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Class:GCOM 123 - FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN COMMUNICATION: GROUP PRESENTATIONS [C1HC]
Subject:General Education Human Communication
University:James Madison University
Term:Fall 2010
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common myths about communication 1 - a cure-all 2 - common sense 3 - more is better
linear model of communication sender sends a message it goes through a channel to a receiver, noise
interactive model of communication adds feedback, two-way communication, also adds fields of experiencce
transactional model of communication both people are sending and recieving; content (what is actually said and done) and relation (how the message defines or redefines the association between individuals)
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sender initiator and encoder
message stimulus that produces meaning
channel medium through which a message travels, such as oral or written
recieve decoder of message
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noise interference with effective transmission and reception of message
feedback the reciever's verbal and nonverbal responses to the message
fields of experience our cultural background, ethnicity, geographic location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime
contructive communication climate openess, sharing, we-oriented
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destructive communication climate closedness, defensiveness
perceptual process selecting, organizing, and interpreting
perceptual schema mental frameworks that creat meaningful patterns from stimuli - prototypes, stereotypes, and script
prototypes most representative or "best" example of something; ideal
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stereotypes a generalization about a group or category;
script a predictable sequence of events that indicated what we are expected to do in a given situation
self-concept developed reflected appraisal - message you receive from others that assess your self concept significant others society
influences on perception gender, culture, past experiences, mood, and context
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self - disclosure is the process of purposefully revealing to others personal information about yourself that is significant and that others would not know unless you told them
depth and breadth in terms of self-disclosure breadth is range of topics depth is how personal you become
offering and receiving self-disclosure trust reciprocity cultural appropriateness situational appropriateness incremental disclosure
reciprocal sharing important... trust and risk-taking are shared
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self-serving bias tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves
self-fufilling prophecy acting on and erroneous expectation that produces the expected behavior and confirms the original impression
process of attribution attribute motives or reasons why to other people. Normally blame other people. fundamental attribution error gives ourselves all doubt
empathy perspective talking (understanding) emotional understanding (experience the feelings of others) concern for others (you care)
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culture a learned set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices shared by large groups of people
culture influences communication appropriate in one culture in rude in another, very common
ethnocentrism one's culture is superior to any other
cultural relativism cultures are merely different
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multiculturism movement that insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect as equals, diversity helps us
individualist culture individuals are loosley linked to each other and chiefly motivated by one's own preferences, needs, and goals
collectivist culture closely linked
low-power distance encourages equal power sharing and discourages attention to status differences. Challenge authority to reduce status difference ex. US - democracy
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high-power distance strong emphasis on power differences, authorities are rarely challenged ex: India's caste system
feminine cultures blending of roles, more equality affectionate sensitive express emotions less rigid and more overlapping
masculine cultures dominant, assertive competitive more rigid and distinct
phonemes In a language or dialect, a phoneme (from the , phnma, "a sound uttered") is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances.
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morphemes In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest component of word, or other linguistic unit, that has semantic meaning.
syntax In linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek "arrangement" from syn, "together", and txis, "an ordering") is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages.
semantics set of rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences
four essential elements of all languages structure productivity displacement self-relexivness
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structure set of rules that specify how the units of language can be meaningfully combined
productivity the capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words, phrases, and sentences you require to communicate
displacement your ability to use language to talk about objects, ideas, events, and relations that don't just exist in the physical here nad now
self reflexiveness the ability to use language to talk about language
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abstracting process we formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with objects, events, and ideas sense experience description inference judgment
sense experience physical world, what you experience on a day to day basis
description verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our senses
inference conclusions about the unknown based on the known, guesses
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judgement subjective evaluations of objects, events, or ideas
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis lingusitic determination linguistic relativity
linguistic determination prisoners of our native language, unable to think or perceive things b/c our our language strong form - live in a box weak form - shapes view but doesn't totally control it
linguistic relativity grammer and lexicon of our native language powerfully influences but does not imprison our thinking
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connotative suggested meaning based on past experiences
denotative literal meaning, dictionary definition
fact vs inference fact - can be directly observed by the 5 senses inference - guesses about the unknown based on the known
jargon Jargon is terminology which is especially defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession, group, or event.
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verbal single channel verbal direct clear discrete
nonverbal multichannel indirect can be unclear continuous
functions of nonverbal communication repetition substitution regulation contradiction accentuation
repetition saying things with words and repeating them with out body language
