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FINAL EXAM - Flashcards

Flashcard Deck Information

Class:GEO 101 - The Dynamic Earth
Subject:GEO-Geological Science
University:University of Alabama
Term:Spring 2012
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Can you pump a well dry? yes

Caves and Karst landscapes are composed of groundwater and limestone
What does the rock cycle tell us?

-any type of rock can be reformed into any other type of rock!


What does Bowen’s reaction series tell us? explains why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed.
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Why is gravel the first particle to be deposited as energy decreases in a fluid system? Because its heaviest?
at which tectonic plate boundary are you most likely to see deep earthquakes? Convergent

what causes foliation in metamorphic rocks?

foliation forms by rotation and recrystallization of elongated minerals  

sinkhole individual cave that collapsed

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Flowstone Sheets of water down walls. Makes cave bacon

Stalagmites  mound of calcite on the floor

Stalactites not hollow, water drips off end, grows like calcium icicle

Speleoth
calcium filled water
-evaporates and deposits calcite
-makes stalactites and stalagmites
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How are caves formed?

groundwater absorbs CO2

-becomes weak acid

-dissolves carbonate rock (limestone)

Land Subsidence
 you can bring the land down over a meter by pumping water
-New Orleans, levee sunk & no one measured it so it failed.
Ways to deplete our groundwater supply


-lowering the water table

-Reversing flow

-saline intrusion: drill well near ocean area and cone of impression forms bc u pump out more water, salt water is beneath the fresh water.Sometimes you can suck in the salt water through the cone of impression.


How does hot water make it to the surface?


magma near earths surface (geothermal regions)

(water flows so deeply that it gets heated by geothermal energy)

-deep groundwater forced up by pressure or a pathway.


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Spring any place where groundwater naturally flows to the surface
Types of wells

Ordinary well

Seasonal well

Artesian Well


Artesian Well- works like water tower (high pressure moving to low pressure)
Seasonal well - only get water out during the rain season
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Darcy's Law

-More permeable= faster

-Steep slope= faster

2 things that make groundwater move:

gravity

pressure

Perched water table one with a little hump of water over it. Confined.
Water table  above it most spaces are filled with air, below it most spaces are filled with water. Follows land surface.
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Aquifer a porous deposit of rock, such as a sandstone, containing water that can be used to supply wells
Permeability
: the ease in which the water can flow. 
-gravel (rapid drainage), fine sand, clay (mod. drainage), solid rock (slow/no drainage)
Porosity   measurement of pore space.
-different material gives a different amount of space

Groundwater

Water that sinks to the ground through gravity or gets trapped in rock during formation

-months to thousands of years

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Karst Landscapes

-formation:

-water table in limestone

-caves form

-water tables sinks, new caves form

-some caves start collapsing

-features: hummocky (weird looking mountains) 

5 TYPES OF DESERTS

5 types of deserts

-Subtropical deserts

-Rain Shadow desert

-Coastal desert

-Continent Interior desert

-Polar desert

Subtropical deserts  exist because of poor air circulation
Rain Shadow desert mountain range with tropical forrest on one side and dry on the other side. The Washington and Oregon deserts. This is why it rains all the time in seattle.
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Coastal desert  Has to be a cold current (coming up from the arctic ocean). 
Continent Interior desert as the air flows over a large continent comes out before it reaches the middle. Far from the ocean. Air moisture used over the continent.
Polar desert global air circulation. Coriolis effect.
Types of desert weathering

-Physical weathering

-Wedging

-Abrasion

-jointing- under pressure

-biological

-mass wasting

-Chemical weathering

-desert varnish: microbial action on clay.

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Desert erosion

-Water

-flash floods

-high competency and capacity

-stream erosion.

-Wind

-energy level determine grain size

-suspended load

-saltation_stuff rolling across the bottom

Desert Pavement formation theories



-Formation theory no.1: over a time the wind blows away the smaller particles and leaves the heavier ones on top.





-Formation theory no.2: Bedrock that has been weathered with large chunks on top. The soil, because there are spaces left, some of it falls down into the cracks and accumulates under the stones and pushes the stones up until you have a bunch of sand beneath the mosaic of stones.


Alluvial Fan

abrupt change in velocity. Stream dumps coarse sediment.

Talus Apron

pile of debris due to gravity.

