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Class:FNDS 21230 - CHAR OF KNOWLDG ACQUISTN-RS
Subject:Foundations of Education
University:Rowan University
Term:Spring 2010
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Information-processing approach A cognitive approach in which children manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this are memory and thinking.
Cognitive Psychology Approaches that sought to explain behavior by examining mental processes.
Cognitive Resources Capacity and Speed of processing. Important influence on memory and problem solving,
Encoding The process by which information gets into memory.
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Automaticity The ability to process information with little or no effort
Strategy Construction Creation of new procedure for processing information.
Self-Modification Children learn to use what they have learned in previous circumstances to adapt their responses to a new situation.
Metacognition Knowing about knowing
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Selective Attention Focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant.
Divided Attention Involves concentrating on more than one activity at the same time.
Sustained Attention the ability to maintain attention over an extended period of time. Attention Span
Executive Attention action planning, allocation attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
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Cognitive Control attention, to what they are thinking about instead of the most interesting stimuli
Memory The retention of information over time, which involves encoding, storage and retrieval
Storage The retention of information over time
Retrieval taking information out of storage
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Rehearsal the conscious repetition of information over time to increase the length of time information stays in memory, SHORT TERM
Deep Processing Thinking about in depth about something not just remember what something means
Levels of Processing Theory Theory that processing of memory occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory
Elaboration The extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding. Constructing an image is a form of elaboration
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Chunking grouping, or "packing" information into "higher-order" units that can be remembered as single units.
Sensory Motor Memory that holds information from the world in its original form from only an instant.
Memory's Time Frames Sensory Motor, Short-term, Long Term Memory
Short-Term Memory A limited-capacity memory system in which inforation is retained for as ling as 30 second, unless the information is rehearsed, in which case it can retained longer
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Memory Span The number of digits an individual can report back without error in a single presentation
Working Memory A three part system that holds information temporarily as a person preforms a task. The three parts are Phonological, Visuolspatial Working memory, and Central Executive
Phonological Loop is specialized to briefly store speech-based information about the sounds of language
Visuospacial stores visual and spatial memory. limited capacity
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Central Executive integrates information not only from the phonological loop and visuospacial working memory but also from the long-term memory. Supervisor of the other two
Long-Term Memory a type of memory that holds enormous amounts of information for a long period of time in a relatively permanent fashion.
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model A model of memory that involves a sequence of three stages: sensory motor, short-term and long-term memory. Sensory>attention>rehearsal>storage>retrieval>storage...
Declarative Memory the conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events that can be verbally communicated
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Procedure Memory Nondeclarative knowledge in the form of skills and cognitive operations, can not be consciously recollected.
Episodic Memory the retention of information about the where and when of life's happenings
Semantic Memory an individual's general knowledge about the world, independent of the individual's identity with the past
Network Theories Theories that describe thow information in memory is organized and connected; they emphasize nodes in the memory network
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Schema Theories Theories that when we construct information, we fit it into information that already exists in our mind
Schema Information-Concepts, knowledge , information about events-that already exists in a person's mind
Script A schema for an event
Fuzzy Trace Theory States that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations:1) verbatim memory and 2) fuzzy trace or gist.
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Verbatim Precise details
Fuzzy trace/Gist is the central idea of the information
Serial Position Effect The principle that recall is better for items at the beginning and teh end of a list rather than the middle
Primary Effect Items in the beginning of the list
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Recency Effect Items at the end of the list
Encoding Specificity Principle the principle that associations formed at the time of encoding or learning tend to be effective retrieval cues
Recall memory task in which individuals must retrieve previously learned information (fill in the blank)
Recognition memory task in which indiviuals only have to identify learned information (multiple choice)
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Cue-Dependent Forgetting retrieval failure caused by lack of effective retrieval cues
Interference Theory we forget not because actually lose memories from storage but because other information gets in the way of what we are trying to remember
Decay Theory new learning involves the creation of a neurochemical "memory trace" which will eventually disintegrate.
Cultural Specific Hypothesis cultural experiences determine what is relevent in a persons life ad thus what a person is likely to remember
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Efficiency can quickly retrieve and apply information in skillful ways to explain something or solve a problem.