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substitution show what we our thinking without words
regulation conversation is guided by nonverbal clues
contradiction saying one thing and doing another
accentuation using voice accents or gestures to make a message clear and show importance
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major types of nonverbal communication kinesics paralanguage proxemics - territoriality haptics
kinesics the study of facial communication and gesture - smiling, no smiling, "facial feedback hypothesis", "display rules" - manipulators: one part of body messes with another - illustrators: pointing, showing - emblems: having exact meanings, ex: waving hello
paralanguage everything dont with the voice besides words - characterizers: laughing, yelling - qualifiers: tone, volume, pitch - segregates: uhhh, shh
proxemics space communication - intimate, personal, social, public - territoriality: predisposition to defend a fixed geographic area as one's exclusive domain
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haptics the study of touch - functional/professional - social/polite - friendship/warmth - love/intimacy - sexual
basic elements of listening comprehending - shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction, ex: wrong song lyrics retaining - remembering information, regulary repeat, relevant, motivated to remember responding - showing people you are listening
three types of listening informational - attempts to comprehend the message of the speaker; facts, content critical - process of evaluation merits and claims as they are heard; skeptic empathetic - take the perspective of the other person, to listen for what the person needs and wants
common problems of informational listening conversational narcissism - tendency for listeners to turn the conversation to themselves competitive interrupting - when we dominate the conversation by seizing the floor glazing over - attention wanders pseudo-listening - pretending ambushing - when we listen for weakness and ignore strengths of a speaker's message; not open, something we can call them on
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listener response styles used in empathic listening probing response - asking questions supporting response - bolstering others understanding response - paraphrasing and perception checking
power the ability to influence the attainment of goals sought by you or others
assertiveness "the ability to communicate the full range of our thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill"
aggressiveness any physical or verbal communication intended to inflict harm
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major power resources legitimate authority expertise reward and punishment personal qualities
legitimate authority someone who is perceived to have a high right to direct others' behavior because of his or her position, title, role, experience, or knowledge
expertise An expert () is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of or skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely is accorded authority and status by their peers or the public in a specific well-distinguished domain.
reward and punishment can be used to positively change behavior from antisocial to prosocial; coercive and reinforces dominance. Reward as a power resource tends to induce rewarding behavior
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personal qualities charisma, good looks, persuasive skills, charm
power indicated verbally have the ability to define things/label say what you want b/c its the end of a relationship shape reality talking more use of titles language choices
conflict The expressed struggle of interconnected parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one or more parties in attaining those goals.
destructive conflict characterized by escalation, retaliation, domination, competition, defensiveness, and inflexibility
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constructive conflict characterized by communication that is cooperative, supportive, and flexible
5 most common conflict negotiation strategies collaborating - working together to maximize the attainment of goals for all parties in a conflict accommodating - yield to the needs and desires of others during a conflict compromising - give up something to get something avoiding - sidestep or turn our back to a conflict controlling - ??
define small group Small as long as each individual on the group can recognize and interact with every other member in the group, 3 or more people
advantages and disadvantages of a small group a. Advantages – less complex and factionized, more efficient b. Disadvantages – conflict, need reliable knowledge, factions
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cohesion the goal of the social dimension; the extent of the group’s cohesiveness depends on the degree to which members identify with the group and wish to remain in the group.
cohesion is developed by... i. encouraging compatible membership when possible ii. developing shared goals that members find challenging and exciting to achieve iii. accomplishing important tasks that meet these shared goals iv. developing a positive group history of cooperation v. promoting acceptance of all group members by making each feel valued and welcome in the group
how cohesion influences task and social dimensions of the group a. When groups lack cohesiveness their productivity suffers, also when groups focus on being SO cohesive they don’t tell each other what they are thinking which is bad.
group norms rules that indicate how group members should interact, behave, and perform - explicit - stated - implicit - implied
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small group role patterns of expected behavior associated with parts that you play in the group
formal vs. informal roles a. Formal roles assign a position; ex: “president” b. Informal roles identify functions not positions; ex: “member initiates group discussion”
types of informal group roles maintenance task disruptive
maintenance address the social dimension of small groups; gain and maintain group cohesiveness; supporter-encourager, gatekeeper
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task advance attainment of group goals; information giver, clarifier, elaborator
disruptive Me-oriented; serve individual needs at the exprense of group needs and goals; isolate, stagehog, clown
leadership a. Defined as a leader-follower influence process with the goal of producing change that is largely accomplished through competent communication.
different approaches to leadership a. Traits – “leaders are born, not made”; enduring characteristics of a person that highlight differences between people and that are displayed in most situations. b. Styles – directive, participative, and laissez-faire c. Situational -
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major leadership styles a. Directive/autocratic – heavy emphasis on task dimension and slight attention to the social dimensions; leaders tell what to do b. Participative/democratic – emphasis on both task and social dimensions; group members are encouraged to participate c. Laissez-faire/situational – no leadership at all