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Salt lake  a lake with no outlet. Water collects and evaporates. Salt concentrates.
Playa a dry lake bed
Dunes
There are different types created by the amount of sand available and the wind direction and speed wind moves sand and carries small grains away. Larger grains only move so far.
-Formation: sand blows up one side.
Cross bedding
Mesa/bute/chimney big flat top mountain. Mesa biggest, bute smaller, chimney smallest.
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Desertification

 -changing something that isn’t a desert into a desert
Cause: deforestation, drought, water mismanagement, agriculture, overgrazing.

What is the scientific method?


Scientific method:  natural process has four major sections: determining what the question is, testing ideas (most of work in science gets done.. have hypothesis here), community analysis and feedback (this is where theory building occurs.. that explains the big picture), benefits and outcome 

What are the major rock types? Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary
How do we date rocks?

-superposition

-absolute dating (radiometric, layer counting)

-relative dating (cross-cutting relationship)

-fossils

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what happens at each tectonic boundary?

-what happens at each tectonic boundary

-geo features

-rocks

-faults

Continental Shelf

 anything that is underwater but is continental crust



Continental Margins  active (tectonic plate sliding under another) passive (two tectonic plates that aren’t moving or is just one large tectonic plate)
Canyons rivers, turbidity currents
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Continental Slope

-continental slope: usually steep


Abyssal Plain

flat part of the very very deep ocean


seamounts

seamounts are underwater mountains that never make it above water


Sea Water

-3.5% salt

-halite, gypsum

-dense

-salinity depends on location and temperature... salt water is denser than freshwater 

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Currents

flowing water in defined area

-surface currents

-deep currents

surface currents

driven by wind/Coriolis effect (because the earth is always moving in one direction)


deep currents  caused by downwelling and upwelling, also Coriolis effect, density (thermohaline circulation)(temperature and salinity)
Tidal Reach

The elevation difference between high and low tide

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Wave Length

is the difference between wave crests



trough The low part of the wave
Open Ocean Waves

energy move forward but water stays put


Longshore Current


underwater current that runs next to the shore.. whenever the wave energy comes in and out the particles of sand will be moved over


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Wave Refraction

force that helps waves hit the beach in a parallel way (determines how things are eroded)


Translational wave

friction between wave and ocean floor 

Types of coastlines Beach
Tidal flat
rocky coast
coastal wetlands
coral reefs
estuaries
fjords
barrier island
Beach

 nearshore zone, intertidal zone, backshore, dunes

-dynamic (sand always moving)

-some beaches grow, others being eroded

-high tide: covered by water

-low tide: exposed mud/sand


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Barrier Island sand islands, always changing
Rocky Coast embayment, headland, always 
Coastal Wetlands

-shallow water

-no wave action

-temperate climate: see grassy flats (salt marsh)

-subtropical climate: mangrove swamp


Coral Reefs

-shallow, warm

-grows until conditions change

-erode into coral sand


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Estuaries

any place the ocean meets freshwater

-ocean rises into river valley

-mix of fresh and salt water = brackish water


Fjords glacial valley, flood after glaciers melt
What determines type of coast?
-tectonic setting
-climate
-sea level
-sediment supply
Types of defense against imminent sea level rise

-Beach erosion

-groin: barrier built to keep sand from eroding.. once one person decides to put one up all the neighbors on the coastline have to

-jetty: protect harbor entrance

-breakwater: decreases wave energy

-rip rap: decrease wave energy

-beach nourishment: bring in new sand

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Why is New Orleans below sea level?
human activity
-wetland removal, no where for water to go

-artificial levees

-no new sediment

-extracting groundwater

-compacting sediment

-isostacy: lithosphere maintaining equilibrium

The Hydrologic Cycle

-circulation of Earth’s water supply

sheetwash

 water comes down in sheets because there is no stream 

Rills


takes advantage of gravity makes new channel

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Streamflow

water has eroded and cut into the service so there is a defined channel

-increases as water is added headward erosion

-main channel gets longer

-side channels flow in (tributaries)

-not static

-entire system called drainage network

Dendritic pattern uniform underlying geology and slope, most likely to see in Alabama
Drainage Basin

 land area contributing water to stream


Divide

imaginary line separating one basin from another


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Permanent Stream

water flows all year at or below water table, humid or temperate climate



Ephemeral Stream

does not flow all year (flash floods), about water table, dry climate


Dry Wash Empty stream channel 
Flow Types

-laminar flow: no mixing between layers (calm water)

-turbulent flow- complex mixing

-type depends on velocity and stream characteristics

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What determines water flow?

