Koofers

Exam I - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:EVR 1001 - Introduction to Environmental Sciences
Subject:Environmental Studies
University:Florida International University
Term:Fall 2010
- of -
INCORRECT CORRECT
- INCORRECT     - CORRECT     - SKIPPED
Shuffle Remaining Cards Show Definitions First Take Quiz (NEW)
Hide Keyboard shortcuts
Next card
Previous card
Mark correct
Mark incorrect
Flip card
Start Over
Shuffle
      Mode:   CARDS LIST       ? pages   PRINT EXIT
Environment -LIVING THINGS: animals, plants, forests, and fungi. -NONLIVING THINGS: ground, continents, clouds, soil & rocks -BUILT ENVIRONMENT: buildings, human created living centers -SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP INSTITUTIONS
Fundamental Insight -HUMANS are part of the NATURAL WORLD -our interactions with its other parts matter a great deal.
Human Survival -we depend COMPLETELY on the environment. -WEALTH, LONGER LIVES, HEALTH, MOBILITY AND LEISURE TIME.
EVR Degradation -POLLUTION, EROSION, SPECIES EXTINCTION -EVR CHANGES THREATEN LONG-TERM HEALTH
Generated by Koofers.com
What is Environmental Science? -STUDY OF: *how the natural world works *how the evr affects humans and vice-versa *interdisciplinary field of NATURAL SCIENCES, SOCIAL SCIENCES, & EVR SCIENCE PROGRAMS.
Natural Resources *Natural substances and energy resources that needed for survival.
Renewable Resources *Energy sources such as sunlight, wind, and wave energy *Can renew over short period of time like timber, water, and soil. *They can be destroyed
Non-renewable resources *Resources that once consumed, are unable to be produced again. *DEPELETABLE *Oil, coal, and minerals.
Generated by Koofers.com
Human Population Growth -6.7 BILLION humans -Reasons: *AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION: stable food supply *INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: fossil fuels, sanitation & medicines, more food.
Ecological Footprint -EVR impact of a person or population -amount of bio-productive land & water -resources to dispose and recycle *we are using THIRTY PERCENT more resources than what is sustainable.
EVR SCIENCE vs ENVIRONMENTALISM -it is the pursuit of KNOWLEDGE. -Scientists try to stay OBJECTIVE. -not about EVR ****ACTIVISM*** -ENVIRONMENTALISM IS A MOVEMENT.
What is Science? -Process of learning about the world and testing our understanding of it. -Accumulated body of knowledge that results from dynamic process of experiment. -Helps find solutions to our problems.
Generated by Koofers.com
Observational Science -scientists gather information about something not well known or that CANNOT be manipulated in experiments. Examples: Astronomy, paleontology, taxonomy, molecular biology
Hypothesis-driven Science -research that proceeds in a structured manner using experiments to test hypotheses through the scientific method.
CONTROL & TREATMENT -Control: the unmanipulated point of comparison. -Treatment: the manipulated point of comparison. TREATMENTS YIELD THE STRONGEST EVIDENCE. TREATMENTS REVEAL RELATIONSHIPS
THEORY A constantly supported hypothesis that is an accepted explanation of one or more cause and effect relationships. -Theories must be rigorously tested and extensively researched -Must have a lot of substance
Generated by Koofers.com
Paradigm Shift -A change in a dominant view
Ethics -the good and bad, right and wrong. -set of moral principles and values held by a person or society on the way one should behave. -criteria and standards people draw their decisions on.
Relativists -ethics vary with social context
Universalists -Morals stay the same no matter the situation.
Generated by Koofers.com
Ethical Standards -criteria that help differentiate right from wrong -treat others how you want to be treated UTILITY: something right will produce something beneficial
EVR Ethics -application of ethics towards the relationship of human and it's non-human counterparts -hard to resolve, depends on person's personal ethics.
3 Ethical Perspectives Anthropocentrism: ONLY HUMANS HAVE RIGHTS ex: Gifford Pinchet Biocentrism: CERTAIN LIVING THINGS ALSO HAVE VALUE ex: Aldo Leopald Ecocentrism: WHOLE ECO-SYSTEMS HAVE VALUE *Believe in preservation ethic ex: John Muir
Basel Convention PROHIBITS DUMPING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN ESPECIALLY POOR COUNTRIES.
Generated by Koofers.com
Eco-System Services -Regulation of water flows -Purification of soil -Nutrient cycles -Pollination of flowers and crops -Maintenance of biodiversity
I.P.A.T.S Model -impact in terms of pollution or resource consumption I = PATS *P= Population *A= Affluence (meat) *T= Technology (cellphones) *S= Sensitivity
Oceans & Human Impacts -cover 70% Earth's surface -critical to climate HUMAN IMPACTS: -increased absorption of co2->pH level in H20 -oil and trash pollution -decline in coral reefs -dead zones
Addressing Climate Change *MITIGATION: reduce pace and magnitude of climate change *ADAPTATION: reduce adverse impacts of changes *SUFFER THE CONSEQUENCES
Generated by Koofers.com
Sustainability *The solution to overshoot. By monitoring our current rates of resource depletion and renewal, we can ensure that we live within the earth’s carrying capacity.
Trophic Levels *rank in the food chain *Autotrophs: organisms that capture solar energy for photosynthesis- green plants, algae, and bacteria. *Primary consumers: organisms that consume producers -Example: Herbivores - deer *Secondary consumers: prey on PCs -Example: Carnivores - tiger *Tertiary Consumers: predators that feed at higher trophic levels -Example: hawks and owls L
CHNOPS 6 important elements in systems: Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Sulfur **Hydrogen and Phosphorus READILY give up or share ELECTRONS; whereas Oxygen strongly ATTRACTS ELECTRONS.
Nucleus The nucleus is the very dense region consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons) at the center of an atom.
Generated by Koofers.com
Atomic # # of protons in an atom
Isotopes Isotopes are different types of atoms (nuclides) of the same chemical element, each having a different number of neutrons. *Some can be radioactive and decay into other atoms.
Mass # sum of protons and neutrons
Molecule a bonding of two or more atoms
Generated by Koofers.com
Atomic Bonds Bonds: holding together of atoms *)NON)COVALENT BOND: equal sharing of electrons *POLAR COVALENT: unequal sharing of electrons *IONIC BOND: when an electron is given up from one atom to another. NOT SHARING. Strong attraction between negative and positive charges. WATER: *HYDROGEN BOND: Oxygen from one water molecule attracts Hydrogen molecules from another which makes excellent cohesion.
Properties of Water -Cohesion: Allows for nutrients and wastes to be transported on water -Ice (on water) Insulates water species from cold -Universal solvent -Movement of heat -Major driver of climate
Polymers long chains of repeated molecules *building blocks of life *3 TYPES OF POLYMERS: -Proteins: produce tissues, made up of amino acid chains, can serve as enzymes. -Nucleic Acids: directs production of protein (DNA & RNA) -Carbs: atoms of C, H, & O. *simple carbs: sugar *complex carbs: starch-used by plants to store energy
Macromolecules large sized molecules
Generated by Koofers.com
Lipids cannot dissolve in water naturally occurring molecules: fats, waxes, etc. benefits: structural support, cell membranes, and hormones.
Plastics *synthetic polymer made by humans *derive from petroleum hydrocarbons *resist chemical breakdown makes them valuable but also dangerous to environment because they create big waste pollution problems since they are not biodegradable.
Generated by Koofers.com

