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Test 3 - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2014
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About half of all insect species are what? Phytophagous (eat plants)
They compete directly with humans
Phytophagy has evolved repeatedly
Coevolution evolution of one group affects evolution of another group (and vice versa)
Are plant-insect interactions detrimental to the plant? No.
What is + and + plant-insect interactions called? Mutualism
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What is + and neutral plant-insect interactions called? Commensalism
What is + and - plant-insect interaction called? Predation, parasitoids, parasites
What is - and - plant-insect interactions called? Competition
What was the first interaction between insect and plants? Herbivory and accidental pollen transfer
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These were well diversified in the Mesozoic era Beetles
What may beetles eat? Ovules of plant that was pollinated
What are the steps in coevolution?
  • Odors to attract insects from distance
  • Insects' color vision

What is pollination? Pollen onto receptive stigma
Wind pollination
Mechanical transfer
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What are the advantages/disadvantages of wind pollination? Advantages
  • not dependent on a third party
  • no need to supply reward


Disadvantages

  • untargeted
  • decreased likelihood of out-crossing
  • much larger production of pollen needed
  • plants don't disperse well
What are the advantages/disadvantages of insect pollination? Advantages
  • Facilitates out-crossing, even if plants very dispersed
  • Coupled with seed dispersal by birds and other factors, helps plants colonize new habitats more rapidly
  • Reliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization which results in greater diversification

Disadvantages

  • Third party involved
  • Plant must produce reward
Nectar Rich in sugars
Amino acids, proteins, and lipids
What are some edible pollinator rewards? Plant gets its pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas

  • Pollen is a reward with lipid, starch, or protein
  • Nectar is an important food reward, from floral and extra-floral nectaries
  • Edible flower parts
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What are some nonedible pollinator rewards?
  • Heat
  • Insect mimics
  • Other mimics
What are some costs to the pollinator and plant in their interactions? Pollinator Costs:
  • Energy - traveling, thermoregulation, extraction of reward
  • Risks exposure to predators/parasites


Plant Costs:

  • Resources to produce reward
  • Risks of being robbed
  • Attraction of herbivores
What flowers are Beetles usually associated with?
  • Beetles: clumsy fliers, hard exoskeleton
  • Usually associated with dish/bowl flowers (Magnolias)
Flies Pollination Patterns
  • Some flies, but not most have elongated mouthparts
  • Fly flowers typically shallow, with nectar exposed
  • Flowers often drab or white, with musty or bad smell
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Lepidoptera Pollination Patterns
  • Lepidoptera - long tongue
  • Flowers erect, often with place to land
  • Sweet odors
  • Colorful - red is common
  • Moth flower - less color, more odor
What makes up the largest group of efficient pollinators? Bees
  • Both sexes take nectar
What are some BEE adaptation for plant interactions?
  • Plumose hairs
  • Pollen transport structures
  • Modifications of the tongue
  • Diet of nectar and pollen
  • Social behavior in some species
What are some PLANT adaptations for bees?
  • Colors in bees range of vision
  • Separate petals
  • Odors
  • Open at certain times
  • Landing platform
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Butterfly Life Cycle
  • Egg - a few days
  • Larva - a few weeks
  • Pupa - variable
  • Adult - a few weeks
Overwintering Different types of Lepidoptera spend the winter in each life stage

Some do not overwinter; they spend the winter in warmer climates
Larval butterfly Food? Depends on species
Adult buttefly food? Continuous nectar sources
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Should you use insecticides on larval or adult food sources? No. Most insecticides are broad spectrum
What kind of flowers are adult butterflies attracted to?
  • Red, yellow, orange, pink, and purple blossoms that are flat-topped, clustered, and have short flower tubes
  • Adults feed in the sunshine
  • Water/mineral sources must be shallow
What defines good butterfly plants?
  • Diversity is good
  • Native plants are important
What do common Georgia butterflies feed on? Larval food - milkweed
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What are two characteristics of the Viceroy butterfly?
  • Mimics the poisonous monarch, or vice versa
  • They are poisonous
What percent of all insect species feed on plants?
  • 50%
  • Insects are the dominant herbivores on the planet
Describe Phytophagous feeding patterns External feeders
  • Consumer foliage, fruit, and roots directly
  • Suck plant juices
  • Grasshoppers, butterflies, beetles, etc