Innovation able to move away from efficiency individuals let go and rethink their routine or doing something
Acclimation describe the initial stage of expertise in a particular expertise
Summarizing children take the general idea of something
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Deliberate Practice involves practice that is at an appropriate level of difficulty for the individual, provides corrective feedback, and allows opportunities for repetition
Pedagogical Content knowledge ideas about what common difficulties that the students have as they tru to learn a content area, typical paths for students, strategies
Metacognitive Knowledge involves monitoring and reflecting on one's current or recent thoughts. This includes factual knowledge
Metacognitive Activity occurs when students consciously adapt and manage their thinking stategies during problem solving purposeful thinking
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Theory of mind Awarenesss of one's own mental processes and mental processes of others
2-3 years old understand perceptions, emotions and desires
4-5 years old children understand that the mind can represent ovjects and events accurately or inaccurately
One or multiple strategies Children use multiple strategies in memory and problem solving
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Categories They group objects, events, and characteristics on the basis of common properties.
Concepts Ideas about what categories represent, or said another way, the sort of thing we think category members are.
Rule-Example Strategy Consists of four steps which are; define the concept, clarify the terms in the definition, give examples to illustrate the key features or characteristics, provide additional examples
Concept Map A visual presentation of a concept's connections and hierarchical organization
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Prototype Matching Deciding if an item is a memeber of a category by comparing it with the most typical item(s) of the category.
Reasoning is logical thinking that uses induction and deduction to reach a conclusion.
Inductive Reasoning Reasoning from the specific to the general
Analogy A correspondence in some respects between otherwise dissimilar things
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Deductive Reasoning Reasoning from the general to the specific
Critical Thinking Thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence
Mindfulness Means being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activities and tasks. Mindful students maintain an active awareness of the circumstances in their lives
Decision Making Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
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Confirmation Bias The tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them
Belief Perseverance The Tendency to hold on to a belief in the face of contradictory evidence
Overconfidence Bias The tendency to have more confidence in judgment and decisions than we should based on probability or past experience
Hindsight Bias The tendency to falsely report, after the fact that we accurately predicted an event
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Creativity The ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems
Convergent Thinking Thinking with the aim of producing one correct answer. This is usually the type of thinking required on conventional intelligence tests
Divergent Thinking Thinking with the aim of producing many answers to the same question. This is characteristic of creativity
Steps in Creativity Process Preparation, Incubation, Insight, Evaluation, Elaboration
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Brainstorming a technique in which people are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group
Provide Environments that stimulate creativity
Don't overcontrol students
Encourage Internal Motivation
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Guide students to help them think in Flexible ways
Build Students Self Confidence
Guide students to be persistent and delay gratification
Encourage Students to take risks
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Introduce students to creative people
Problem Solving Finding an appropiate way to attain a goal
Subgoaling The process of setting intermediate goals that place students in a better position to reach the final goal or solution
Algorithms Strategies that guarantee a solution to a problems
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Heuristics Strategies or rules of thumb that can suggest a solution to a problem but don't ensure that it will work
Means-end analysis A heuristics in which one identifies the goal (end) of a problem, assesses the current situation, and evaluates what needs to be done (means) to decrease the difference between the two conditions
Fixation Using a prior strategy and thereby failing to examine a problem from a fresh, new perspective
Mental Set A type of fixation in which an individual tries to solve a problem in a particular way that has worked in the past
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Lack of Motivation Even if your students have great problem-solving abilities if they aren't motivated it won't matter
Rule-assessment approach focuses on children's increasing ability to effectively use rules to solve problems as the get older
Problem-Based Teaching Teaching that emphasizes authentic problems like those that occur in daily life
Problem-Based Learning Students work on real, meaningful problems and create tangible products. 5 main features, a driving question, authentic situated inquiry, collaboration, Scaffolding, end product
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Scaffolding Leaning technologies are used to challenge students to go beyond what they normally would in a problem-solving context
Transfer Applying previous experiences and knowledge to learning or problem solving in a new situation
Near Transfer The transfer of learning to a situation that is similar to the one in which the initial learning took place
Far Transfer The transfer of learning to a situation that is very different from the one in which the initial learning took place
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Low-Road Transfer The automatic, often unconscious, transfer of learning to another situation
High Road Transfer The transfer of learning from one situation to another that is conscious and effortful
Forward-reaching Transfer Occurs when the individual looks to apply learned information to a future situation
Backward-reaching Transfer Occurs when the individual looks back to a previous situation for information to solve a problem in a new context
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Information-processing approachA cognitive approach in which children manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. Central to this are memory and thinking.
 Cognitive PsychologyApproaches that sought to explain behavior by examining mental processes.
