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Exam 1 - Flashcards

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Class:GEO 101 - The Dynamic Earth
Subject:GEO-Geological Science
University:University of Alabama
Term:Summer 2011
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Ionic bonding

  • loss and gain of electrons 

covalent bonding
  • minimal sharing of electrons 
metallic bonding
  • extreme sharing of electrons!
Van der Waals bonding
  • weakest and least common of all other bonds 
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chemical bonding
  • formation of a compound by combining 2 or more elements 
Order of Earth's layers (descending)

  • ·      Crust
  • ·      Mantle
  • o   Uppermantle
  •     Lithospheric mantle
  •     Astheospheric mantle
  • o   Transition zone
  • o   Lower mantle
  • ·      Core
  • o   Outer core (liquid)
  • o   Inner core (solid)

Makes up most of the Earth's crust
  • Silicon and Oxygen
aphanitic texture
  • fine grained, microscopic crystals
  • rapid rate of cooling
  • texture gained extrusivly  (outside volcano)
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phanetic texture
  • large, visible cryztals 
  • texture gained intrusivly (inside volcano)
  • slow cooling 
phorphyritic texture
  • 2 stages of cooling 
  • coarse grains
  • visible crystals 
glassy texture
  • VERY rapid cooling of lava
  •   resulting rock called obsidian 

pyroclastic 
pyroclastic texture
  • pyro=fire from volcano
  •   fragmental appearance produced by violent volcanic eruptions 
  • extrusive 
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pegmatitic texture

  • ·      form in late stages of crystallization of magmas

Most common rock forming mineral group Silicates
T/F -Felsic compositions comprise the ocean floor and volcanic islands FALSE

MAFIC 

Felsic= silicates
     silicates are found in the continental crust 


T/F-Volcanoes in the oceanic crust have felsic magma (high silica content)
FALSE

Volcanoes in the continental crust have a high silica content
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____magmas= lower silica content and less viscous(more fluid-like behavior) Mafic

these come from the volcanoes from Hawaii 
T/F- Mafic magmas originate straight from the mantle TRUE 
T/F- silica content affects explosivity and viscosity TRUE 
What is the most important mineral group that dominates the earth's crust? Silicates 
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2 main minerals that make up the light silicates= orthoclase &  plagioclase 
T/F-ferromagnesiums are the more dense/heavier minerals TRUE 

FErroMAgnesium- iron and magnesium rich 
Important nonsilicate minerals= limestone 
and Halite (salt) 
nonsilicates comprise of only 8% of the earth and can  Often occur as constituents in sedimentary rocks

 

magma hot, melted, liquid rock that cools and solidifies then becomes igneous, molten rock 
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Lava v.s. Magma
Lava= extrusive rocks or volcanic  rocks  and is above the surface
Magma= intrusive rocks or plutonic rocks 
 and is below the surface 
T/F- the smaller the surface area, the more weathering occurs FALSE


  •                The larger exposed surface area.. the more weathering occurs
  •               When you crush something up, the more area that is exposed and it reacts/weathers faster  

T/F when you find lots of clay, lots of weathering has occured TRUE
2 types of weathering Chemical and physical 
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What is the most important factor of weathering? WATER

chemical weather that transports ions and molecules 
Major processes of chemical weathering (3) Dissolution-  Aided small amounts of acid water
Oxidation- Electrons lost from one element, ex. rusting
Hydrolysis - Hydrogen ion attacks and replaces other ions

Physical weathering occurrences

  •          frost wedging
  •                eg. freezing water expanding the rock and making it shatter 
  •            unloading/pressure release
  •      thermal expansion (daily variation)
  •      biological activity

mass wasting any kind of downward/down-slope land movement 

e.g. land slides, mud slides    
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_____ is the physical removal material by water, wind, ice gravity Erosion 
process when eroded material settles is called ____. deposition 
What is the classic shape of a composite cone/stratovolcano? Steep, steep slopes 

these steep slopes aids the felsic lava move 
     (felSIc=high silica content= really thick lava)
What is the most violent type of volcanoes? Composite cones/ strato volcanoes 
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_____= altered, weathered minerals soil
Volcanoes occur in the ____. ring of fire
T/F- magma is more mafic when 2 oceanic plates are colliding True 
The main, central vent of a volcano Summit opening 
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Any vent of a volcano is called a __ crater
A crater that is collapsed on itself and opens up much wider is called a ____. caldera

they are much larger than a regular vent

 

