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Test 3 Practice - Flashcards

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Class:ENTO 2010 - Insects and the Environment
Subject:Entomology
University:University of Georgia
Term:Fall 2014
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Name two plant defenses against herbivory 1. Chemical
2. Mechanical
3. Tolerance
Name two types of Alkaloids Caffeine, Morphine, Cocaine, Nicotine
Name 3 ways insects cope with plant defensive chemicals 1. Avoidance
2. Eating specific plant parts
3. Leaf trenching
4. Reduce influence of toxins after consumes

What two orders of insects are most important vectors of plant disease? 1. Hemiptera
2. Thrips (Thysanoptera)
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Name a fungal pathogen Dutch Elm disease 
Chestnut blight
Three insect orders that are most important vectors for human/animal disease Diptera, Pthiraptera, Siphanoptera 

Diptera is most important- Milaria
Siphanoptera- Lice
Where would you expect to find carnivorous plants poor soils
Name two adaptations bees have for plants and visa versa Bees for plants:
- tongue modifications 
- diet of nectar and pollen
- plumose hairs

Plants for bees:
-UV reflectance 
- colors in bees range of vision
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Name two types of insects that can cause galls 1. Thrips
2. Aphids
3. Caterpillars
Name an order that can be a leaf miner Diptera
Hymenoptera
Lepidoptera
Name an advantage and disadvantage of insect pollination for a plant advantage: Specialized (more targeted)
disadvantage: must provide reward, depend on third party
Name one cost to both plants and pollinators Plants- Energy to provide reward
Pollinators- Risk of predators
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Name a non-edible reward of pollination Heat, attract a mate
Give an example of mutualism that occurs with insects Pollination
One advantage and disadvantage of wind pollination for plant Advantage: doesn't depend on third party, no reward required

Disadvantage: doesn't help outcrossing, not targeted 
Spiracles function? Respiration
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Where are spiracles located? Thorax and abdomen
What are ganglia Part of the nervous system
About what percent of insects are phytophagous? 50%
What type of insects are internal feeders? only endopterygotes- complete metamorphasis
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What stage are most all internal feeders? Larva
Most Generalists feed on how many plant families less than 3
Chemicals that deter feeding Antixenosis
Chemicals that have some type of toxic effect on insect when consumed Antibiosis
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Produced by one species, toxic to another allelochemical
Tannins and Lignins Astringent, may form complexes with dietary proteins
Alkaloids Interference with DNA replication, receptor site blocking
Terpenoids Affect cell membranes activity, often bitter
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What is phytotoxemia Plants show symptoms of toxins injected by insects
Which insects are the primary vectors for fungal pathogens of trees Beetles
Venus fly trap native range within about 100 miles of wilmington NC
Sundews native range Worldwide
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Pitcher plants native range Worldwide 
What makes up the pitcher plants pitcher A modified leaf
Beetles most commonly pollinate Dish/Bowl flowers
Flies most commonly pollinate Shallow flowers, drab/white, musty smell
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Moths/butterflies most commonly pollinate nectar deep in flowers, red in common, sweet odor
In what life stages do lepidopterans overwinter? They do not overwinter, they fly north
give an example of internal plant feeders beetle larvae, fly larvae
protocerebrum vision, integration of multiple behaviors
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deutocerebrum antennal inputs
tritocerebrum connects to stomatogastric region, integrates inputs from other brain lobes
What are the ocilli and stemmata Insect simple eyes
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 Name two plant defenses against herbivory1. Chemical
2. Mechanical
3. Tolerance
 Name two types of AlkaloidsCaffeine, Morphine, Cocaine, Nicotine
 Name 3 ways insects cope with plant defensive chemicals1. Avoidance
2. Eating specific plant parts
3. Leaf trenching
4. Reduce influence of toxins after consumes

 What two orders of insects are most important vectors of plant disease?1. Hemiptera
2. Thrips (Thysanoptera)
 Name a fungal pathogenDutch Elm disease 
Chestnut blight
 Three insect orders that are most important vectors for human/animal diseaseDiptera, Pthiraptera, Siphanoptera 

Diptera is most important- Milaria
Siphanoptera- Lice
 Where would you expect to find carnivorous plantspoor soils
 Name two adaptations bees have for plants and visa versaBees for plants:
- tongue modifications 
- diet of nectar and pollen
- plumose hairs

Plants for bees:
-UV reflectance 
- colors in bees range of vision
 Name two types of insects that can cause galls1. Thrips
2. Aphids
3. Caterpillars
 Name an order that can be a leaf minerDiptera
Hymenoptera
Lepidoptera
 Name an advantage and disadvantage of insect pollination for a plantadvantage: Specialized (more targeted)
disadvantage: must provide reward, depend on third party
 Name one cost to both plants and pollinatorsPlants- Energy to provide reward
Pollinators- Risk of predators
 Name a non-edible reward of pollinationHeat, attract a mate
 Give an example of mutualism that occurs with insectsPollination
 One advantage and disadvantage of wind pollination for plantAdvantage: doesn't depend on third party, no reward required

Disadvantage: doesn't help outcrossing, not targeted 
 Spiracles function?Respiration
 Where are spiracles located?Thorax and abdomen
 What are gangliaPart of the nervous system
 About what percent of insects are phytophagous?50%
 What type of insects are internal feeders?only endopterygotes- complete metamorphasis
 What stage are most all internal feeders?Larva
 Most Generalists feed on how many plant familiesless than 3
 Chemicals that deter feedingAntixenosis
 Chemicals that have some type of toxic effect on insect when consumedAntibiosis
 Produced by one species, toxic to anotherallelochemical
 Tannins and LigninsAstringent, may form complexes with dietary proteins
 AlkaloidsInterference with DNA replication, receptor site blocking
 TerpenoidsAffect cell membranes activity, often bitter
 What is phytotoxemiaPlants show symptoms of toxins injected by insects
 Which insects are the primary vectors for fungal pathogens of treesBeetles
 Venus fly trap native rangewithin about 100 miles of wilmington NC
 Sundews native rangeWorldwide
 Pitcher plants native rangeWorldwide 
 What makes up the pitcher plants pitcherA modified leaf
 Beetles most commonly pollinateDish/Bowl flowers
 Flies most commonly pollinateShallow flowers, drab/white, musty smell
 Moths/butterflies most commonly pollinatenectar deep in flowers, red in common, sweet odor
 In what life stages do lepidopterans overwinter?They do not overwinter, they fly north
 give an example of internal plant feedersbeetle larvae, fly larvae
 protocerebrumvision, integration of multiple behaviors
 deutocerebrumantennal inputs
 tritocerebrumconnects to stomatogastric region, integrates inputs from other brain lobes
 What are the ocilli and stemmataInsect simple eyes
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