What determines water flow?

  1. Stream gradient

  1. Channel characteristics:

-friction slows water

-narrow streams move faster than wide ones

  1. Channel Discharge

  1. Stream Erosion


Stream Erosion
-gravity makes water move

-some of this energy erodes the stream

-scouring: remove loose fragment

-breaking and lifting

-abrasion: suspended sediment as sandpaper

-dissolution: dissolves minerals

What characteristics create the most erosion?

-lots of water

-turbulent

-sediment

Stream Gradient  slope of stream, vertical change -gradient decreases downstream 
Competence

 maximum particle size stream carries

-high = large particles

-low = small particles

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Capacity

 total quantity of sediment stream can carry

-depends on competence and discharge


Deposition

decrease in velocity causes sediment dump, velocity change determines sediment size

-gradient change

-friction with bed increase

Base levels

base Level: lowest elevation a stream can reach

-ultimate base level (sea level)

-local base level (lake, resistant, rock, largest stream in area)


Valley

 land cut by stream

-young valley = V shape

-old valley = U shape


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rapid

 rough water

-large debris

-narrow channel

-gradient change 

Waterfalls

gradient so steep - free fall (usually occur where old shore lines used to be)


Alluvial Fan

abrupt change in velocity, stream dumps coarse sediment


Braided Streams

 stream divide due to sediment, in between floods


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Meandering Streams any river or stream that has slow water and is curvy (Black Warrior River is an example).. these form Oxbow Lakes
Floodplains

-stream overflows bank - deposits sediment


Terraces remnant of former floodplains 
Deltas

-running water meets standing water

-velocity change- sediment drops 

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Floods

-most common and destructive geologic hazard

-causes

-sudden heavy rain or snow melt (water can’t soak into the ground fast enough)

-long period of rain (ground become saturated)

-collapse of artificial or natural dam

-Seasonal or Flash

Human impact on rivers

-Urbanization: paved areas lead to flooding, water cannot soak in.. and building in floodplains

-Agriculture: 65% of water use from rivers

-increase sediment in streams

-changes stream chemistry: fertilizers, animal waste

-ecosystem change

-Dam Construction

-changes in ecosystem: migrating fish, sediment load, nutrients

-flood control: positive and negative

-Overuse

-Colorado River

-Central Arizona Project canal (water gets evaporated)

What are metamorphic rocks?

other rocks that have been changed by temperature and/or pressure

-Igneous Rocks 

-Sedimentary Rocks

-Other metamorphic rocks 

-solid state change (NO MELTING)

Foliated rocks

parallel alignment of elongated minerals

-banding of different minerals

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What is the ocean floor made of? Basalt
Divergent Boundary

normal faults, igneous rocks, shallow earthquakes 

Convergent Boundary

-convergent: reverse and thrust faults, metamorphic rocks, deep earthquakes 

Transform Boundary strike slip fault, metamorphic, shallow earthquakes
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Theory

a widely accepted explanation for why things happen... differs from a hypothesis in the breadth of what it explains... often includes several hypothesis

What structures associate with Igneous

igneous: volcanic, divergent boundaries... giant plutons exist.. doesn’t have to come from volcano


What structures associate with Metamorphic

-metamorphic:  mountain building activity, convergent plate boundary.. wherever there are plates coming together


What structures associate with Sedimentary -sedimentary:  rivers, beaches, desert (wherever there is weathering and erosion)
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Hypothesis has explanatory power and can be tested

Dendritic

uniform underlying geology and slope, most likely to see in Alabama

Can earthquakes be predicted? NO
Hard/Soft water Soft water contains more salt
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The Hydrologic Cycle

circulation of Earth’s water supply

Isostacy

lithosphere maintaining equilibrium

What kinds of formations are common in the desert? Mesa, Bute, Dunes, Playas
What causes desertification? deforrestation
drought
overgrazing
h2o mgmt
agriculture
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Main causes of desert weathering wedging
abraision
biological
jointing
chemical
mass wasting
WATER AND WIND
What controls the movement of glaciers? melting, freezing, gravity, slope
surge rapid movement of glaciers
Glacial advancement happens when the rate of accumulation is greater than the rate of wastage.
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____ cut v shaped valleys rivers