A ____ is a surface opening connected to magma chamber Vent 
T/F- A furmarole is an opening in the volcano that only emits gasses and smoke TRUE 
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types of volcanoes shield volcano
composite cone
cinder cone 

caldera

  • o   Summit steep-walled depressions
  • o   Produced by collapse
  • o   Pyroclastic flow
  •      Felsic and intermediate magmas
  •               Consists of ash, pumice, and debris
  •               Material ejected at high velocities

T/F-volcanic mudslide infused with water and ash/debris moving down stream valleys and volcanic slopes is called a ___ Lahar
A fast moving avalanche that occurs when hot volcanic ash and debris much with air and flow down the side of a volcano is called a ____.

  •   Nuee Ardent 

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shield volcano

  • o   Broad (VERY, VERY LARGE), slightly domed-shaped (gentle slopes)
  • o   Covers large areas
  • o   Mild eruptions of large volumes of mafic lava

T/F-Felsic lava flows directly from the mantle.. which doesn’t have a lot of silica (but lots of iron) and low silica=low viscosity FALSE

Mafic- flows directly from the mantle and has a low silica content
A ____ doesn't have boundaries and is located at the earths mantle where it melts and is less dense, causing it to rise. Hot spot 

these could be mafic or felsic, depending on where it rises from 
T/F- a chain of volcanic islands are created due to hot spots TRUE

hot spots remain stationary but the oceanic plate is moving 

ex. Hawaiian Islands 
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Subduction Zone There region along a convergent boundary where one plate sink beneath another 
mid-ocean ridges A mid-ocean ridge is a general term for an underwater mountain system that consists of various mountain ranges (chains), typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine, formed by plate tectonics along a divergent oceanic boundary 
Plate tectonics and igneous activity

  • ·      Most volcanoes located within or near ocean basins
  • ·      Mafic rocks=oceanic and continental settings
  • ·      Felsic and intermediate rocks= continental settings 

A “batholith” pluton is a relatively small tabular magma that cooled above the earth’s surface FALSE

Batholiths are MOUNTAIN SCALE, not small 
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Volcanic pipes

  •      Short conduits connecting magma chamber to surface

Volcanic neck

  •    Resistant vents left standing
  •      After everything that has eroded away
  •     More resistant volcanic rock 

Sill v.s. Dyke

  • ·      Sill-tabular, concordant pluton—smallest, horizontal
  •   Dyke- tabular, discordant pluton-smallest, vertical 


Nature of Plutons


  •     Shape-tabular (sheetlike) vs massive  
  •     Where magma is injected through rock in very small zones
  •    Orientation with respect of country (surrounding) rock
  •     Concordant (w/ layering) vs. discordant (through layering)

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T/F concordant= through layering FALSE

concordant=with layering
discordant= through layering 
Laccolith
  • Intermediate in size 
  • A laccolith is a sheet intrusion that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock.
  • underground intrusive igneous rock
Batholith
  • Mountain scale, largest intrusive body 
  • A batholith is a large emplacement of igneous intrusive (also called plutonic) rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust. 
  • can be found in the cores of mountains 
How can different magma compositions be produced? (3)

Magma assimilation, magma differation and magma mixing

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T/F-By lowering of the pressure as magma rises and increasing the volatile and magma, the magma is more difficult to melt

  • False
it is easier to melt

Which 2 felsic rock have the same composition but formed differently?

  • ·      diorite/granite

higher silica content in magma can be associated with

  • ·      higher explosively potential under a volcano and higher viscosity. 

What 3 things factor into the making of magma Heat,
pressure
and volatiles
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Geothermal gradient
  • Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to going deeper into the Earth. 

