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Exam 1: Clark - Flashcards

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Class:GBA 2013 - Social & Ethical Issues in Bus
Subject:General Business Admin
University:University of Texas - San Antonio
Term:Fall 2011
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Autonomy Defined: the right or condition of self-government (free will)
In Notes: Kantian Argument that people are moral agents. A person’s moral value is contained in their humanity, not in their usefulness

*    Persons are ends in themselves, not merely means

*    Persons are constituted through their ability to rationally conceive of the  moral law, that is, the categorical imperative.

Flow Chart of Argument: People are Autonomous->Autonomy is sufficient for self-governance->Self-governance is sufficient for Dignity->Dignity is sufficient for respect==Autonomous beings deserve respect

Self-Governance Defined: Ability to govern ourselves
In Notes: Autonomy and Rationality are sufficient conditions for self-governance. Self-governance is a sufficient condition for dignity. (COUNTER POINT:  autonomy is NOT a sufficient condition for self governance for example, children are autonomous but we don’t let them self govern because they lack rationality.)

 

Evolution of Work 1. Greeks: viewed work as a curse from the Gods, but as a necessary evil. 
2. Aristotle:Working to live=natural bc its finite. Working for profit=unnatural bc it was to fulfill limitless wants.
3.Early Christiansgood work and bad work . Good work keeps one away from 7 deadly sins and helps instill virtue. 
4. Reformation:poor people= lazy & worthless. Its your fault if you're poor.
5. Renaissance: work=ones ability to make and create things, change the environment, & express themselves.
6. Present Day: Work is our identity. 
Social Contract Purpose: to limit freedoms, without limits the world would be chaotic. Rights only exist with Social Contracts. 

-promotes division of labor
-inequalities are justified when it benefits the society as a whole
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Sufficient Condition Definition: something that has to be the case to be true or false. 
Example: 
Autonomy is a necessary condition for self governance, but is NOT sufficient--> It also needs rationality.( having two parts oxygen and one part hydrogen is sufficient and necessary)
Kant's Categorical Imperative 1 Always treat people as an ends to a means, not a means to an end. 

Treat them as if their moral value is already present until proven otherwise. respect them as being valuable simply because they are a person. 

Intrinsic value above instrumental value
Kant's Categorical Imperative 2     Act such that your actions can be made to accord with a universal law 

violation of a categorical imperative is a violation of yours and the other person's humanity   
Rationality Making the right decision (exercising reason), being moral. 
sufficient condition for self-governance 

About your beliefs, not about your desires. 

recognizing your autonomy. If you don’t have the capacity to recognize that, you are not a person/moral agent (children)   
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Argumentation the reason for argument is to instill your beliefs in other people. we have a moral right to beliefs
Morality vs. Legality Just because something is moral, doesn't mean it is legal and vice versa. 

We hope our laws are based on morals but that is not always the case. 
Informed Consent Protects a persons autonomy and preserves free will
The negative effect is not necessarily the lie itself, but what the lie is trying to accomplish. Persons have the right to informed consent

As autonomous beings who deserve respect, we have the right to be informed.

Example: employees have the right to know about safety hazards
Economic Equality We all have the ability to get any job because we are a free market society, but those jobs all pay differently. Some people are paid more, but only if it benefits society as a whole. 

This system creates equality but the jobs themselves are not equal. 
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Veil of Ignorance Assume your place in society is unknown.  
This assures fairness, nobody is benefitted through chance or natural ability or social circumstance
Person vs Human beings People are moral agents, human beings is just a biological term. 
Shareholder someone who owns a share of the business (stockholder)
Stakeholder Stakeholder engagement is the process by which an organisation involves people who may be affected by the decisions it makes or can influence the implementation of its decisions.

someone affected by the decisions a business makes

NYSEG helping customers pay energy bills 
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Combat model of business businesses are at war instead of working together 

competition is the only goal--inefficient 
Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is an ethical theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall "good" of the greatest number of individuals.

do what is best for the majority 
Doctrine of Double Effect a set of ethical criteria for evaluating the permissibility of acting when one's otherwise legitimate act will also cause an effect one would normally be obliged to avoid (for example, the patient's death).