brainstorming a. A creative problem-solving method characterized by encouragement of even zany ideas, freedom from initial evaluation of potential solutions, and energetic participation from all group members. b. Come prepared with initial ideas, no criticizing, encouraging freewheeling idea generation, don’t clarify or discuss ideas, piggyback on other ideas, record all ideas for future reference, encourage participation from all team members, wait to evaluate ideas until brainstorm is complete.
Standard Agenda identify goal analyze the problem establish criteria generate solution
forms of decision making majority rule - take a vote minority rule - refer to another person consensus - unanimous decision
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Advantages and disadvantages of majority rule a. Advantages of majority rule: i. Efficient and can provide rapid closure on relatively unimportant issues ii. Break a deadlock b. Disadvantages of majority rule: i. supports preposterous, unethical positions ii. dominance power dynamic within the group iii. majorities may be tempted to decide too quickly
advantages and disadvantages of consensus c. advantages of consensus i. full decisions of issues ii. those who disagree cannot be ignored iii. team members are likely to be committed to the final decision and will defend the decision when challenged by outsiders iv. produces group satisfication d. disadvantages of consensus i. difficult to achieve ii. unlikely as groups grow larger
advantages and disadvantages of minority rule e. advantages of minority rule i. ii. f. disadvantages of minority rule i. a designated expert can ignore group input, or simply not seek it ii. members may engage in power plays to seek favor with the authority figure who makes the decision iii. group members will likely have weak commitment to the final decision
groupthink A process of group members stressing cohesiveness and agreement instead of skepticism and optimum decision making. Can be avoided by... Consult an impartial outsider, group leader could withhold his or her point of view during early discussions, assign devil’s advocate role to a specific member, group climate that encourages robust discussion of opposing view points.
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components of audience analysis demographics - age, gender, culture, ethnicity attitude - a "learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object" values - as the most deeply felt beliefs - what a person thinks is true or probably values and beliefs can't change
types of audiences captive - cynical committed - primed for a push to take action contrary - waiting to catch flaws in your reasoning concerned - information seeking casual - willing to give you a fw seconds to hook them
elements of speech making that are influenced by audience analysis who are they why are they here demographics what they want to hear
general purpose statement identifies the overall goal of your speech INTENT
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central idea identifies the main concept, point, issue, or conclusion that you want the audience to understand, believe, and feel
specific purpose statement encompasses the general purpose and the central idea and indicates what the speaker is trying to ACCOMPLISH with the speech
addressed when choosing a topic speaker, audience, event
plagiarism using someone else's DIRECT words, or using facts without citing them
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supporting materials used in speeches examples statistics testimony of authorityies
evaluate supporting material by author, date, organization
basic elements of competent outline symbols coherence - flow from your purpose statement; clarity completeness - complete sentences balance - devote same time to each main point division - main points divide into subpoints
organizational patterns used in speeches topical - shapes info according to types, classifications, or parts of a whole spatial - according to space chronological - according to time problem - solution - meetings needs casual - who or what in responsible; cause/effect Monroe's motivated sequence
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Monroe's motivated Sequence attention need satisfaction visualization action
informative vs. persuasive informative - teaching something persuasive - change something (actual behavior or attitudes)
Difference between oral and written oral is less formal and highly interactive
guidlines for managing speech anxiety prepare and practice gain proper perspective visulalization positive self-talk
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elements of an introduction gain attention clearly indicate your intent - purpose statement make your audience care - relevent preview the main points
elements of a conclusion connect to intro end memorably don't add new material stay with audience till very end
impact of delivery considerations on audience eye contact - gain and maintain the attention of your audience vocal variety - influence mood of audience verbal fluency poise dynamism - active
major delivery styles manuscript - written out word for word memorized extemporaneous impromptu
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transitions vs. signposts transitions tie one topic to another signposts tells where you are going - not effective
types of visual aids objects, models, graphs, maps, tables, photographs, drawings
guidelines for visual aids keep simple make visible neat and attractive do not block view od aids keep close
persuasion a communication of converting, modifying, or maintaining the attitudes or behaviors of others
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primary dimensions of credibility competence - audience's perception of the speaker's knowledge and experience on a topic trustworthiness - how truthful and honest we perceive the speaker to be dynamism - enthusiasm and energy composure - emotionally stable, appear confident and in control of themselves
Aristotelin modes of proof ethos - credibility logos - logic pathos - emotion
fact, value, policy fact - truth value - judgement of worth or merit policy - something must change
Definition
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 common myths about communication1 - a cure-all
2 - common sense
3 - more is better
 linear model of communicationsender sends a message it goes through a channel to a receiver, noise
 interactive model of communicationadds feedback, two-way communication, also adds fields of experiencce
 transactional model of communicationboth people are sending and recieving; content (what is actually said and done) and relation (how the message defines or redefines the association between individuals)
 senderinitiator and encoder
 messagestimulus that produces meaning
 channelmedium through which a message travels, such as oral or written
 recieve decoder of message
 noiseinterference with effective transmission and reception of message
 feedbackthe reciever's verbal and nonverbal responses to the message
 fields of experienceour cultural background, ethnicity, geographic location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime
 contructive communication climateopeness, sharing, we-oriented
 destructive communication climateclosedness, defensiveness
 perceptual processselecting, organizing, and interpreting
 perceptual schemamental frameworks that creat meaningful patterns from stimuli

