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EXB Motor learning and sport psychology - Flashcards

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Class:EXB 102 - Motor Learn & Sport Psyc
Subject:Exercise Biology
University:University of California - Davis
Term:Fall 2012
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What are the 3 Attention styles Associaters - Different ways to organize att'n; Pay att'n to bodily functions; signals that associate to the body. (ex: every athlete has their own dashboard with gauges --> temperature, heart-rate, respiration, etc)

Disassociaters - deliberation not to pay att'n; focused on other non-related 

Selective Attention - "What should I be paying att'n to and when?"
What are the different attentional and interpersonal styles? Broad [view/focus] & Narrow [targeting, laser beam focus]
Internal [more thought about your next move] External [less time to spend att'n to] 
  • Broad-internal : ex tennis
  • Broad-external: ex basketball, volleyball
  • Narrow-Internal: ex marathon running, body building (more internal)
  • Narrow-External: golf, bowling, football quarterback
"targeting sports" require more attention
different positions may require different attributes


How to concentrate for SUCCESS
  1. - Don't set yourself up for failure. "Don't hit it out, don't hit it out..."
  2. - Not thinking about anything such as meditation, turning your mind off, etc
  • positive attitude
  • non-judgmental thinking
  • go to school on your performance 
  • let your body do what you've practiced