Internal feeders

  • Only endopterygotes (go through larval, pupal, adult cycle)
  • Almost always larvae
What are Galls?
  • Galls - caused by abnormal growth of plant cells
  • Insect galls - wasps, aphids, thrips, moth caterpillars, and beetles
  • Open galls - leaf grows around insect colony
  • Closed galls - no opening

                        - typically one larva inside

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What are leafminers?
  • Larvae feed inside the leaf
  • Only larvae
  • Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera
What are the categories of insect herbivores?
  • Generalists feed on multiple species of plants
  • Most feed on less than three families of plants


  • Specialists may feed on a single species


What are some mechanical protections plants use against herbivores?
  • Spines/thorns - deter larger herbivores, but not useful against insects
  • Trichomes -  specialized epidermal cells may be straight spikes or hooks
  • Glandular hairs - epidermal structures containing capsules of resins that may entrap insects, clog spiracles and mouthparts
  • Deceptive morphological features- plant trick insects

                   - some flowers have fake eggs that discourage oviposition

What are some chemical protections plants use against herbivores?
  • Antixenosis - chemicals that deter feeding
  • Antibiosis - have some kind of toxic effect on the insect when consumed
  • Allelochemical - produced by one species, toxic to another
  • Non  protein amino acids - about 1000 known, hundreds from plants
  • Found abundantly in legumes ; one function is nitrogen storage in seeds
  • Toxicity
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Cyanogenic Glycosides
  • store the cyanide molecule. Cyanide gas is released when the plant is damaged
  • Toxicity based upon the inhibition electron transport chain (energy)
  • Examples : Wild cherry, almonds, lima beans
  • Alkaloids - more than 10,000 identified; 1/3 of plants have them
  • Toxicity - interference with DNA replication, transcription
  • Examples : morphine, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, cocoa
Proteinase Inhibitors? More chemical protection for plants
  • Often inducible
  • Toxicity - interferes with protein digestion
  • Found in legumes, grasses, solanaceous plants (potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, etc)
Terpenoids? More chemical protection for plants
  • Terpenoids often repellent, bitter, or toxic
  • Toxicity - affect cell membranes and enzyme activity
  • Examples - catnip, cinnamon, cloves
Insect Hormone Analogs fall into 3 basic groups what?
  • Ecdysis inhibitors interfere with the insect's ability to molt (Ferns and yews)
  • Chitin synthetase inhibitors interfere with building a new exoskeleton (Beans and many others)
  • Juvenile hormone analogs prevent the insect from receiving the proper hormonal signal for the final molt to adult (Balsam fir)
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Tannins and Lignins More chemical protection for plants
  • Tannins are smaller and tend to be water-soluble. Astringent (Oaks and many other plants)
  • Lignins are large, insoluble polyphenol polymers associated with cell wall strengthening and protection from fungi
  • Toxicity -  astringency (withdraws water) may deter feeding
Tolerance
  • Another plant defense
  • Tolerance - withstand damage without compromising fitness (reproductive success)
  • Many physiological processes involved
  • Soybean defoliation
How do Insects avoid allelochemicals?
  • Avoidance - just don't eat them
  • Feed on specific parts: proper "ratio" of nutrition to allelochemicals
  • Leaf trenching and petiole girdling - some insects girdle the petiole or cut trenches in the leaf to avoid defenses when feeding
  • Reduce influence of toxins after ingestion
  • Sequestration of toxic compounds. (Sequestration - hold chemicals in special tissues or structures where it cannot interfere with metabolism
How do insects avoid allelochemicals?
  • Internal detoxification systems
  • Animals have water-based excretory systems
  • Mixed function oxidases
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Most insect species feed on how many different plant families? Most feed on a single plant family.
How do plants call for help?
  • When attacked, many plants release volatile organic compounds
  • Chemicals may repel pests
  • Chemicals may attract predators/parasitoids
How do insects transmit diseases to plants and animals?
  • Mechanical - disease agent comes in contact with insect mouthparts, feet, etc and is simply carried along
  • Circulatory - pathogen spends part of its life cycle in the insect, transmitted when insect feeds
  • Phytotoxemia plants show symptoms as a consequence of toxins injected by the insect
  • Plants - Hemiptera and Thysanoptera most important
  • Plant viral diseases are transmitted by insects (Tomato spot wilt virus)
  • Key fungal pathogens of trees are transmitted primarily by bark beetles
What insects are most important vectors for animals?
  • Flies by far, fleas and lice
  • Flies - malaria, yellow fever, river blindness, sleeping sickness, encephalitis, many more
  • Lice - typhus, relapsing fever, trench fever
  • Fleas - plague
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Why do some plants eat insects and where would you expect to find them?
  • They eat insects for nutrition and you'd find them in poor soils
How many times have carnivorous plants evolved at least? They have evolved at least six different times
What are some characteristics of the Venus Fly Trap?
  • Native range - 100 miles of Wilmington, NC
  • Snaps shut in 1/10 of a second
  • Digest insects in the leaf
  • No muscles, no nerves
  • Leaf releases digestive juices
What are some characteristics of Bladderwort?
  • Eat arthropods, tadpoles, fish, etc
  • Many are free floating in water
  • More than 200 species around the world
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What are some characteristics of Pitcher Plants?
  • Hundreds of species worldwide
  • Prey fall into mixture of water and digestive chemicals
  • Pitcher is modified leaf
  • Downward pointing hairs and slippery surfaces cause insect to fall inside
  • Attractants - colors, odors
  • Mutualistic Insects - feed on trapped insects and excrete fertilizer
  • Spiders - competition; Mosquitoes -
What are some characteristics of Butterwort?
  • Secretions on leaves
  • Widely distributed in Northern Hemisphere
  • Some are epiphytes
What are some characteristics of Sundew Plants?
  • More than 150 species on every continent
  • Gel on tentacles is sticky and attractive
  • Some cannot bend leaves around prey
  • Some can bend leaves in tenth of a second
  • Rain drops will not make the leaves react
Should you collect carnivorous plants? NO. Never collect them from the wild; many kinds are endangered
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 About half of all insect species are what?Phytophagous (eat plants)
They compete directly with humans
Phytophagy has evolved repeatedly
 Coevolutionevolution of one group affects evolution of another group (and vice versa)
 Are plant-insect interactions detrimental to the plant?No.
 What is + and + plant-insect interactions called?Mutualism
 What is + and neutral plant-insect interactions called?Commensalism
 What is + and - plant-insect interaction called?Predation, parasitoids, parasites
 What is - and - plant-insect interactions called?Competition
 What was the first interaction between insect and plants?Herbivory and accidental pollen transfer
 These were well diversified in the Mesozoic eraBeetles
 What may beetles eat?Ovules of plant that was pollinated
 What are the steps in coevolution?
  • Odors to attract insects from distance
  • Insects' color vision