____cut U shaped valleys glaciers
Kames/Eskers Ice contact deposits by melt water flowing over, in and at the base of motionless ice. Kames look like zits and eskers look like snakes
Cirques bowl shaped depressions that form at the upper end of glacial troughs
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Drumlins smooth elongated hill in the shape of a spoon. Used to determine direction of ice
Moraines Ridges made of till (lateral, medial, end)
How do glaciers cause erosion? Plucking/bulldozing-lifting & pushing rox
abrasion- rocks within ice polish surface below and produce glacial striations
Outwash Plains Braided streams and fine grained sed
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Glacial Drift all sediments of glacial orgin
Till deposited by ice (sed)
Stratified drift sed laid down by glacial meltwater resulting in braided streams
Aretes A thin ridge formed by the headward erosion of 2 cirques (remember what those are?)
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Horns steep wall pyramid peaks
Hanging Valley Glacier a tributary valley whose floor is at a higher level than that of the main valley
How do glaciers form More snow falls than melts
What geological features are created by glaciers? Fjords
hanging valleys
horns
arete
cirques (remember what those are?)
truncated spurs?
U shaped troughs
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Firn dense granular material created by recrystallized snow with only 25% air
2 types of glacial ice plastic flow (within) Pressure makes ice behave like plastic

Basal slip (beneath) entire mass slipping alone ground
Fjords Glacial valley flood after glaciers melt
2 types of glaciers Valley ((Flow down from accumulation))
Continental ((greenland & Antarctica))
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Different types of coastlines Beach
rocky coast
wetlands
barrier island
estuaries
tidal flats

How do humans stabilize coastlines? Groin barriers
Jettys- harbor protection
breakwater/ rip rap to decrease wave energy
BRING IN NEW SAND
What determines the type of coast? tectonic setting
climate
sea level
sediment supply

Estuaries any place the ocean meets fresh water
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Coastal Wetlands shallow grassy no waves
Wave Refraction Force that helps waves hit the beach in a parallel way
Open wave Energy moves fwd- water stays put
Translational Wave Friction between wave and ocean floor
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Trough of wave The bottom part
Surface Currents driven by corollis
deep currents down/upwelling
coriollis
density/temp/salinity
currents flowing water in a defined area
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What causes tides? moons grav
elevation diff between high and low tide

What geo features are created by groundwater? Caves
Karst
Sinkholes
How does groundwater move through diff seds? gravity & pressure
through pores in rox
How do humans access groundwater? wells, aquifiers in water tables

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How does groundwater move from high to

LOW

pressure
What factors influence groundwater quality? septic tanks
farm run off
mine run off
storage tanks
industrial landfills
How can groundwater be depleted? by lowering the water table
reversing the flow
saline intrusion
land subsidence

What effects do humans have on rivers? Urbanization: paved areas= flooding
Agriculture: 65% water use from rivers
dam construction changes eco system
overuse
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What is the recurrence interval and annual probability of floods? Recurrence- avg # of yrs btween floods the same size (100 yr floods happen every 100 yrs)


Annual prob- likelihood that flood of a given size will happen @ a specific location during any given year
Seasonal flood gradually covers floodplain (spring snow melting)


Flash Flood happens in deserts lots bc it cant absorb the water

quick rise in sea level or intense rain
Delta running water meets still water
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Floodplain stream overflows bank and deposits sed
Terraces Remnant of former floodplains
Meandering Streams Any river or stream that is slow and curvy
Braided Streams Streams divide due to sed in between floodz
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Alluvial Fan Abrupt change in velocity
stream dumps coarse sed
Competence Max particle size a stream carries

Capacity total quantity of sed carried
How do streams erode transport and deposit sed? Grav makes water move
scouring- removes loose frag
breaking& lifting
dissolution-dissolves minerals
abrasion- suspended sed as sandpaper
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2 major flow types in streams LAMINAR- no mixing
TURBULENT- mixing complex
Streamflow Water has eroded & cut into the surface so there is no defined chanel
Rill Takes advantage of grav and makes a new chanel
2 major types of streams Permanent and ephemeral
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lul
For all y'all koofer goofers
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List View: Terms & Definitions

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 Can you pump a well dry?yes

 Caves and Karst landscapes are composed ofgroundwater and limestone
 What does the rock cycle tell us?