How to control DISTRACTION
  • Do not let distractions take control of you, you can let them go 
"In one ear, out the other"
  • Know that you CAN perform well, regardless of distractions
confidence, maintaining a positive attitude
  • Practice getting back on track quickly
relates to the study based on how easily workers get distracted by email alerts
  • Make a real effort to stay positive
Generated by Koofers.com
Define: REFOCUSING A mental skill for peak performance
Make a CHECKLIST
  • What to focus on at any particular moment
What are important. What are distractions cues
  • Have 3-4 things to focus on
  • Go back to checklist when you feel yourself drifting
  • No one is able to maintain intense focus for extended periods of time!
  • Learn & then PRACTICE to rebound quickly from drifting focus
Refocusing as a MENTAL SKILL
  • Control: mentally
  • Know yourself
  • Learn from the past, and your mistakes
Refocusing BEFORE A COMPETITION/PERFORMANCE
  • Find your own 'space'
  • Refocus on you & role: Strategies and visualizations
Generated by Koofers.com
Refocusing DURING BREAKS (timeouts, breaks, half-time)
  • Enjoy, encourage (with a positive attitude), and maintain enthusiasm
  • Rehearse checklist, cue words and strategy
Refocusing BETWEEN EVENTS (depends on arousal needs)
  • Breathing for relaxation
  • go to school on last performance
  • identify what you have to change
technique, tactics, strategy
  • identify how you will change these things
  • refocus on your & role
  • enjoy, encourage and enthusiasm (3e's)
  • rehearse checklist, cue words and strategy
Refocus AFTER COMPETITION
  • Go to school on individual & team performance 
  • let go of any negative feelings or thoughts
  • turn thoughts to next practice or competition
what do I want to change?
  • RELAX!
Types of Sport psychology
  • Applied sport psychology
  • Clinical Sport psychology
  • Educational Sport psychology
Generated by Koofers.com
Educational Sport Psychology
  • Psychological Skills Training (PST)
Mental training, mental toughness training
  • Goal setting
  • Relaxation/ Stress management/ Arousal control
  • Visualization (Imagery)
  • Attentional Skills (Concentration)
  • Positive self-talk/Cognitive restructuring 
  • Teamwork (Group dynamics)
Clinical Sport Psychology
  • General student/athlete concerns
  • Academic issues/time management skills
  • Adjustment to college
  • interpersonal relationships (Romance, roommate, date rape)
  • Family problems
  • Eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia)
  • Substance abuse (alcohol, drugs)
  • Phobias
Sport related issues
  • Playing time (high school star to college bench)
  • Coping with/ Rehabilitation from athletic injuries
  • Staleness/Burnout/Overtraining
  • Retirement/Transition
  • Leadership
  • Slumps
  • Health issues, weight control, disordered eating
  • Conflicts with team members/coaches/team management
  • substance abuse (steroids, drugs)
Exercise psychology consists of:
  • Motivation
  • Adherence
  • Exercise addiction/dependence
  • Strategies for behavior change
Generated by Koofers.com
Behavior change involves:
  • Use of sport/exercise as a vehicle for behavior change
  • Strategies involved in persuasion, communication, adherence
Keys to successful performance
  • Physical training (physical conditioning, nutrition, rest)
  • Skill enhancement (technique)
  • Strategies for practice/competition
  • Psychological Preparation (Attitude, goals, concentration, relaxation)
Define: Arousal
  • An all-inclusive, well-ranging continuum of psychological activation 
  1. positive feeling
Define: Anxiety
Generated by Koofers.com
Define: Activation
  • The PROCESS in the central nervous system that increases the activity in the brain from a lower level to a higher level and maintains this high level.  The ACTIVATION RESPONSE  is a general ENERGY MOBILIZING response that provides the conditions FOR A HIGH PERFORMANCE, both physically and psychologically.
How we react to a behavior ex: car accident, emergency, then the ability to ramp up immediately
Brain Mechanisms: CEREBRAL CORTEX
  • Higher intellectual functions, where decisions are made
Brain Mechanisms: HYPOTHALAMUS
  • Controls endocrine system (reactions, adrenaline dump)
Brain Mechanisms: RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
  • ACtivates cortex from BRainstem
Signals peripheral; losing balance.  When accidents are oncoming -- it signals the body to AVOID or to SURVIVE
Generated by Koofers.com
Brain Mechanisms: AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS)
  • Process when the body automatically raises blood pressure
  • All tied together
Define: State Anxiety
  • A TRANSITORY FORM of apprehension that varies in INTENSITY, in proportion to the strength of the fear-inducing cue
Rapid breathing, nervous energy, anxiety is temporary
Anxiety is the difference between...
  • is the difference between the TASK and OUR PERCEPTION of ability to complete the task
*Stimulating anxiety is a prevention
Define: Trait anxiety
  • relatively stable individual differences in anxiety proneness, that is, differences in the disposition to perceive a wide range of stimulus situations as dangerous or threatening and to RESPOND TO SUCH THREATS WITH A DISPROPORTIONATE amount of fear
Generated by Koofers.com
Drive Theory: P = D x H
  • CLarke Hull stated that performance (P) is a multiplicative function of the drive state/arousal state (D) and the habit strength (H) [how well the skill is learned]
Define: Flow state
  • Out of our body; automatic energy without thinking
What is Attention
  • The ability to process information from the environment through our senses
Attention is (6 ans)
  1. Serial (one at a time)
  2. shifting from source to source (varies in speed)
  3. limited in capacity (attentional box, may overflow/overload)
  4. effortful
  5. related to arousal
  6. limits the capacity to do certain parts of tasks together (multi-tasking vs parallel tasking)
Generated by Koofers.com
Stage models of information processing
  • Selective Attention
  • Pertinence Model ("cocktail phenomenon" attentive when certain info is heard such as name)
  • Reaction Time (RT)
Why study information processing?
  • For optimization, to improve
  • how and where does it come from?
What makes an athlete?
  • Physical Characteristics: strength, resilience, coordination, etc.
  • Mental Characteristics: strategic, confidence, endurance, etc.
  • Emotional Characteristics: aggressiveness, passion, temperament, team player
  • **extra Spiritual Characteristics: athletes having a connection with the sport.
Why study personality?
  • We cannot predict an athlete depending on personality
  • Understanding: Consider personality to understand how to train, how to coach, etc.
Generated by Koofers.com
Define: Personality
  • the underlying, relatively STABLE, psychological structure and PROCESSES that organize human experiences and SHAPE A PERSON'S ACTIVITIES AND REACTIONS to the environment
Is there an athletic "type"? NO
Is Personality inborn or learned
  • both, some may be genetic. Professor believes it is more learned.
Can you modify personality?
  • Personality is set by age 4, but instead, it is the BEHAVIOR that is changing. 
Going through a traumatic time in your life may change you positively or negatively, but your personality doesn't change.  Becoming a better/worse person does.  Other examples used: sense of humor is a trait, making someone laugh is a behavior.
Generated by Koofers.com
Define: Affect
  • Person's emotional state/conduct
ex: physical recovery vs mental recovery
Define: Traits
  • Long-term enduring characteristics; relatively unchanging
"always smiling"
Define: State
  • Temporary, fleeting; mind state. Can also be emotional
ex: test anxiety is a state anxiety.  Briefly anxious
Define: Normative
  • Normal distribution, average
ex: height, shoe size, intelligence
Some characteristics may not be normally distributed