If the mechanism for the effect undermines the autonomy of a person, the action is immoral. 


Relative poverty vs Absolute poverty Relative poverty is poverty based on the surroundings of the person, different in each country.

Absolute poverty is poverty considered by all countries. you don't have the means to provide for your basic needs--very bad, causes death. 
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Leviathan Enforcer of the social contract. 
Causal Chain In philosophy, a causal chain is an ordered sequence of events in which any one event in the chain causes the next.
Contradiction of the Will -way to violate the universal principle

being ok with the law unless it affects me

What if you were that person?
Conceptual Incoherence -way to violate the universal principle

If the law becomes incoherent in the process of universalizing it, it is a violation. (parking in a handicap space because youre late)
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Consequentialism ethics based on the consequences that happen, regardless of your intention
State of Nature would be chaotic (preceded governments)
we need structure to have rights because rights only exist with social contracts 
Ethics of Belief Beliefs determine your actions
We are responsible for our own beliefs
Ethics are a part of our beliefs, therefore we have a moral obligation to our beliefs. 
Justice as Fairness John Rawls
Everyone has an equal opportunity --must abide by two rules:
1. everyone has an equal right to equal liberties until they encroach on another's liberties
2. Social and Economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both

§  (a) reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage, and

§  (b) attached to positions and offices that are open to all.

Social contracts

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Fiduciary Responsibility a legal or ethical relationship of confidence/trust 
Ought/Can Principle

any time someone tells you the way you should act, in order for it to matter, it has to be the case that you can do it/its possible.  If it isn’t possible, its not a useful moral theory. A moral theory (any “ought” sentence) presupposes that its possible.           

Deontology judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules. 

Kant

Based on autonomy of persons not sensations
Reflective Equilibrium state of balance or coherence among a set of beliefs arrived at by a process of deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and particular judgments.

balance among beliefs, compromise, between principles and judgements 
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Medical Ethics informed consent: people have the right to be informed of the medical procedures needed to be performed on them --RESPECT
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 AutonomyDefined: the right or condition of self-government (free will)
In Notes: Kantian Argument that people are moral agents. A person’s moral value is contained in their humanity, not in their usefulness

*    Persons are ends in themselves, not merely means

*    Persons are constituted through their ability to rationally conceive of the  moral law, that is, the categorical imperative.

Flow Chart of Argument: People are Autonomous->Autonomy is sufficient for self-governance->Self-governance is sufficient for Dignity->Dignity is sufficient for respect==Autonomous beings deserve respect

 Self-GovernanceDefined: Ability to govern ourselves
In Notes: Autonomy and Rationality are sufficient conditions for self-governance. Self-governance is a sufficient condition for dignity. (COUNTER POINT:  autonomy is NOT a sufficient condition for self governance for example, children are autonomous but we don’t let them self govern because they lack rationality.)

 

 Evolution of Work1. Greeks: viewed work as a curse from the Gods, but as a necessary evil. 
2. Aristotle:Working to live=natural bc its finite. Working for profit=unnatural bc it was to fulfill limitless wants.
3.Early Christiansgood work and bad work . Good work keeps one away from 7 deadly sins and helps instill virtue. 
4. Reformation:poor people= lazy & worthless. Its your fault if you're poor.
5. Renaissance: work=ones ability to make and create things, change the environment, & express themselves.
6. Present Day: Work is our identity. 
 Social ContractPurpose: to limit freedoms, without limits the world would be chaotic. Rights only exist with Social Contracts. 

-promotes division of labor
-inequalities are justified when it benefits the society as a whole
 Sufficient ConditionDefinition: something that has to be the case to be true or false. 
Example: 
Autonomy is a necessary condition for self governance, but is NOT sufficient--> It also needs rationality.( having two parts oxygen and one part hydrogen is sufficient and necessary)
 Kant's Categorical Imperative 1Always treat people as an ends to a means, not a means to an end. 

Treat them as if their moral value is already present until proven otherwise. respect them as being valuable simply because they are a person. 

