles - important early pollinators
  • Well diversified in the Mesozoic era
  • Beetles may eat ovules of plant that was pollinated
 Pollination
  • Pollination: pollen onto receptive stigma
  • Wind pollination
  • Mechanical transfer, usually by insects; birds, bats, and other animals can also be pollinators
 Advantages/Disadvantages of Wind Pollination
  • Disadvantage of wind pollination
  1.  untargeted
  2. decreased likelihood of out-crossing
  3. much larger production of pollen needed
  4. plants don't disperse


  • Advantages
  1.  not dependent on a "third party"
  2.  no need to supply "reward"
 Advantages/Disadvantages of Insect Pollination
  • Advantages
  1. Facilitates out-crossing, even if plants very dispersed
  2. coupled with seed dispersal by birds and other factors, helps plants colonize new habitats more rapidly
  3. reliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization, which results in greater divesification


  • Disadvantages
  1. Third party involved
  2. plant must produce award
 Nectar
  • rich in sugars
  • amino acids, proteins, and lipids
 Plant-Pollinator Interactions
  • Plants - reward for services
  • plant gets its pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas
  • pollen is a reward with lipid, starch, or protein
  • nectar is an important food reward
  • nectar from floral and extra-floral nectaries
  • edible flower parts are another reward
  • Costs to the pollinator include energy
  • Risks exposure to predator/parasites
  • Costs to the plant include resources, risk of being robbed, and attraction of herbivores
 Nonedible pollinator rewards
  • Heat
  • Insect mimics
  • Other mimics
 Pollination Patterns
  • Beetles: clumsy fliers, hard exoskeleton
  • usually associated with dish/bowl flowers (magnolias)
  • Some flies, but not most have elongated mouthparts
  • Fly flowers typically shallow, with nectar exposed
  • Flowers often drab or white, with musty or "bad" smell
  • Lepidoptera - long tongue
  • Flowers erect, often with place to land
  • Sweet odors
  • Colorful - red is common
  • Moth flowers - less color, more odor
 Pollination Patterns for Bees
  • Bees - largest group of efficient pollinators
  • Both sexes take nectar
  • Bee adaptations for plant interactions
  • Plant adaptations for bees
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