Generated by Koofers.com
Why do High Risk Sport Participants do what they do?
  • Sensation seeking (personality type)
  1. Thrill & Adventure Seeking: Prioritizing the drive higher than most people; similar pathway for drug addiction in the brain
  2. Experience Seeking: Excitement to try a new rush
  3. Disinhibition: releasing the feeling of holding back
  4. Boredom susceptibility
  • Birth order
  • gender differences
Why do people exercise?
  • Health and fitness
  • improve own appearance
  • enjoyment
  • social experience
  • psychological benefit
Why DON'T people exercise?
  • Lack of time
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of facilities
  • Lack of Knowledge about fitness
  • Lack of Willpower (Concentration of effort, time, motivation or drive, interest)
Exercise adherence statistic on drop out

  • ******50% of people who start an exercise program will drop out within 6 - 8 weeks another 25% by the end of 1 year [not a good retention rate, similar to the January effect]

Generated by Koofers.com
What is motivation?
  • The intensity and direction of behavior (can be motivated away and towards)
  1. Intensity: Degree of effort put forth
  2. Direction: Approaches or avoids the situation
Intrinsic Motivation (IM)
  • Doing something for the love of it
Factors affecting Intrinsic Motivation
  • Control: an individual's perception if they have control
ex: prof told the class to go outside and run 20 miles.  Class is not interested.  Prof told the class to go outside and bike around the building.  It's not the class' first choice, but it interested them more.  This aids in intrinsic motivation.
  • Information: defines who they are; pride and satisfaction
ex: wearing a t-shirt that says your completed a marathon
Extrinsic Motivation (EM)
  • Characteristics that come from outside/externally from the individual
Generated by Koofers.com
Factors affecting Extrinsic Motivation
  • Recognition, Rewards: What is the behavior being awarded?
  • Endorsements, Championships, $$$
Connection b/w Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

  • **certain reward systems "EM" (depends how we set them up) can reduce "IM"; we want to increase "IM"; every motivation has some characteristics of both IM and EX

Attribution Theory - O = f(A,E,T,L)
  • task outcomes (O) in any achievement-related activity is a function of ability (A) [capacity; how good can you get? unknown, etc. ability to stable, quantifiable but unpredictable STABLE ABILITY], effort (E), task difficulty (T), and luck (L):

What are the 4 interventions for anxiety discussed in lecture?
  • Classical conditioning
  • Counter-conditioning
  • Instrumental conditioning
  • Cognitive techniques
Generated by Koofers.com
What are the types of Classical conditioning used to intervene sport anxiety? [learn before competition]
  • Extinction: method to get rid of anxiety; "happy place"
  • Flooding & Implosive Therapy: Overwhelming the person with anxiety or stimulus in order for them to 'get used' to it.

What are the types of counter-conditioning used to intervene sport anxiety? [can we get you into a relaxation mode that usually gets you anxious]
  • Relaxation Training - Progressive Relaxation:  Work their way up to deal with it
  • Systematic Desensitization: 
What are the types of Instrumental conditioning used to intervene sport anxiety?
  • Biofeedback
detect anxiety ex: with palm sweat detection devices
What are the types of Cognitive techniques used to intervene sport anxiety? [think about things; perspectives]
  • Stress inoculation Therapy: Think about the stressful event until the anxiety has passed.
  • Hypnosis: dangerous, therapeutic
  • Transcendental Meditation (TM): Mantra
Generated by Koofers.com
What happens when your attention field is too narrow? less easily distracted
Factors that affect sport performance. Coach affects... Athlete, athlete performance and environment

Factors that affect sport performance. Athlete affects... athletic performance, and environment

Factors that affect sport performance. Athletic performance affects... coach, athlete, and environment [rain, mud spectators.]