Intrinsic value above instrumental value
 Kant's Categorical Imperative 2    Act such that your actions can be made to accord with a universal law 

violation of a categorical imperative is a violation of yours and the other person's humanity   
 RationalityMaking the right decision (exercising reason), being moral. 
sufficient condition for self-governance 

About your beliefs, not about your desires. 

recognizing your autonomy. If you don’t have the capacity to recognize that, you are not a person/moral agent (children)   
 Argumentationthe reason for argument is to instill your beliefs in other people. we have a moral right to beliefs
 Morality vs. LegalityJust because something is moral, doesn't mean it is legal and vice versa. 

We hope our laws are based on morals but that is not always the case. 
 Informed ConsentProtects a persons autonomy and preserves free will
The negative effect is not necessarily the lie itself, but what the lie is trying to accomplish. Persons have the right to informed consent

As autonomous beings who deserve respect, we have the right to be informed.

Example: employees have the right to know about safety hazards
 Economic EqualityWe all have the ability to get any job because we are a free market society, but those jobs all pay differently. Some people are paid more, but only if it benefits society as a whole. 

This system creates equality but the jobs themselves are not equal. 
 Veil of IgnoranceAssume your place in society is unknown.  
This assures fairness, nobody is benefitted through chance or natural ability or social circumstance
 Person vs Human beingsPeople are moral agents, human beings is just a biological term. 
 Shareholdersomeone who owns a share of the business (stockholder)
 StakeholderStakeholder engagement is the process by which an organisation involves people who may be affected by the decisions it makes or can influence the implementation of its decisions.

someone affected by the decisions a business makes

NYSEG helping customers pay energy bills 
 Combat model of businessbusinesses are at war instead of working together 

competition is the only goal--inefficient 
 UtilitarianismUtilitarianism is an ethical theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall "good" of the greatest number of individuals.

do what is best for the majority 
 Doctrine of Double Effecta set of ethical criteria for evaluating the permissibility of acting when one's otherwise legitimate act will also cause an effect one would normally be obliged to avoid (for example, the patient's death).

If the mechanism for the effect undermines the autonomy of a person, the action is immoral. 


 Relative poverty vs Absolute povertyRelative poverty is poverty based on the surroundings of the person, different in each country.

Absolute poverty is poverty considered by all countries. you don't have the means to provide for your basic needs--very bad, causes death. 
 LeviathanEnforcer of the social contract. 
 Causal ChainIn philosophy, a causal chain is an ordered sequence of events in which any one event in the chain causes the next.
 Contradiction of the Will-way to violate the universal principle

being ok with the law unless it affects me

What if you were that person?
 Conceptual Incoherence-way to violate the universal principle

If the law becomes incoherent in the process of universalizing it, it is a violation. (parking in a handicap space because youre late)
 Consequentialismethics based on the consequences that happen, regardless of your intention
 State of Naturewould be chaotic (preceded governments)
we need structure to have rights because rights only exist with social contracts 
 Ethics of BeliefBeliefs determine your actions
We are responsible for our own beliefs
Ethics are a part of our beliefs, therefore we have a moral obligation to our beliefs. 
 Justice as FairnessJohn Rawls
Everyone has an equal opportunity --must abide by two rules:
1. everyone has an equal right to equal liberties until they encroach on another's liberties
2. Social and Economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are both

§  (a) reasonably expected to be to everyone’s advantage, and

§  (b) attached to positions and offices that are open to all.

Social contracts

 Fiduciary Responsibilitya legal or ethical relationship of confidence/trust 
 Ought/Can Principle

any time someone tells you the way you should act, in order for it to matter, it has to be the case that you can do it/its possible.  If it isn’t possible, its not a useful moral theory. A moral theory (any “ought” sentence) presupposes that its possible.           

 Deontologyjudges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules. 

Kant

Based on autonomy of persons not sensations
 Reflective Equilibriumstate of balance or coherence among a set of beliefs arrived at by a process of deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and particular judgments.

balance among beliefs, compromise, between principles and judgements 
 Medical Ethicsinformed consent: people have the right to be informed of the medical procedures needed to be performed on them --RESPECT
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