  • As we go further into the earth, it increases in heat at a fairly constant rate.
  • Additional heat may induce melting
  •  Rocks in lower crust and upper mantle near melting points
T/F- INCREASES IN PRESSURE CAUSE INCREASE IN ROCK’S MELTING TEMP TRUE

  •     IF PRESSURES DROP, DECOMPRESSION MELTING OCCURES
  •    As it rises there is less pressure on it and the easier it melts 

Volatiles
  • Elements or compounds (eg H2O and CO2) that can evaporate easily and can exist in gaseous forms at the Earth's surface

    - Cause rocks to melt at lower temp

    -Important where oceanic lithosphere descends into mantle

    -The more gasses.. the more melting

Things solidifying at different times and different temperatures describes ___ ____ series. Bowen's reaction serie

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Changing magma composition: Magma differentiation

  •     Separation of melt from earlier formed crystals
  •     Changing the composition due to things crystallizing and settling out
  • ·      The mafic mineral solidifies first 

Changing magma composition: Assimilation

  •     Incorporation of surrounding rock bodies into magma
  •    Magma at super high heat and rises up and and melts into surrounding rock and changing the composition 

Changing magma composition: Magma mixing

  •      Mixing of 2 chemically distinct magmas
  • ·      Ex. Mafic and felsic magmas mixing 

Partial melting: mafic magmas

  •    Originate from partial melting of ultramafic rock in mantle at oceanic ridges

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Partial melting: intermediate magmas

  •     Interaction of basaltic magmas and ci-rich crustal rocks

Partial melting: Felsic magmas

  •    End product of crystallization of andesitic magma
  •    More viscous, tend to solidify before reaching surface 

T/F-the more dissolved gases, the more explosivity TRUE
Explosivity of volcano eruption determined by ____, _____& ____.

  • o   Composition (%silica)
  • o   Temperature
  • o   Dissolved gases (volatiles)

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T/F- The factors between the explosivity and thickness of magma are different FALSE 

  • ·      Viscosity (resistance to flow) of magma controlled by same 3 factors
    • o   Composition (%silica)
    • o   Temperature
    • o   Dissolved gases (volatiles)

T/F- the higher silica, the tighter the bonds, and the less gas escapes
  • TRUE


  • o   Gases are trapped and then BOOM
  • o   More silica..more gases… more explosions 
3 things occur when a volcano explodes
  • significant ash falls, cooling the climate
  • mudslides
  • and gas expulsion
types of mafic flows

  • ·      Pahoehoe lava (ropey texture)
  • o   When cooled you can walk with bare feet with a smooth texture
  • Nuee Ardent·     
  • As lava (rough, blocky texture)
  •      Shards.. OUCH    

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T/F- composite cones are small cones that develop on the sides of other types of volcanoes FALSE

Cinder cones= small cones that develop on the sides of other types of volcanoes
Factors of weathering (4)
  • surface area
  • Rock characteristics
  • climate 
  • differential weathering 
3 main soil forming factor are... Time, climate, parent rock 
Turning a sediment to sedimentary rock via chemical, physical, and biological changes is called ____. Diagenesis
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what is the main processes of lithification? (2) Compaction and cementation    
how do we classify detrital rocks?
Classify by  the physical grain size

most common= sand stone 
What is a sediment that was once in solution? Chemical rocks 
Which has been around longer/ been transported further, Conglomerate or breccia?

  • o   Conglomerate-rock that contains little rounded pebbles, the rounder the rock, the further it has been transported 
  •        Breccia=angular particles 

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What is a major way you can tell if a sedimentary rock formed far trom the source? Round spherical grains 
What type of rock can be found closest to its source? Breccia 
soil profiles (fig. 129)
A sediment that was once in a solution is a ___. Chemical right 
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Define a mineral.
What is cleavage?
Does a mineral have cleavage if it has fracture? NO. 
Igneous rock types
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aphantic and phanaritic tells us about the cooling history 

Aphanitic--extrusive, small, microscopic crystals 
Phanaritic--intuisive, slow cooling history
What composition is last to crystalize? Felsic
T/F- if two oceanic plates hit, the magma be more mafic? TRUE
How are detrital rocks named/ classified. Grain size. 
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In Bowen's Reaction Series, ___ degrades first and ___ degrades last. Olivine, Quartz
By releasing pressure, it heightens the materials potential to break/crack. What is this procedure called? Pressure Unloading 
Where can the oldest rocks be found? Continental crust 
The only rock that contains fossils are: ___ Sedimentary rocks

geologists use the fossils to date the rock 
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Turning a rock into sedimentary rock by chemical, physical and biochemical changes is called ____. Dianeniss /LIthification 
Describe the solar nebular theory. Condensation and collapse of interstellar material
Flattening and rotation of cloud
Accretion of Plantismals 
Birth of Sun 
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 Ionic bonding