 What is pollination?Pollen onto receptive stigma
Wind pollination
Mechanical transfer
 What are the advantages/disadvantages of wind pollination?Advantages
  • not dependent on a third party
  • no need to supply reward


Disadvantages

  • untargeted
  • decreased likelihood of out-crossing
  • much larger production of pollen needed
  • plants don't disperse well
 What are the advantages/disadvantages of insect pollination?Advantages
  • Facilitates out-crossing, even if plants very dispersed
  • Coupled with seed dispersal by birds and other factors, helps plants colonize new habitats more rapidly
  • Reliable dispersal facilitated plant specialization which results in greater diversification

Disadvantages

  • Third party involved
  • Plant must produce reward
 NectarRich in sugars
Amino acids, proteins, and lipids
 What are some edible pollinator rewards?Plant gets its pollen transferred from anthers to stigmas

  • Pollen is a reward with lipid, starch, or protein
  • Nectar is an important food reward, from floral and extra-floral nectaries
  • Edible flower parts
 What are some nonedible pollinator rewards?
  • Heat
  • Insect mimics
  • Other mimics
 What are some costs to the pollinator and plant in their interactions?Pollinator Costs:
  • Energy - traveling, thermoregulation, extraction of reward
  • Risks exposure to predators/parasites


Plant Costs:

  • Resources to produce reward
  • Risks of being robbed
  • Attraction of herbivores
 What flowers are Beetles usually associated with?
  • Beetles: clumsy fliers, hard exoskeleton
  • Usually associated with dish/bowl flowers (Magnolias)
 Flies Pollination Patterns
  • Some flies, but not most have elongated mouthparts
  • Fly flowers typically shallow, with nectar exposed
  • Flowers often drab or white, with musty or bad smell
 Lepidoptera Pollination Patterns
  • Lepidoptera - long tongue
  • Flowers erect, often with place to land
  • Sweet odors
  • Colorful - red is common
  • Moth flower - less color, more odor
 What makes up the largest group of efficient pollinators?Bees
  • Both sexes take nectar
 What are some BEE adaptation for plant interactions?
  • Plumose hairs
  • Pollen transport structures
  • Modifications of the tongue
  • Diet of nectar and pollen
  • Social behavior in some species
 What are some PLANT adaptations for bees?
  • Colors in bees range of vision
  • Separate petals
  • Odors
  • Open at certain times
  • Landing platform
 Butterfly Life Cycle
  • Egg - a few days
  • Larva - a few weeks
  • Pupa - variable
  • Adult - a few weeks
 OverwinteringDifferent types of Lepidoptera spend the winter in each life stage

Some do not overwinter; they spend the winter in warmer climates
 Larval butterfly Food?Depends on species
 Adult buttefly food?Continuous nectar sources
 Should you use insecticides on larval or adult food sources?No. Most insecticides are broad spectrum
 What kind of flowers are adult butterflies attracted to?
  • Red, yellow, orange, pink, and purple blossoms that are flat-topped, clustered, and have short flower tubes
  • Adults feed in the sunshine
  • Water/mineral sources must be shallow
 What defines good butterfly plants?
  • Diversity is good
  • Native plants are important
 What do common Georgia butterflies feed on?Larval food - milkweed
 What are two characteristics of the Viceroy butterfly?
  • Mimics the poisonous monarch, or vice versa
  • They are poisonous
 What percent of all insect species feed on plants?
  • 50%
  • Insects are the dominant herbivores on the planet
 Describe Phytophagous feeding patternsExternal feeders
  • Consumer foliage, fruit, and roots directly
  • Suck plant juices
  • Grasshoppers, butterflies, beetles, etc


Internal feeders

  • Only endopterygotes (go through larval, pupal, adult cycle)
  • Almost always larvae
 What are Galls?
  • Galls - caused by abnormal growth of plant cells
  • Insect galls - wasps, aphids, thrips, moth caterpillars, and beetles
  • Open galls - leaf grows around insect colony
  • Closed galls - no opening

                        - typically one larva inside

 What are leafminers?
  • Larvae feed inside the leaf
  • Only larvae
  • Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera
 What are the categories of insect herbivores?
  • Generalists feed on multiple species of plants
  • Most feed on less than three families of plants


  • Specialists may feed on a single species


 What are some mechanical protections plants use against herbivores?
  • Spines/thorns - deter larger herbivores, but not useful against insects
  • Trichomes -  specialized epidermal cells may be straight spikes or hooks
  • Glandular hairs - epidermal structures containing capsules of resins that may entrap insects, clog spiracles and mouthparts
  • Deceptive morphological features- plant trick insects