-any type of rock can be reformed into any other type of rock!


 What does Bowen’s reaction series tell us?explains why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another. one can infer from the minerals present in a rock the relative conditions under which the material had formed.
 Why is gravel the first particle to be deposited as energy decreases in a fluid system?Because its heaviest?
 at which tectonic plate boundary are you most likely to see deep earthquakes?Convergent

 what causes foliation in metamorphic rocks?

foliation forms by rotation and recrystallization of elongated minerals  

 sinkholeindividual cave that collapsed

 FlowstoneSheets of water down walls. Makes cave bacon

 Stalagmites mound of calcite on the floor

 Stalactitesnot hollow, water drips off end, grows like calcium icicle

 Speleoth
calcium filled water
-evaporates and deposits calcite
-makes stalactites and stalagmites
 How are caves formed?

groundwater absorbs CO2

-becomes weak acid

-dissolves carbonate rock (limestone)

 Land Subsidence
 you can bring the land down over a meter by pumping water
-New Orleans, levee sunk & no one measured it so it failed.
 Ways to deplete our groundwater supply


-lowering the water table

-Reversing flow

-saline intrusion: drill well near ocean area and cone of impression forms bc u pump out more water, salt water is beneath the fresh water.Sometimes you can suck in the salt water through the cone of impression.


 How does hot water make it to the surface?


magma near earths surface (geothermal regions)

(water flows so deeply that it gets heated by geothermal energy)

-deep groundwater forced up by pressure or a pathway.


 Springany place where groundwater naturally flows to the surface
 Types of wells

Ordinary well

Seasonal well

Artesian Well


 Artesian Well-works like water tower (high pressure moving to low pressure)
 Seasonal well- only get water out during the rain season
 Darcy's Law

-More permeable= faster

-Steep slope= faster

 2 things that make groundwater move:

gravity

pressure

 Perched water tableone with a little hump of water over it. Confined.
 Water table above it most spaces are filled with air, below it most spaces are filled with water. Follows land surface.
 Aquifera porous deposit of rock, such as a sandstone, containing water that can be used to supply wells
 Permeability
: the ease in which the water can flow. 
-gravel (rapid drainage), fine sand, clay (mod. drainage), solid rock (slow/no drainage)
 Porosity  measurement of pore space.
-different material gives a different amount of space

 Groundwater

Water that sinks to the ground through gravity or gets trapped in rock during formation

-months to thousands of years

 Karst Landscapes

-formation:

-water table in limestone

-caves form

-water tables sinks, new caves form

-some caves start collapsing

-features: hummocky (weird looking mountains) 

 5 TYPES OF DESERTS

5 types of deserts

-Subtropical deserts

-Rain Shadow desert

-Coastal desert

-Continent Interior desert

-Polar desert

 Subtropical deserts exist because of poor air circulation
 Rain Shadow desertmountain range with tropical forrest on one side and dry on the other side. The Washington and Oregon deserts. This is why it rains all the time in seattle.
 Coastal desert Has to be a cold current (coming up from the arctic ocean). 
 Continent Interior desertas the air flows over a large continent comes out before it reaches the middle. Far from the ocean. Air moisture used over the continent.
 Polar desertglobal air circulation. Coriolis effect.
 Types of desert weathering

-Physical weathering

-Wedging

-Abrasion

-jointing- under pressure

-biological

-mass wasting

-Chemical weathering

-desert varnish: microbial action on clay.

 Desert erosion

-Water

-flash floods

-high competency and capacity

-stream erosion.

-Wind

-energy level determine grain size

-suspended load

-saltation_stuff rolling across the bottom

 Desert Pavement formation theories



-Formation theory no.1: over a time the wind blows away the smaller particles and leaves the heavier ones on top.





-Formation theory no.2: Bedrock that has been weathered with large chunks on top. The soil, because there are spaces left, some of it falls down into the cracks and accumulates under the stones and pushes the stones up until you have a bunch of sand beneath the mosaic of stones.


 Alluvial Fan

abrupt change in velocity. Stream dumps coarse sediment.

 Talus Apron

pile of debris due to gravity.