  • loss and gain of electrons 

 covalent bonding
  • minimal sharing of electrons 
 metallic bonding
  • extreme sharing of electrons!
 Van der Waals bonding
  • weakest and least common of all other bonds 
 chemical bonding
  • formation of a compound by combining 2 or more elements 
 Order of Earth's layers (descending)

  • ·      Crust
  • ·      Mantle
  • o   Uppermantle
  •     Lithospheric mantle
  •     Astheospheric mantle
  • o   Transition zone
  • o   Lower mantle
  • ·      Core
  • o   Outer core (liquid)
  • o   Inner core (solid)

 Makes up most of the Earth's crust
  • Silicon and Oxygen
 aphanitic texture
  • fine grained, microscopic crystals
  • rapid rate of cooling
  • texture gained extrusivly  (outside volcano)
 phanetic texture
  • large, visible cryztals 
  • texture gained intrusivly (inside volcano)
  • slow cooling 
 phorphyritic texture
  • 2 stages of cooling 
  • coarse grains
  • visible crystals 
 glassy texture
  • VERY rapid cooling of lava
  •   resulting rock called obsidian 

pyroclastic 
 pyroclastic texture
  • pyro=fire from volcano
  •   fragmental appearance produced by violent volcanic eruptions 
  • extrusive 
 pegmatitic texture

  • ·      form in late stages of crystallization of magmas

 Most common rock forming mineral groupSilicates
 T/F -Felsic compositions comprise the ocean floor and volcanic islandsFALSE

MAFIC 

Felsic= silicates
     silicates are found in the continental crust 


 T/F-Volcanoes in the oceanic crust have felsic magma (high silica content)
FALSE

Volcanoes in the continental crust have a high silica content
 ____magmas= lower silica content and less viscous(more fluid-like behavior)Mafic

these come from the volcanoes from Hawaii 
 T/F- Mafic magmas originate straight from the mantleTRUE 
 T/F- silica content affects explosivity and viscosityTRUE 
 What is the most important mineral group that dominates the earth's crust?Silicates 
 2 main minerals that make up the light silicates=orthoclase &  plagioclase 
 T/F-ferromagnesiums are the more dense/heavier mineralsTRUE 

FErroMAgnesium- iron and magnesium rich 
 Important nonsilicate minerals=limestone 
and Halite (salt) 
nonsilicates comprise of only 8% of the earth and can  Often occur as constituents in sedimentary rocks

 

 magmahot, melted, liquid rock that cools and solidifies then becomes igneous, molten rock 
 Lava v.s. Magma
Lava= extrusive rocks or volcanic  rocks  and is above the surface
Magma= intrusive rocks or plutonic rocks 
 and is below the surface 
 T/F- the smaller the surface area, the more weathering occursFALSE


  •                The larger exposed surface area.. the more weathering occurs
  •               When you crush something up, the more area that is exposed and it reacts/weathers faster  

 T/F when you find lots of clay, lots of weathering has occuredTRUE
 2 types of weatheringChemical and physical 
 What is the most important factor of weathering?WATER

chemical weather that transports ions and molecules 
 Major processes of chemical weathering (3)Dissolution-  Aided small amounts of acid water
Oxidation- Electrons lost from one element, ex. rusting
Hydrolysis - Hydrogen ion attacks and replaces other ions

 Physical weathering occurrences

  •          frost wedging
  •                eg. freezing water expanding the rock and making it shatter 
  •            unloading/pressure release
  •      thermal expansion (daily variation)
  •      biological activity

 mass wastingany kind of downward/down-slope land movement 

e.g. land slides, mud slides    
 _____ is the physical removal material by water, wind, ice gravityErosion 
 process when eroded material settles is called ____.deposition 
 What is the classic shape of a composite cone/stratovolcano?Steep, steep slopes 

these steep slopes aids the felsic lava move 
     (felSIc=high silica content= really thick lava)
 What is the most violent type of volcanoes?Composite cones/ strato volcanoes 
 _____= altered, weathered mineralssoil
 Volcanoes occur in the ____.ring of fire
 T/F- magma is more mafic when 2 oceanic plates are collidingTrue 
 The main, central vent of a volcanoSummit opening 
 Any vent of a volcano is called a __crater
 A crater that is collapsed on itself and opens up much wider is called a ____.caldera

they are much larger than a regular vent

 