- prototypes, stereotypes, and script
 prototypesmost representative or "best" example of something; ideal
 stereotypesa generalization about a group or category;
 scripta predictable sequence of events that indicated what we are expected to do in a given situation
 self-concept developedreflected appraisal - message you receive from others that assess your self concept

significant others

society
 influences on perceptiongender, culture, past experiences, mood, and context
 self - disclosureis the process of purposefully revealing to others personal information about yourself that is significant and that others would not know unless you told them
 depth and breadth in terms of self-disclosurebreadth is range of topics

depth is how personal you become
 offering and receiving self-disclosuretrust
reciprocity
cultural appropriateness
situational appropriateness
incremental disclosure
 reciprocal sharing important...trust and risk-taking are shared
 self-serving biastendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves
 self-fufilling prophecyacting on and erroneous expectation that produces the expected behavior and confirms the original impression
 process of attributionattribute motives or reasons why to other people. Normally blame other people.

fundamental attribution error gives ourselves all doubt
 empathyperspective talking (understanding)
emotional understanding (experience the feelings of others)
concern for others (you care)
 culturea learned set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices shared by large groups of people
 culture influences communicationappropriate in one culture in rude in another, very common
 ethnocentrismone's culture is superior to any other
 cultural relativismcultures are merely different
 multiculturism movement that insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect as equals, diversity helps us
 individualist cultureindividuals are loosley linked to each other and chiefly motivated by one's own preferences, needs, and goals
 collectivist cultureclosely linked
 low-power distanceencourages equal power sharing and discourages attention to status differences. Challenge authority to reduce status difference