List View: Terms & Definitions

  Hide All 42 Print
 
Front
Back
 Environment-LIVING THINGS: animals, plants, forests, and fungi.
-NONLIVING THINGS: ground, continents, clouds, soil & rocks
-BUILT ENVIRONMENT: buildings, human created living centers
-SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP INSTITUTIONS
 Fundamental Insight-HUMANS are part of the NATURAL WORLD
-our interactions with its other parts matter a great deal.
 Human Survival-we depend COMPLETELY on the environment.

-WEALTH, LONGER LIVES, HEALTH, MOBILITY AND LEISURE TIME.
 EVR Degradation-POLLUTION, EROSION, SPECIES EXTINCTION
-EVR CHANGES THREATEN LONG-TERM HEALTH
 What is Environmental Science?-STUDY OF:
*how the natural world works
*how the evr affects humans and vice-versa
*interdisciplinary field of NATURAL SCIENCES, SOCIAL SCIENCES, & EVR SCIENCE PROGRAMS.
 Natural Resources*Natural substances and energy resources that needed for survival.
 Renewable Resources*Energy sources such as sunlight, wind, and wave energy
*Can renew over short period of time like timber, water, and soil.
*They can be destroyed
 Non-renewable resources*Resources that once consumed, are unable to be produced again.
*DEPELETABLE
*Oil, coal, and minerals.
 Human Population Growth-6.7 BILLION humans
-Reasons:
*AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION: stable food supply
*INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: fossil fuels, sanitation & medicines, more food.
 Ecological Footprint-EVR impact of a person or population
-amount of bio-productive land & water
-resources to dispose and recycle

*we are using THIRTY PERCENT more resources than what is sustainable.
 EVR SCIENCE vs ENVIRONMENTALISM-it is the pursuit of KNOWLEDGE.
-Scientists try to stay OBJECTIVE.
-not about EVR ****ACTIVISM***
-ENVIRONMENTALISM IS A MOVEMENT.
 What is Science?-Process of learning about the world and testing our understanding of it.
-Accumulated body of knowledge that results from dynamic process of experiment.
-Helps find solutions to our problems.
 Observational Science-scientists gather information about something not well known or that CANNOT be manipulated in experiments.
Examples: Astronomy, paleontology, taxonomy, molecular biology
 Hypothesis-driven Science-research that proceeds in a structured manner using experiments to test hypotheses through the scientific method.
 CONTROL & TREATMENT-Control: the unmanipulated point of comparison.
-Treatment: the manipulated point of comparison.