                   - some flowers have fake eggs that discourage oviposition

 What are some chemical protections plants use against herbivores?
  • Antixenosis - chemicals that deter feeding
  • Antibiosis - have some kind of toxic effect on the insect when consumed
  • Allelochemical - produced by one species, toxic to another
  • Non  protein amino acids - about 1000 known, hundreds from plants
  • Found abundantly in legumes ; one function is nitrogen storage in seeds
  • Toxicity
 Cyanogenic Glycosides
  • store the cyanide molecule. Cyanide gas is released when the plant is damaged
  • Toxicity based upon the inhibition electron transport chain (energy)
  • Examples : Wild cherry, almonds, lima beans
  • Alkaloids - more than 10,000 identified; 1/3 of plants have them
  • Toxicity - interference with DNA replication, transcription
  • Examples : morphine, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, cocoa
 Proteinase Inhibitors?More chemical protection for plants
  • Often inducible
  • Toxicity - interferes with protein digestion
  • Found in legumes, grasses, solanaceous plants (potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, etc)
 Terpenoids?More chemical protection for plants
  • Terpenoids often repellent, bitter, or toxic
  • Toxicity - affect cell membranes and enzyme activity
  • Examples - catnip, cinnamon, cloves
 Insect Hormone Analogs fall into 3 basic groups what?
  • Ecdysis inhibitors interfere with the insect's ability to molt (Ferns and yews)
  • Chitin synthetase inhibitors interfere with building a new exoskeleton (Beans and many others)
  • Juvenile hormone analogs prevent the insect from receiving the proper hormonal signal for the final molt to adult (Balsam fir)
 Tannins and LigninsMore chemical protection for plants
  • Tannins are smaller and tend to be water-soluble. Astringent (Oaks and many other plants)
  • Lignins are large, insoluble polyphenol polymers associated with cell wall strengthening and protection from fungi
  • Toxicity -  astringency (withdraws water) may deter feeding
 Tolerance
  • Another plant defense
  • Tolerance - withstand damage without compromising fitness (reproductive success)
  • Many physiological processes involved
  • Soybean defoliation
 How do Insects avoid allelochemicals?
  • Avoidance - just don't eat them
  • Feed on specific parts: proper "ratio" of nutrition to allelochemicals
  • Leaf trenching and petiole girdling - some insects girdle the petiole or cut trenches in the leaf to avoid defenses when feeding
  • Reduce influence of toxins after ingestion
  • Sequestration of toxic compounds. (Sequestration - hold chemicals in special tissues or structures where it cannot interfere with metabolism
 How do insects avoid allelochemicals?
  • Internal detoxification systems
  • Animals have water-based excretory systems
  • Mixed function oxidases
 Most insect species feed on how many different plant families?Most feed on a single plant family.
 How do plants call for help?
  • When attacked, many plants release volatile organic compounds
  • Chemicals may repel pests
  • Chemicals may attract predators/parasitoids
 How do insects transmit diseases to plants and animals?
  • Mechanical - disease agent comes in contact with insect mouthparts, feet, etc and is simply carried along
  • Circulatory - pathogen spends part of its life cycle in the insect, transmitted when insect feeds
  • Phytotoxemia plants show symptoms as a consequence of toxins injected by the insect
  • Plants - Hemiptera and Thysanoptera most important
  • Plant viral diseases are transmitted by insects (Tomato spot wilt virus)
  • Key fungal pathogens of trees are transmitted primarily by bark beetles
 What insects are most important vectors for animals?
  • Flies by far, fleas and lice
  • Flies - malaria, yellow fever, river blindness, sleeping sickness, encephalitis, many more
  • Lice - typhus, relapsing fever, trench fever
  • Fleas - plague
 Why do some plants eat insects and where would you expect to find them?
  • They eat insects for nutrition and you'd find them in poor soils
 How many times have carnivorous plants evolved at least?They have evolved at least six different times
 What are some characteristics of the Venus Fly Trap?
  • Native range - 100 miles of Wilmington, NC
  • Snaps shut in 1/10 of a second
  • Digest insects in the leaf
  • No muscles, no nerves
  • Leaf releases digestive juices
 What are some characteristics of Bladderwort?
  • Eat arthropods, tadpoles, fish, etc
  • Many are free floating in water
  • More than 200 species around the world
 What are some characteristics of Pitcher Plants?
  • Hundreds of species worldwide
  • Prey fall into mixture of water and digestive chemicals
  • Pitcher is modified leaf
  • Downward pointing hairs and slippery surfaces cause insect to fall inside
  • Attractants - colors, odors
  • Mutualistic Insects - feed on trapped insects and excrete fertilizer
  • Spiders - competition; Mosquitoes -
 What are some characteristics of Butterwort?
  • Secretions on leaves
  • Widely distributed in Northern Hemisphere
  • Some are epiphytes
 What are some characteristics of Sundew Plants?
  • More than 150 species on every continent
  • Gel on tentacles is sticky and attractive
  • Some cannot bend leaves around prey
  • Some can bend leaves in tenth of a second
  • Rain drops will not make the leaves react
 Should you collect carnivorous plants?NO. Never collect them from the wild; many kinds are endangered
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