Generated by Koofers.com
Factors that affect sport performance. Environment affects... athletic performance, athlete.
Define: Athletic slump performance is low of capability; downward trend of performance previously done.

Define: transition coming back from injury
Generated by Koofers.com

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 What are the 3 Attention stylesAssociaters - Different ways to organize att'n; Pay att'n to bodily functions; signals that associate to the body. (ex: every athlete has their own dashboard with gauges --> temperature, heart-rate, respiration, etc)

Disassociaters - deliberation not to pay att'n; focused on other non-related 

Selective Attention - "What should I be paying att'n to and when?"
 What are the different attentional and interpersonal styles?Broad [view/focus] & Narrow [targeting, laser beam focus]
Internal [more thought about your next move] External [less time to spend att'n to] 
  • Broad-internal : ex tennis
  • Broad-external: ex basketball, volleyball
  • Narrow-Internal: ex marathon running, body building (more internal)
  • Narrow-External: golf, bowling, football quarterback
"targeting sports" require more attention
different positions may require different attributes


 How to concentrate for SUCCESS
  1. - Don't set yourself up for failure. "Don't hit it out, don't hit it out..."
  2. - Not thinking about anything such as meditation, turning your mind off, etc
  • positive attitude
  • non-judgmental thinking
  • go to school on your performance 
  • let your body do what you've practiced