 A ____ is a surface opening connected to magma chamberVent 
 T/F- A furmarole is an opening in the volcano that only emits gasses and smokeTRUE 
 types of volcanoesshield volcano
composite cone
cinder cone 

 caldera

  • o   Summit steep-walled depressions
  • o   Produced by collapse
  • o   Pyroclastic flow
  •      Felsic and intermediate magmas
  •               Consists of ash, pumice, and debris
  •               Material ejected at high velocities

 T/F-volcanic mudslide infused with water and ash/debris moving down stream valleys and volcanic slopes is called a ___Lahar
 A fast moving avalanche that occurs when hot volcanic ash and debris much with air and flow down the side of a volcano is called a ____.

  •   Nuee Ardent 

 shield volcano

  • o   Broad (VERY, VERY LARGE), slightly domed-shaped (gentle slopes)
  • o   Covers large areas
  • o   Mild eruptions of large volumes of mafic lava

 T/F-Felsic lava flows directly from the mantle.. which doesn’t have a lot of silica (but lots of iron) and low silica=low viscosityFALSE

Mafic- flows directly from the mantle and has a low silica content
 A ____ doesn't have boundaries and is located at the earths mantle where it melts and is less dense, causing it to rise.Hot spot 

these could be mafic or felsic, depending on where it rises from 
 T/F- a chain of volcanic islands are created due to hot spotsTRUE

hot spots remain stationary but the oceanic plate is moving 

ex. Hawaiian Islands 
 Subduction ZoneThere region along a convergent boundary where one plate sink beneath another 
 mid-ocean ridgesA mid-ocean ridge is a general term for an underwater mountain system that consists of various mountain ranges (chains), typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine, formed by plate tectonics along a divergent oceanic boundary 
 Plate tectonics and igneous activity

  • ·      Most volcanoes located within or near ocean basins
  • ·      Mafic rocks=oceanic and continental settings
  • ·      Felsic and intermediate rocks= continental settings 

 A “batholith” pluton is a relatively small tabular magma that cooled above the earth’s surfaceFALSE

Batholiths are MOUNTAIN SCALE, not small 
 Volcanic pipes

  •      Short conduits connecting magma chamber to surface

 Volcanic neck

  •    Resistant vents left standing
  •      After everything that has eroded away
  •     More resistant volcanic rock 

 Sill v.s. Dyke

  • ·      Sill-tabular, concordant pluton—smallest, horizontal
  •   Dyke- tabular, discordant pluton-smallest, vertical 


 Nature of Plutons


  •     Shape-tabular (sheetlike) vs massive  
  •     Where magma is injected through rock in very small zones
  •    Orientation with respect of country (surrounding) rock
  •     Concordant (w/ layering) vs. discordant (through layering)

 T/F concordant= through layeringFALSE

concordant=with layering
discordant= through layering 
 Laccolith
  • Intermediate in size 
  • A laccolith is a sheet intrusion that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock.
  • underground intrusive igneous rock
 Batholith
  • Mountain scale, largest intrusive body 
  • A batholith is a large emplacement of igneous intrusive (also called plutonic) rock that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust. 
  • can be found in the cores of mountains 
 How can different magma compositions be produced? (3)

Magma assimilation, magma differation and magma mixing

 T/F-By lowering of the pressure as magma rises and increasing the volatile and magma, the magma is more difficult to melt

  • False
it is easier to melt

 Which 2 felsic rock have the same composition but formed differently?

  • ·      diorite/granite

 higher silica content in magma can be associated with

  • ·      higher explosively potential under a volcano and higher viscosity. 

 What 3 things factor into the making of magmaHeat,
pressure
and volatiles
 Geothermal gradient
  • Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to going deeper into the Earth. 