TREATMENTS YIELD THE STRONGEST EVIDENCE.
TREATMENTS REVEAL RELATIONSHIPS
 THEORYA constantly supported hypothesis that is an accepted explanation of one or more cause and effect relationships.
-Theories must be rigorously tested and extensively researched
-Must have a lot of substance
 Paradigm Shift-A change in a dominant view
 Ethics-the good and bad, right and wrong.
-set of moral principles and values held by a person or society on the way one should behave.
-criteria and standards people draw their decisions on.
 Relativists-ethics vary with social context
 Universalists-Morals stay the same no matter the situation.
 Ethical Standards-criteria that help differentiate right from wrong
-treat others how you want to be treated

UTILITY: something right will produce something beneficial
 EVR Ethics-application of ethics towards the relationship of human and it's non-human counterparts
-hard to resolve, depends on person's personal ethics.
 3 Ethical PerspectivesAnthropocentrism: ONLY HUMANS HAVE RIGHTS
ex: Gifford Pinchet
Biocentrism: CERTAIN LIVING THINGS ALSO HAVE VALUE
ex: Aldo Leopald
Ecocentrism: WHOLE ECO-SYSTEMS HAVE VALUE
*Believe in preservation ethic
ex: John Muir
 Basel ConventionPROHIBITS DUMPING OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN ESPECIALLY POOR COUNTRIES.
 Eco-System Services-Regulation of water flows
-Purification of soil
-Nutrient cycles
-Pollination of flowers and crops
-Maintenance of biodiversity
 I.P.A.T.S Model-impact in terms of pollution or resource consumption

I = PATS
*P= Population
*A= Affluence (meat)
*T= Technology (cellphones)
*S= Sensitivity
 Oceans & Human Impacts-cover 70% Earth's surface
-critical to climate

HUMAN IMPACTS:
-increased absorption of co2->pH level in H20
-oil and trash pollution
-decline in coral reefs
-dead zones
 Addressing Climate Change*MITIGATION: reduce pace and magnitude of climate change
*ADAPTATION: reduce adverse impacts of changes
*SUFFER THE CONSEQUENCES
 Sustainability*The solution to overshoot. By monitoring our current rates of resource depletion and renewal, we can ensure that we live within the earth’s carrying capacity.
 Trophic Levels*rank in the food chain

*Autotrophs: organisms that capture solar energy for photosynthesis- green plants, algae, and bacteria.
*Primary consumers: organisms that consume producers
-Example: Herbivores - deer
*Secondary consumers: prey on PCs
-Example: Carnivores - tiger
*Tertiary Consumers: predators that feed at higher trophic levels
-Example: hawks and owls

L
 CHNOPS6 important elements in systems:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Sulfur
**Hydrogen and Phosphorus READILY give up or share ELECTRONS; whereas Oxygen strongly ATTRACTS ELECTRONS.
 NucleusThe nucleus is the very dense region consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons) at the center of an atom.
 Atomic ## of protons in an atom
 IsotopesIsotopes are different types of atoms (nuclides) of the same chemical element, each having a different number of neutrons.

*Some can be radioactive and decay into other atoms.
 Mass #sum of protons and neutrons
 Moleculea bonding of two or more atoms
 Atomic BondsBonds: holding together of atoms
*)NON)COVALENT BOND: equal sharing of electrons
*POLAR COVALENT: unequal sharing of electrons
*IONIC BOND: when an electron is given up from one atom to another. NOT SHARING. Strong attraction between negative and positive charges.

WATER:
*HYDROGEN BOND: Oxygen from one water molecule attracts Hydrogen molecules from another which makes excellent cohesion.
 Properties of Water-Cohesion:
Allows for nutrients and wastes to be transported on water
-Ice (on water)
Insulates water species from cold
-Universal solvent
-Movement of heat
-Major driver of climate
 Polymerslong chains of repeated molecules
*building blocks of life

*3 TYPES OF POLYMERS:
-Proteins: produce tissues, made up of amino acid chains, can serve as enzymes.
-Nucleic Acids: directs production of protein (DNA & RNA)
-Carbs: atoms of C, H, & O.
*simple carbs: sugar
*complex carbs: starch-used by plants to store energy
 Macromoleculeslarge sized molecules
 Lipidscannot dissolve in water
naturally occurring molecules: fats, waxes, etc.

benefits: structural support, cell membranes, and hormones.
 Plastics*synthetic polymer made by humans
*derive from petroleum hydrocarbons
*resist chemical breakdown makes them valuable but also dangerous to environment because they create big waste pollution problems since they are not biodegradable.
36, "/var/app/current/tmp/"