 Salt lake a lake with no outlet. Water collects and evaporates. Salt concentrates.
 Playaa dry lake bed
 Dunes
There are different types created by the amount of sand available and the wind direction and speed wind moves sand and carries small grains away. Larger grains only move so far.
-Formation: sand blows up one side.
Cross bedding
 Mesa/bute/chimneybig flat top mountain. Mesa biggest, bute smaller, chimney smallest.
 Desertification

 -changing something that isn’t a desert into a desert
Cause: deforestation, drought, water mismanagement, agriculture, overgrazing.

 What is the scientific method?


Scientific method:  natural process has four major sections: determining what the question is, testing ideas (most of work in science gets done.. have hypothesis here), community analysis and feedback (this is where theory building occurs.. that explains the big picture), benefits and outcome 

 What are the major rock types?Igneous, Metamorphic & Sedimentary
 How do we date rocks?

-superposition

-absolute dating (radiometric, layer counting)

-relative dating (cross-cutting relationship)

-fossils

 what happens at each tectonic boundary?

-what happens at each tectonic boundary

-geo features

-rocks

-faults

 Continental Shelf

 anything that is underwater but is continental crust



 Continental Margins active (tectonic plate sliding under another) passive (two tectonic plates that aren’t moving or is just one large tectonic plate)
 Canyonsrivers, turbidity currents
 Continental Slope

-continental slope: usually steep


 Abyssal Plain

flat part of the very very deep ocean


 seamounts

seamounts are underwater mountains that never make it above water


 Sea Water

-3.5% salt

-halite, gypsum

-dense

-salinity depends on location and temperature... salt water is denser than freshwater 

 Currents

flowing water in defined area

-surface currents

-deep currents

 surface currents

driven by wind/Coriolis effect (because the earth is always moving in one direction)


 deep currents caused by downwelling and upwelling, also Coriolis effect, density (thermohaline circulation)(temperature and salinity)
 Tidal Reach

The elevation difference between high and low tide

 Wave Length

is the difference between wave crests



 troughThe low part of the wave
 Open Ocean Waves

energy move forward but water stays put


 Longshore Current


underwater current that runs next to the shore.. whenever the wave energy comes in and out the particles of sand will be moved over


 Wave Refraction

force that helps waves hit the beach in a parallel way (determines how things are eroded)


 Translational wave

friction between wave and ocean floor 

 Types of coastlinesBeach
Tidal flat
rocky coast
coastal wetlands
coral reefs
estuaries
fjords
barrier island
 Beach

 nearshore zone, intertidal zone, backshore, dunes

-dynamic (sand always moving)

-some beaches grow, others being eroded

-high tide: covered by water

-low tide: exposed mud/sand


 Barrier Islandsand islands, always changing
 Rocky Coastembayment, headland, always 
 Coastal Wetlands

-shallow water

-no wave action

-temperate climate: see grassy flats (salt marsh)

-subtropical climate: mangrove swamp


 Coral Reefs

-shallow, warm

-grows until conditions change

-erode into coral sand


 Estuaries

any place the ocean meets freshwater

-ocean rises into river valley

-mix of fresh and salt water = brackish water


 Fjordsglacial valley, flood after glaciers melt
 What determines type of coast?
-tectonic setting
-climate
-sea level
-sediment supply
 Types of defense against imminent sea level rise

-Beach erosion

-groin: barrier built to keep sand from eroding.. once one person decides to put one up all the neighbors on the coastline have to

-jetty: protect harbor entrance

-breakwater: decreases wave energy

-rip rap: decrease wave energy

-beach nourishment: bring in new sand

 Why is New Orleans below sea level?
human activity
-wetland removal, no where for water to go

-artificial levees

-no new sediment

-extracting groundwater

-compacting sediment

-isostacy: lithosphere maintaining equilibrium

 The Hydrologic Cycle

-circulation of Earth’s water supply

 sheetwash

 water comes down in sheets because there is no stream 

 Rills


takes advantage of gravity makes new channel

 Streamflow

water has eroded and cut into the service so there is a defined channel

-increases as water is added headward erosion

-main channel gets longer

-side channels flow in (tributaries)

-not static

-entire system called drainage network

 Dendritic patternuniform underlying geology and slope, most likely to see in Alabama
 Drainage Basin

 land area contributing water to stream


 Divide

imaginary line separating one basin from another


 Permanent Stream

water flows all year at or below water table, humid or temperate climate



 Ephemeral Stream

does not flow all year (flash floods), about water table, dry climate


 Dry WashEmpty stream channel 
 Flow Types

-laminar flow: no mixing between layers (calm water)

-turbulent flow- complex mixing

-type depends on velocity and stream characteristics

 What determines water flow?