ex. US - democracy
 high-power distancestrong emphasis on power differences, authorities are rarely challenged

ex: India's caste system
 feminine culturesblending of roles, more equality
affectionate
sensitive
express emotions
less rigid and more overlapping
 masculine culturesdominant, assertive
competitive
more rigid and distinct
 phonemesIn a language or dialect, a phoneme (from the , phnma, "a sound uttered") is the smallest segmental unit of sound employed to form meaningful contrasts between utterances.
 morphemesIn linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest component of word, or other linguistic unit, that has semantic meaning.
 syntaxIn linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek "arrangement" from syn, "together", and txis, "an ordering") is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages.
 semanticsset of rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences
 four essential elements of all languagesstructure
productivity
displacement
self-relexivness
 structureset of rules that specify how the units of language can be meaningfully combined
 productivitythe capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words, phrases, and sentences you require to communicate
 displacementyour ability to use language to talk about objects, ideas, events, and relations that don't just exist in the physical here nad now
 self reflexivenessthe ability to use language to talk about language
 abstracting processwe formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with objects, events, and ideas

sense experience
description
inference
judgment
 sense experience physical world, what you experience on a day to day basis
 descriptionverbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our senses
 inferenceconclusions about the unknown based on the known, guesses
 judgementsubjective evaluations of objects, events, or ideas
 Sapir-Whorf hypothesislingusitic determination
linguistic relativity
 linguistic determinationprisoners of our native language, unable to think or perceive things b/c our our language

strong form - live in a box
weak form - shapes view but doesn't totally control it
 linguistic relativitygrammer and lexicon of our native language powerfully influences but does not imprison our thinking
 connotativesuggested meaning based on past experiences
 denotativeliteral meaning, dictionary definition
 fact vs inferencefact - can be directly observed by the 5 senses
inference - guesses about the unknown based on the known
 jargonJargon is terminology which is especially defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession, group, or event.
 verbalsingle channel
verbal
direct
clear
discrete
 nonverbalmultichannel
indirect
can be unclear
continuous
 functions of nonverbal communicationrepetition
substitution
regulation
contradiction
accentuation
 repetitionsaying things with words and repeating them with out body language
 substitutionshow what we our thinking without words
 regulationconversation is guided by nonverbal clues
 contradictionsaying one thing and doing another
 accentuationusing voice accents or gestures to make a message clear and show importance
 major types of nonverbal communicationkinesics
paralanguage
proxemics - territoriality
haptics
 kinesicsthe study of facial communication and gesture
- smiling, no smiling, "facial feedback hypothesis", "display rules"
- manipulators: one part of body messes with another
- illustrators: pointing, showing
- emblems: having exact meanings, ex: waving hello
 paralanguageeverything dont with the voice besides words
- characterizers: laughing, yelling
- qualifiers: tone, volume, pitch
- segregates: uhhh, shh
 proxemicsspace communication - intimate, personal, social, public

- territoriality: predisposition to defend a fixed geographic area as one's exclusive domain
 hapticsthe study of touch
- functional/professional
- social/polite
- friendship/warmth
- love/intimacy
- sexual
 basic elements of listeningcomprehending - shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction, ex: wrong song lyrics
retaining - remembering information, regulary repeat, relevant, motivated to remember
responding - showing people you are listening
 three types of listeninginformational - attempts to comprehend the message of the speaker; facts, content
critical - process of evaluation merits and claims as they are heard; skeptic
empathetic - take the perspective of the other person, to listen for what the person needs and wants
 common problems of informational listeningconversational narcissism - tendency for listeners to turn the conversation to themselves
competitive interrupting - when we dominate the conversation by seizing the floor
glazing over - attention wanders
pseudo-listening - pretending
ambushing - when we listen for weakness and ignore strengths of a speaker's message; not open, something we can call them on
 listener response styles used in empathic listeningprobing response - asking questions
supporting response - bolstering others
understanding response - paraphrasing and perception checking
 powerthe ability to influence the attainment of goals sought by you or others
 assertiveness"the ability to communicate the full range of our thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill"
 aggressivenessany physical or verbal communication intended to inflict harm
 major power resourceslegitimate authority
expertise
reward and punishment
personal qualities
 legitimate authoritysomeone who is perceived to have a high right to direct others' behavior because of his or her position, title, role, experience, or knowledge
 expertiseAn expert () is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of or skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely is accorded authority and status by their peers or the public in a specific well-distinguished domain.
 reward and punishmentcan be used to positively change behavior from antisocial to prosocial; coercive and reinforces dominance.