 Cognitive ResourcesCapacity and Speed of processing. Important influence on memory and problem solving,
 EncodingThe process by which information gets into memory.
 AutomaticityThe ability to process information with little or no effort
 Strategy ConstructionCreation of new procedure for processing information.
 Self-ModificationChildren learn to use what they have learned in previous circumstances to adapt their responses to a new situation.
 MetacognitionKnowing about knowing
 Selective AttentionFocusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant.
 Divided AttentionInvolves concentrating on more than one activity at the same time.
 Sustained Attentionthe ability to maintain attention over an extended period of time. Attention Span
 Executive Attentionaction planning, allocation attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
 Cognitive Controlattention, to what they are thinking about instead of the most interesting stimuli
 MemoryThe retention of information over time, which involves encoding, storage and retrieval
 Storage The retention of information over time
 Retrieval taking information out of storage
 Rehearsalthe conscious repetition of information over time to increase the length of time information stays in memory, SHORT TERM
 Deep Processing Thinking about in depth about something not just remember what something means
 Levels of Processing TheoryTheory that processing of memory occurs on a continuum from shallow to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory
 ElaborationThe extensiveness of information processing involved in encoding. Constructing an image is a form of elaboration
 Chunkinggrouping, or "packing" information into "higher-order" units that can be remembered as single units.
 Sensory MotorMemory that holds information from the world in its original form from only an instant.
 Memory's Time FramesSensory Motor, Short-term, Long Term Memory
 Short-Term MemoryA limited-capacity memory system in which inforation is retained for as ling as 30 second, unless the information is rehearsed, in which case it can retained longer
 Memory SpanThe number of digits an individual can report back without error in a single presentation
 Working MemoryA three part system that holds information temporarily as a person preforms a task. The three parts are Phonological, Visuolspatial Working memory, and Central Executive
 Phonological Loopis specialized to briefly store speech-based information about the sounds of language
 Visuospacialstores visual and spatial memory. limited capacity
 Central Executiveintegrates information not only from the phonological loop and visuospacial working memory but also from the long-term memory. Supervisor of the other two
 Long-Term Memorya type of memory that holds enormous amounts of information for a long period of time in a relatively permanent fashion.
 Atkinson-Shiffrin ModelA model of memory that involves a sequence of three stages: sensory motor, short-term and long-term memory. Sensory>attention>rehearsal>storage>retrieval>storage...
 Declarative Memorythe conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts or events that can be verbally communicated
 Procedure MemoryNondeclarative knowledge in the form of skills and cognitive operations, can not be consciously recollected.
 Episodic Memorythe retention of information about the where and when of life's happenings
 Semantic Memoryan individual's general knowledge about the world, independent of the individual's identity with the past
 Network TheoriesTheories that describe thow information in memory is organized and connected; they emphasize nodes in the memory network
 Schema TheoriesTheories that when we construct information, we fit it into information that already exists in our mind
 SchemaInformation-Concepts, knowledge , information about events-that already exists in a person's mind
 ScriptA schema for an event
 Fuzzy Trace TheoryStates that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations:1) verbatim memory and 2) fuzzy trace or gist.
 VerbatimPrecise details
 Fuzzy trace/Gistis the central idea of the information
 Serial Position Effect The principle that recall is better for items at the beginning and teh end of a list rather than the middle
 Primary EffectItems in the beginning of the list
 Recency EffectItems at the end of the list
 Encoding Specificity Principlethe principle that associations formed at the time of encoding or learning tend to be effective retrieval cues
 Recallmemory task in which individuals must retrieve previously learned information (fill in the blank)
 Recognitionmemory task in which indiviuals only have to identify learned information (multiple choice)
 Cue-Dependent Forgettingretrieval failure caused by lack of effective retrieval cues
 Interference Theorywe forget not because actually lose memories from storage but because other information gets in the way of what we are trying to remember
 Decay Theorynew learning involves the creation of a neurochemical "memory trace" which will eventually disintegrate.
 Cultural Specific Hypothesiscultural experiences determine what is relevent in a persons life ad thus what a person is likely to remember
 Efficiencycan quickly retrieve and apply information in skillful ways to explain something or solve a problem.