What determines water flow?

  1. Stream gradient

  1. Channel characteristics:

-friction slows water

-narrow streams move faster than wide ones

  1. Channel Discharge

  1. Stream Erosion


 Stream Erosion
-gravity makes water move

-some of this energy erodes the stream

-scouring: remove loose fragment

-breaking and lifting

-abrasion: suspended sediment as sandpaper

-dissolution: dissolves minerals

What characteristics create the most erosion?

-lots of water

-turbulent

-sediment

 Stream Gradient slope of stream, vertical change -gradient decreases downstream 
 Competence

 maximum particle size stream carries

-high = large particles

-low = small particles

 Capacity

 total quantity of sediment stream can carry

-depends on competence and discharge


 Deposition

decrease in velocity causes sediment dump, velocity change determines sediment size

-gradient change

-friction with bed increase

 Base levels

base Level: lowest elevation a stream can reach

-ultimate base level (sea level)

-local base level (lake, resistant, rock, largest stream in area)


 Valley

 land cut by stream

-young valley = V shape

-old valley = U shape


 rapid

 rough water

-large debris

-narrow channel

-gradient change 

 Waterfalls

gradient so steep - free fall (usually occur where old shore lines used to be)


 Alluvial Fan

abrupt change in velocity, stream dumps coarse sediment


 Braided Streams

 stream divide due to sediment, in between floods


 Meandering Streamsany river or stream that has slow water and is curvy (Black Warrior River is an example).. these form Oxbow Lakes
 Floodplains

-stream overflows bank - deposits sediment


 Terracesremnant of former floodplains 
 Deltas

-running water meets standing water

-velocity change- sediment drops 

 Floods

-most common and destructive geologic hazard

-causes

-sudden heavy rain or snow melt (water can’t soak into the ground fast enough)

-long period of rain (ground become saturated)

-collapse of artificial or natural dam

-Seasonal or Flash

 Human impact on rivers

-Urbanization: paved areas lead to flooding, water cannot soak in.. and building in floodplains

-Agriculture: 65% of water use from rivers

-increase sediment in streams

-changes stream chemistry: fertilizers, animal waste

-ecosystem change

-Dam Construction

-changes in ecosystem: migrating fish, sediment load, nutrients

-flood control: positive and negative

-Overuse

-Colorado River

-Central Arizona Project canal (water gets evaporated)

 What are metamorphic rocks?

other rocks that have been changed by temperature and/or pressure

-Igneous Rocks 

-Sedimentary Rocks

-Other metamorphic rocks 

-solid state change (NO MELTING)

 Foliated rocks

parallel alignment of elongated minerals

-banding of different minerals

 What is the ocean floor made of?Basalt
 Divergent Boundary

normal faults, igneous rocks, shallow earthquakes 

 Convergent Boundary

-convergent: reverse and thrust faults, metamorphic rocks, deep earthquakes 

 Transform Boundarystrike slip fault, metamorphic, shallow earthquakes
 Theory

a widely accepted explanation for why things happen... differs from a hypothesis in the breadth of what it explains... often includes several hypothesis

 What structures associate with Igneous

igneous: volcanic, divergent boundaries... giant plutons exist.. doesn’t have to come from volcano


 What structures associate with Metamorphic

-metamorphic:  mountain building activity, convergent plate boundary.. wherever there are plates coming together


 What structures associate with Sedimentary-sedimentary:  rivers, beaches, desert (wherever there is weathering and erosion)
 Hypothesishas explanatory power and can be tested

 Dendritic

uniform underlying geology and slope, most likely to see in Alabama

 Can earthquakes be predicted?NO
 Hard/Soft waterSoft water contains more salt
 The Hydrologic Cycle

circulation of Earth’s water supply

 Isostacy

lithosphere maintaining equilibrium

 What kinds of formations are common in the desert?Mesa, Bute, Dunes, Playas
 What causes desertification?deforrestation
drought
overgrazing
h2o mgmt
agriculture
 Main causes of desert weatheringwedging
abraision
biological
jointing
chemical
mass wasting
WATER AND WIND
 What controls the movement of glaciers?melting, freezing, gravity, slope
 surgerapid movement of glaciers
 Glacial advancementhappens when the rate of accumulation is greater than the rate of wastage.
 ____ cut v shaped valleysrivers