Reward as a power resource tends to induce rewarding behavior

 personal qualitiescharisma, good looks, persuasive skills, charm
 power indicated verballyhave the ability to define things/label
say what you want b/c its the end of a relationship
shape reality
talking more
use of titles
language choices
 conflictThe expressed struggle of interconnected parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one or more parties in attaining those goals.
 destructive conflictcharacterized by escalation, retaliation, domination, competition, defensiveness, and inflexibility
 constructive conflictcharacterized by communication that is cooperative, supportive, and flexible
 5 most common conflict negotiation strategiescollaborating - working together to maximize the attainment of goals for all parties in a conflict
accommodating - yield to the needs and desires of others during a conflict
compromising - give up something to get something
avoiding - sidestep or turn our back to a conflict
controlling - ??
 define small groupSmall as long as each individual on the group can recognize and interact with every other member in the group, 3 or more people
 advantages and disadvantages of a small groupa. Advantages – less complex and factionized, more efficient
b. Disadvantages – conflict, need reliable knowledge, factions
 cohesionthe goal of the social dimension; the extent of the group’s cohesiveness depends on the degree to which members identify with the group and wish to remain in the group.
 cohesion is developed by...i. encouraging compatible membership when possible
ii. developing shared goals that members find challenging and exciting to achieve
iii. accomplishing important tasks that meet these shared goals
iv. developing a positive group history of cooperation
v. promoting acceptance of all group members by making each feel valued and welcome in the group
 how cohesion influences task and social dimensions of the groupa. When groups lack cohesiveness their productivity suffers, also when groups focus on being SO cohesive they don’t tell each other what they are thinking which is bad.
 group normsrules that indicate how group members should interact, behave, and perform

- explicit - stated
- implicit - implied
 small group rolepatterns of expected behavior associated with parts that you play in the group
 formal vs. informal rolesa. Formal roles assign a position; ex: “president”
b. Informal roles identify functions not positions; ex: “member initiates group discussion”
 types of informal group rolesmaintenance
task
disruptive
 maintenance address the social dimension of small groups; gain and maintain group cohesiveness; supporter-encourager, gatekeeper
 taskadvance attainment of group goals; information giver, clarifier, elaborator
 disruptiveMe-oriented; serve individual needs at the exprense of group needs and goals; isolate, stagehog, clown
 leadershipa. Defined as a leader-follower influence process with the goal of producing change that is largely accomplished through competent communication.
 different approaches to leadershipa. Traits – “leaders are born, not made”; enduring characteristics of a person that highlight differences between people and that are displayed in most situations.
b. Styles – directive, participative, and laissez-faire
c. Situational -
 major leadership stylesa. Directive/autocratic – heavy emphasis on task dimension and slight attention to the social dimensions; leaders tell what to do
b. Participative/democratic – emphasis on both task and social dimensions; group members are encouraged to participate
c. Laissez-faire/situational – no leadership at all
 brainstorminga. A creative problem-solving method characterized by encouragement of even zany ideas, freedom from initial evaluation of potential solutions, and energetic participation from all group members.