 Innovationable to move away from efficiency individuals let go and rethink their routine or doing something
 Acclimationdescribe the initial stage of expertise in a particular expertise
 Summarizingchildren take the general idea of something
 Deliberate Practiceinvolves practice that is at an appropriate level of difficulty for the individual, provides corrective feedback, and allows opportunities for repetition
 Pedagogical Content knowledgeideas about what common difficulties that the students have as they tru to learn a content area, typical paths for students, strategies
 Metacognitive Knowledge involves monitoring and reflecting on one's current or recent thoughts. This includes factual knowledge
 Metacognitive Activityoccurs when students consciously adapt and manage their thinking stategies during problem solving purposeful thinking
 Theory of mindAwarenesss of one's own mental processes and mental processes of others
 2-3 years oldunderstand perceptions, emotions and desires
 4-5 years oldchildren understand that the mind can represent ovjects and events accurately or inaccurately
 One or multiple strategies Children use multiple strategies in memory and problem solving
 CategoriesThey group objects, events, and characteristics on the basis of common properties.
 ConceptsIdeas about what categories represent, or said another way, the sort of thing we think category members are.
 Rule-Example StrategyConsists of four steps which are; define the concept, clarify the terms in the definition, give examples to illustrate the key features or characteristics, provide additional examples
 Concept MapA visual presentation of a concept's connections and hierarchical organization
 Prototype MatchingDeciding if an item is a memeber of a category by comparing it with the most typical item(s) of the category.
 Reasoningis logical thinking that uses induction and deduction to reach a conclusion.
 Inductive ReasoningReasoning from the specific to the general
 AnalogyA correspondence in some respects between otherwise dissimilar things
  Deductive ReasoningReasoning from the general to the specific
 Critical ThinkingThinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence
 MindfulnessMeans being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activities and tasks. Mindful students maintain an active awareness of the circumstances in their lives
 Decision MakingEvaluating alternatives and making choices among them
 Confirmation BiasThe tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them
 Belief PerseveranceThe Tendency to hold on to a belief in the face of contradictory evidence
 Overconfidence BiasThe tendency to have more confidence in judgment and decisions than we should based on probability or past experience
 Hindsight BiasThe tendency to falsely report, after the fact that we accurately predicted an event
 CreativityThe ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems
 Convergent ThinkingThinking with the aim of producing one correct answer. This is usually the type of thinking required on conventional intelligence tests
 Divergent ThinkingThinking with the aim of producing many answers to the same question. This is characteristic of creativity
 Steps in Creativity ProcessPreparation, Incubation, Insight, Evaluation, Elaboration
 Brainstorminga technique in which people are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group
 Provide Environments that stimulate creativity 
 Don't overcontrol students 
 Encourage Internal Motivation 
 Guide students to help them think in Flexible ways 
 Build Students Self Confidence 
 Guide students to be persistent and delay gratification 
 Encourage Students to take risks 
 Introduce students to creative people 
 Problem SolvingFinding an appropiate way to attain a goal
 SubgoalingThe process of setting intermediate goals that place students in a better position to reach the final goal or solution
 AlgorithmsStrategies that guarantee a solution to a problems
 HeuristicsStrategies or rules of thumb that can suggest a solution to a problem but don't ensure that it will work
 Means-end analysisA heuristics in which one identifies the goal (end) of a problem, assesses the current situation, and evaluates what needs to be done (means) to decrease the difference between the two conditions
 FixationUsing a prior strategy and thereby failing to examine a problem from a fresh, new perspective
 Mental SetA type of fixation in which an individual tries to solve a problem in a particular way that has worked in the past
 Lack of MotivationEven if your students have great problem-solving abilities if they aren't motivated it won't matter
 Rule-assessment approachfocuses on children's increasing ability to effectively use rules to solve problems as the get older
 Problem-Based TeachingTeaching that emphasizes authentic problems like those that occur in daily life
 Problem-Based LearningStudents work on real, meaningful problems and create tangible products. 5 main features, a driving question, authentic situated inquiry, collaboration, Scaffolding, end product
 ScaffoldingLeaning technologies are used to challenge students to go beyond what they normally would in a problem-solving context
 TransferApplying previous experiences and knowledge to learning or problem solving in a new situation
 Near TransferThe transfer of learning to a situation that is similar to the one in which the initial learning took place
 Far TransferThe transfer of learning to a situation that is very different from the one in which the initial learning took place
 Low-Road TransferThe automatic, often unconscious, transfer of learning to another situation
 High Road TransferThe transfer of learning from one situation to another that is conscious and effortful
 Forward-reaching TransferOccurs when the individual looks to apply learned information to a future situation
 Backward-reaching TransferOccurs when the individual looks back to a previous situation for information to solve a problem in a new context
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