 ____cut U shaped valleysglaciers
 Kames/EskersIce contact deposits by melt water flowing over, in and at the base of motionless ice. Kames look like zits and eskers look like snakes
 Cirquesbowl shaped depressions that form at the upper end of glacial troughs
 Drumlinssmooth elongated hill in the shape of a spoon. Used to determine direction of ice
 MorainesRidges made of till (lateral, medial, end)
 How do glaciers cause erosion?Plucking/bulldozing-lifting & pushing rox
abrasion- rocks within ice polish surface below and produce glacial striations
 Outwash PlainsBraided streams and fine grained sed
 Glacial Driftall sediments of glacial orgin
 Tilldeposited by ice (sed)
 Stratified driftsed laid down by glacial meltwater resulting in braided streams
 AretesA thin ridge formed by the headward erosion of 2 cirques (remember what those are?)
 Hornssteep wall pyramid peaks
 Hanging Valley Glaciera tributary valley whose floor is at a higher level than that of the main valley
 How do glaciers formMore snow falls than melts
 What geological features are created by glaciers?Fjords
hanging valleys
horns
arete
cirques (remember what those are?)
truncated spurs?
U shaped troughs
 Firndense granular material created by recrystallized snow with only 25% air
 2 types of glacial iceplastic flow (within) Pressure makes ice behave like plastic

Basal slip (beneath) entire mass slipping alone ground
 FjordsGlacial valley flood after glaciers melt
 2 types of glaciersValley ((Flow down from accumulation))
Continental ((greenland & Antarctica))
 Different types of coastlinesBeach
rocky coast
wetlands
barrier island
estuaries
tidal flats

 How do humans stabilize coastlines?Groin barriers
Jettys- harbor protection
breakwater/ rip rap to decrease wave energy
BRING IN NEW SAND
 What determines the type of coast?tectonic setting
climate
sea level
sediment supply

 Estuariesany place the ocean meets fresh water
 Coastal Wetlandsshallow grassy no waves
 Wave RefractionForce that helps waves hit the beach in a parallel way
 Open waveEnergy moves fwd- water stays put
 Translational WaveFriction between wave and ocean floor
 Trough of waveThe bottom part
 Surface Currentsdriven by corollis
 deep currentsdown/upwelling
coriollis
density/temp/salinity
 currentsflowing water in a defined area
 What causes tides?moons grav
elevation diff between high and low tide

 What geo features are created by groundwater?Caves
Karst
Sinkholes
 How does groundwater move through diff seds?gravity & pressure
through pores in rox
 How do humans access groundwater?wells, aquifiers in water tables

 How does groundwater movefrom high to

LOW

pressure
 What factors influence groundwater quality?septic tanks
farm run off
mine run off
storage tanks
industrial landfills
 How can groundwater be depleted?by lowering the water table
reversing the flow
saline intrusion
land subsidence

 What effects do humans have on rivers?Urbanization: paved areas= flooding
Agriculture: 65% water use from rivers
dam construction changes eco system
overuse
 What is the recurrence interval and annual probability of floods?Recurrence- avg # of yrs btween floods the same size (100 yr floods happen every 100 yrs)


Annual prob- likelihood that flood of a given size will happen @ a specific location during any given year
 Seasonal floodgradually covers floodplain (spring snow melting)


 Flash Floodhappens in deserts lots bc it cant absorb the water

quick rise in sea level or intense rain
 Deltarunning water meets still water
 Floodplainstream overflows bank and deposits sed
 TerracesRemnant of former floodplains
 Meandering StreamsAny river or stream that is slow and curvy
 Braided StreamsStreams divide due to sed in between floodz
 Alluvial FanAbrupt change in velocity
stream dumps coarse sed
 CompetenceMax particle size a stream carries

 Capacitytotal quantity of sed carried
 How do streams erode transport and deposit sed?Grav makes water move
scouring- removes loose frag
breaking& lifting
dissolution-dissolves minerals
abrasion- suspended sed as sandpaper
 2 major flow types in streamsLAMINAR- no mixing
TURBULENT- mixing complex
 StreamflowWater has eroded & cut into the surface so there is no defined chanel
 RillTakes advantage of grav and makes a new chanel
 2 major types of streamsPermanent and ephemeral
 lul 
 For all y'all koofer goofers 
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