 How to control DISTRACTION
  • Do not let distractions take control of you, you can let them go 
"In one ear, out the other"
  • Know that you CAN perform well, regardless of distractions
confidence, maintaining a positive attitude
  • Practice getting back on track quickly
relates to the study based on how easily workers get distracted by email alerts
  • Make a real effort to stay positive
 Define: REFOCUSINGA mental skill for peak performance
 Make a CHECKLIST
  • What to focus on at any particular moment
What are important. What are distractions cues
  • Have 3-4 things to focus on
  • Go back to checklist when you feel yourself drifting
  • No one is able to maintain intense focus for extended periods of time!
  • Learn & then PRACTICE to rebound quickly from drifting focus
 Refocusing as a MENTAL SKILL
  • Control: mentally
  • Know yourself
  • Learn from the past, and your mistakes
 Refocusing BEFORE A COMPETITION/PERFORMANCE
  • Find your own 'space'
  • Refocus on you & role: Strategies and visualizations
 Refocusing DURING BREAKS (timeouts, breaks, half-time)
  • Enjoy, encourage (with a positive attitude), and maintain enthusiasm
  • Rehearse checklist, cue words and strategy
 Refocusing BETWEEN EVENTS (depends on arousal needs)
  • Breathing for relaxation
  • go to school on last performance
  • identify what you have to change
technique, tactics, strategy
  • identify how you will change these things
  • refocus on your & role
  • enjoy, encourage and enthusiasm (3e's)
  • rehearse checklist, cue words and strategy
 Refocus AFTER COMPETITION
  • Go to school on individual & team performance 
  • let go of any negative feelings or thoughts
  • turn thoughts to next practice or competition
what do I want to change?
  • RELAX!
 Types of Sport psychology
  • Applied sport psychology
  • Clinical Sport psychology
  • Educational Sport psychology
 Educational Sport Psychology
  • Psychological Skills Training (PST)
Mental training, mental toughness training
  • Goal setting
  • Relaxation/ Stress management/ Arousal control
  • Visualization (Imagery)
  • Attentional Skills (Concentration)
  • Positive self-talk/Cognitive restructuring 
  • Teamwork (Group dynamics)
 Clinical Sport Psychology
  • General student/athlete concerns
  • Academic issues/time management skills
  • Adjustment to college
  • interpersonal relationships (Romance, roommate, date rape)
  • Family problems
  • Eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia)
  • Substance abuse (alcohol, drugs)
  • Phobias
 Sport related issues
  • Playing time (high school star to college bench)
  • Coping with/ Rehabilitation from athletic injuries
  • Staleness/Burnout/Overtraining
  • Retirement/Transition
  • Leadership
  • Slumps
  • Health issues, weight control, disordered eating
  • Conflicts with team members/coaches/team management
  • substance abuse (steroids, drugs)
 Exercise psychology consists of:
  • Motivation
  • Adherence
  • Exercise addiction/dependence
  • Strategies for behavior change
 Behavior change involves:
  • Use of sport/exercise as a vehicle for behavior change
  • Strategies involved in persuasion, communication, adherence
 Keys to successful performance
  • Physical training (physical conditioning, nutrition, rest)
  • Skill enhancement (technique)
  • Strategies for practice/competition
  • Psychological Preparation (Attitude, goals, concentration, relaxation)
 Define: Arousal
  • An all-inclusive, well-ranging continuum of psychological activation 
  1. positive feeling
 Define: Anxiety
 Define: Activation
  • The PROCESS in the central nervous system that increases the activity in the brain from a lower level to a higher level and maintains this high level.  The ACTIVATION RESPONSE  is a general ENERGY MOBILIZING response that provides the conditions FOR A HIGH PERFORMANCE, both physically and psychologically.
How we react to a behavior ex: car accident, emergency, then the ability to ramp up immediately
 Brain Mechanisms: CEREBRAL CORTEX
  • Higher intellectual functions, where decisions are made
 Brain Mechanisms: HYPOTHALAMUS
  • Controls endocrine system (reactions, adrenaline dump)
 Brain Mechanisms: RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
  • ACtivates cortex from BRainstem
Signals peripheral; losing balance.  When accidents are oncoming -- it signals the body to AVOID or to SURVIVE
 Brain Mechanisms: AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS)
  • Process when the body automatically raises blood pressure
  • All tied together
 Define: State Anxiety
  • A TRANSITORY FORM of apprehension that varies in INTENSITY, in proportion to the strength of the fear-inducing cue
Rapid breathing, nervous energy, anxiety is temporary
 Anxiety is the difference between...
  • is the difference between the TASK and OUR PERCEPTION of ability to complete the task
*Stimulating anxiety is a prevention
 Define: Trait anxiety
  • relatively stable individual differences in anxiety proneness, that is, differences in the disposition to perceive a wide range of stimulus situations as dangerous or threatening and to RESPOND TO SUCH THREATS WITH A DISPROPORTIONATE amount of fear
 Drive Theory: P = D x H
  • CLarke Hull stated that performance (P) is a multiplicative function of the drive state/arousal state (D) and the habit strength (H) [how well the skill is learned]
 Define: Flow state
  • Out of our body; automatic energy without thinking
 What is Attention
  • The ability to process information from the environment through our senses
 Attention is (6 ans)
  1. Serial (one at a time)
  2. shifting from source to source (varies in speed)
  3. limited in capacity (attentional box, may overflow/overload)
  4. effortful
  5. related to arousal
  6. limits the capacity to do certain parts of tasks together (multi-tasking vs parallel tasking)
 Stage models of information processing
  • Selective Attention
  • Pertinence Model ("cocktail phenomenon" attentive when certain info is heard such as name)
  • Reaction Time (RT)
 Why study information processing?
  • For optimization, to improve
  • how and where does it come from?
 What makes an athlete?
  • Physical Characteristics: strength, resilience, coordination, etc.
  • Mental Characteristics: strategic, confidence, endurance, etc.
  • Emotional Characteristics: aggressiveness, passion, temperament, team player
  • **extra Spiritual Characteristics: athletes having a connection with the sport.
 Why study personality?
  • We cannot predict an athlete depending on personality
  • Understanding: Consider personality to understand how to train, how to coach, etc.
 Define: Personality
  • the underlying, relatively STABLE, psychological structure and PROCESSES that organize human experiences and SHAPE A PERSON'S ACTIVITIES AND REACTIONS to the environment
 Is there an athletic "type"?NO
 Is Personality inborn or learned
  • both, some may be genetic. Professor believes it is more learned.
 Can you modify personality?
  • Personality is set by age 4, but instead, it is the BEHAVIOR that is changing. 
Going through a traumatic time in your life may change you positively or negatively, but your personality doesn't change.  Becoming a better/worse person does.  Other examples used: sense of humor is a trait, making someone laugh is a behavior.
 Define: Affect
  • Person's emotional state/conduct
ex: physical recovery vs mental recovery
 Define: Traits
  • Long-term enduring characteristics; relatively unchanging
"always smiling"
 Define: State
  • Temporary, fleeting; mind state. Can also be emotional
ex: test anxiety is a state anxiety.  Briefly anxious
 Define: Normative
  • Normal distribution, average
ex: height, shoe size, intelligence
Some characteristics may not be normally distributed