b. Come prepared with initial ideas, no criticizing, encouraging freewheeling idea generation, don’t clarify or discuss ideas, piggyback on other ideas, record all ideas for future reference, encourage participation from all team members, wait to evaluate ideas until brainstorm is complete.
 Standard Agendaidentify goal
analyze the problem
establish criteria
generate solution
 forms of decision makingmajority rule - take a vote
minority rule - refer to another person
consensus - unanimous decision
 Advantages and disadvantages of majority rulea. Advantages of majority rule:
i. Efficient and can provide rapid closure on relatively unimportant issues
ii. Break a deadlock
b. Disadvantages of majority rule:
i. supports preposterous, unethical positions
ii. dominance power dynamic within the group
iii. majorities may be tempted to decide too quickly
 advantages and disadvantages of consensusc. advantages of consensus
i. full decisions of issues
ii. those who disagree cannot be ignored
iii. team members are likely to be committed to the final decision and will defend the decision when challenged by outsiders
iv. produces group satisfication
d. disadvantages of consensus
i. difficult to achieve
ii. unlikely as groups grow larger
 advantages and disadvantages of minority rulee. advantages of minority rule
i.
ii.
f. disadvantages of minority rule
i. a designated expert can ignore group input, or simply not seek it
ii. members may engage in power plays to seek favor with the authority figure who makes the decision
iii. group members will likely have weak commitment to the final decision
 groupthinkA process of group members stressing cohesiveness and agreement instead of skepticism and optimum decision making.

Can be avoided by...
Consult an impartial outsider, group leader could withhold his or her point of view during early discussions, assign devil’s advocate role to a specific member, group climate that encourages robust discussion of opposing view points.
 components of audience analysisdemographics - age, gender, culture, ethnicity
attitude - a "learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object"
values - as the most deeply felt
beliefs - what a person thinks is true or probably

values and beliefs can't change
 types of audiencescaptive - cynical
committed - primed for a push to take action
contrary - waiting to catch flaws in your reasoning
concerned - information seeking
casual - willing to give you a fw seconds to hook them
 elements of speech making that are influenced by audience analysiswho are they
why are they here
demographics
what they want to hear
 general purpose statementidentifies the overall goal of your speech

INTENT
 central ideaidentifies the main concept, point, issue, or conclusion that you want the audience to understand, believe, and feel
 specific purpose statementencompasses the general purpose and the central idea and indicates what the speaker is trying to ACCOMPLISH with the speech
 addressed when choosing a topicspeaker, audience, event
 plagiarismusing someone else's DIRECT words, or using facts without citing them
 supporting materials used in speechesexamples
statistics
testimony of authorityies
 evaluate supporting material byauthor, date, organization
 basic elements of competent outlinesymbols
coherence - flow from your purpose statement; clarity
completeness - complete sentences
balance - devote same time to each main point
division - main points divide into subpoints
 organizational patterns used in speechestopical - shapes info according to types, classifications, or parts of a whole
spatial - according to space
chronological - according to time
problem - solution - meetings needs
casual - who or what in responsible; cause/effect
Monroe's motivated sequence
 Monroe's motivated Sequenceattention
need
satisfaction
visualization
action
 informative vs. persuasiveinformative - teaching something
persuasive - change something (actual behavior or attitudes)
 Difference between oral and writtenoral is less formal and highly interactive
 guidlines for managing speech anxietyprepare and practice
gain proper perspective
visulalization
positive self-talk
 elements of an introductiongain attention
clearly indicate your intent - purpose statement
make your audience care - relevent
preview the main points
 elements of a conclusionconnect to intro
end memorably
don't add new material
stay with audience till very end
 impact of delivery considerations on audienceeye contact - gain and maintain the attention of your audience
vocal variety - influence mood of audience
verbal fluency
poise
dynamism - active
 major delivery stylesmanuscript - written out word for word
memorized
extemporaneous
impromptu
 transitions vs. signpoststransitions tie one topic to another

signposts tells where you are going - not effective
 types of visual aidsobjects, models, graphs, maps, tables, photographs, drawings
 guidelines for visual aidskeep simple
make visible
neat and attractive
do not block view od aids
keep close
 persuasiona communication of converting, modifying, or maintaining the attitudes or behaviors of others
 primary dimensions of credibilitycompetence - audience's perception of the speaker's knowledge and experience on a topic
trustworthiness - how truthful and honest we perceive the speaker to be
dynamism - enthusiasm and energy
composure - emotionally stable, appear confident and in control of themselves
 Aristotelin modes of proofethos - credibility
logos - logic
pathos - emotion
 fact, value, policyfact - truth
value - judgement of worth or merit
policy - something must change
  Definition
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