  • As we go further into the earth, it increases in heat at a fairly constant rate.
  • Additional heat may induce melting
  •  Rocks in lower crust and upper mantle near melting points
 T/F- INCREASES IN PRESSURE CAUSE INCREASE IN ROCK’S MELTING TEMPTRUE

  •     IF PRESSURES DROP, DECOMPRESSION MELTING OCCURES
  •    As it rises there is less pressure on it and the easier it melts 

 Volatiles
  • Elements or compounds (eg H2O and CO2) that can evaporate easily and can exist in gaseous forms at the Earth's surface

    - Cause rocks to melt at lower temp

    -Important where oceanic lithosphere descends into mantle

    -The more gasses.. the more melting

 Things solidifying at different times and different temperatures describes ___ ____ series.Bowen's reaction serie

 Changing magma composition: Magma differentiation

  •     Separation of melt from earlier formed crystals
  •     Changing the composition due to things crystallizing and settling out
  • ·      The mafic mineral solidifies first 

 Changing magma composition: Assimilation

  •     Incorporation of surrounding rock bodies into magma
  •    Magma at super high heat and rises up and and melts into surrounding rock and changing the composition 

 Changing magma composition: Magma mixing

  •      Mixing of 2 chemically distinct magmas
  • ·      Ex. Mafic and felsic magmas mixing 

 Partial melting: mafic magmas

  •    Originate from partial melting of ultramafic rock in mantle at oceanic ridges

 Partial melting: intermediate magmas

  •     Interaction of basaltic magmas and ci-rich crustal rocks

 Partial melting: Felsic magmas

  •    End product of crystallization of andesitic magma
  •    More viscous, tend to solidify before reaching surface 

 T/F-the more dissolved gases, the more explosivityTRUE
 Explosivity of volcano eruption determined by ____, _____& ____.

  • o   Composition (%silica)
  • o   Temperature
  • o   Dissolved gases (volatiles)

 T/F- The factors between the explosivity and thickness of magma are differentFALSE 

  • ·      Viscosity (resistance to flow) of magma controlled by same 3 factors
    • o   Composition (%silica)
    • o   Temperature
    • o   Dissolved gases (volatiles)

 T/F- the higher silica, the tighter the bonds, and the less gas escapes
  • TRUE


  • o   Gases are trapped and then BOOM
  • o   More silica..more gases… more explosions 
 3 things occur when a volcano explodes
  • significant ash falls, cooling the climate
  • mudslides
  • and gas expulsion
 types of mafic flows

  • ·      Pahoehoe lava (ropey texture)
  • o   When cooled you can walk with bare feet with a smooth texture
  • Nuee Ardent·     
  • As lava (rough, blocky texture)
  •      Shards.. OUCH    

 T/F- composite cones are small cones that develop on the sides of other types of volcanoesFALSE

Cinder cones= small cones that develop on the sides of other types of volcanoes
 Factors of weathering (4)
  • surface area
  • Rock characteristics
  • climate 
  • differential weathering 
 3 main soil forming factor are...Time, climate, parent rock 
 Turning a sediment to sedimentary rock via chemical, physical, and biological changes is called ____.Diagenesis
 what is the main processes of lithification? (2)Compaction and cementation    
 how do we classify detrital rocks?
Classify by  the physical grain size

most common= sand stone 
 What is a sediment that was once in solution?Chemical rocks 
 Which has been around longer/ been transported further, Conglomerate or breccia?

  • o   Conglomerate-rock that contains little rounded pebbles, the rounder the rock, the further it has been transported 
  •        Breccia=angular particles 

 What is a major way you can tell if a sedimentary rock formed far trom the source?Round spherical grains 
 What type of rock can be found closest to its source?Breccia 
 soil profiles (fig. 129) 
 A sediment that was once in a solution is a ___.Chemical right 
 Define a mineral.
 What is cleavage? 
 Does a mineral have cleavage if it has fracture?NO. 
 Igneous rock types 
 aphantic and phanaritic tells us aboutthe cooling history 

Aphanitic--extrusive, small, microscopic crystals 
Phanaritic--intuisive, slow cooling history
 What composition is last to crystalize?Felsic
 T/F- if two oceanic plates hit, the magma be more mafic?TRUE
 How are detrital rocks named/ classified.Grain size. 
 In Bowen's Reaction Series, ___ degrades first and ___ degrades last.Olivine, Quartz
 By releasing pressure, it heightens the materials potential to break/crack. What is this procedure called?Pressure Unloading 
 Where can the oldest rocks be found?Continental crust 
 The only rock that contains fossils are: ___Sedimentary rocks

geologists use the fossils to date the rock 
 Turning a rock into sedimentary rock by chemical, physical and biochemical changes is called ____.Dianeniss /LIthification 
 Describe the solar nebular theory.Condensation and collapse of interstellar material
Flattening and rotation of cloud
Accretion of Plantismals 
Birth of Sun 
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