 Why do High Risk Sport Participants do what they do?
  • Sensation seeking (personality type)
  1. Thrill & Adventure Seeking: Prioritizing the drive higher than most people; similar pathway for drug addiction in the brain
  2. Experience Seeking: Excitement to try a new rush
  3. Disinhibition: releasing the feeling of holding back
  4. Boredom susceptibility
  • Birth order
  • gender differences
 Why do people exercise?
  • Health and fitness
  • improve own appearance
  • enjoyment
  • social experience
  • psychological benefit
 Why DON'T people exercise?
  • Lack of time
  • Fatigue
  • Lack of facilities
  • Lack of Knowledge about fitness
  • Lack of Willpower (Concentration of effort, time, motivation or drive, interest)
 Exercise adherence statistic on drop out

  • ******50% of people who start an exercise program will drop out within 6 - 8 weeks another 25% by the end of 1 year [not a good retention rate, similar to the January effect]

 What is motivation?
  • The intensity and direction of behavior (can be motivated away and towards)
  1. Intensity: Degree of effort put forth
  2. Direction: Approaches or avoids the situation
 Intrinsic Motivation (IM)
  • Doing something for the love of it
 Factors affecting Intrinsic Motivation
  • Control: an individual's perception if they have control
ex: prof told the class to go outside and run 20 miles.  Class is not interested.  Prof told the class to go outside and bike around the building.  It's not the class' first choice, but it interested them more.  This aids in intrinsic motivation.
  • Information: defines who they are; pride and satisfaction
ex: wearing a t-shirt that says your completed a marathon
 Extrinsic Motivation (EM)
  • Characteristics that come from outside/externally from the individual
 Factors affecting Extrinsic Motivation
  • Recognition, Rewards: What is the behavior being awarded?
  • Endorsements, Championships, $$$
 Connection b/w Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

  • **certain reward systems "EM" (depends how we set them up) can reduce "IM"; we want to increase "IM"; every motivation has some characteristics of both IM and EX

 Attribution Theory - O = f(A,E,T,L)
  • task outcomes (O) in any achievement-related activity is a function of ability (A) [capacity; how good can you get? unknown, etc. ability to stable, quantifiable but unpredictable STABLE ABILITY], effort (E), task difficulty (T), and luck (L):

 What are the 4 interventions for anxiety discussed in lecture?
  • Classical conditioning
  • Counter-conditioning
  • Instrumental conditioning
  • Cognitive techniques
 What are the types of Classical conditioning used to intervene sport anxiety?[learn before competition]
  • Extinction: method to get rid of anxiety; "happy place"
  • Flooding & Implosive Therapy: Overwhelming the person with anxiety or stimulus in order for them to 'get used' to it.

 What are the types of counter-conditioning used to intervene sport anxiety?[can we get you into a relaxation mode that usually gets you anxious]
  • Relaxation Training - Progressive Relaxation:  Work their way up to deal with it
  • Systematic Desensitization: 
 What are the types of Instrumental conditioning used to intervene sport anxiety?
  • Biofeedback
detect anxiety ex: with palm sweat detection devices
 What are the types of Cognitive techniques used to intervene sport anxiety?[think about things; perspectives]
  • Stress inoculation Therapy: Think about the stressful event until the anxiety has passed.
  • Hypnosis: dangerous, therapeutic
  • Transcendental Meditation (TM): Mantra
 What happens when your attention field is too narrow?less easily distracted
 Factors that affect sport performance. Coach affects...Athlete, athlete performance and environment

 Factors that affect sport performance. Athlete affects...athletic performance, and environment

 Factors that affect sport performance. Athletic performance affects...coach, athlete, and environment [rain, mud spectators.]

 Factors that affect sport performance. Environment affects...athletic performance, athlete.
 Define: Athletic slumpperformance is low of capability; downward trend of performance previously done.

 Define: transitioncoming back from injury
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