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Test 3 - Flashcards

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Class:GEO 101 - The Dynamic Earth
Subject:GEO-Geological Science
University:University of Alabama
Term:Fall 2009
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Alluvial Fan A gently sloping apron of sediment dropped by an ephemeral stream at the base of a mountain in arid or semi arid regions.
Alluvium sorted sediment deposited by a stream.
Backswamp Deposits The low marshy region between the bluffs and the natural levees of a flood plain.
Base Level The lowest elevation a stream channel's floor can reach at a given velocity.
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Bedload Large particles, such as sand, pebbles, or cobbles, that bounce or roll along a stream bed.
Cutoff A straight reach in a stream that develops when erosion eats through a meander neck.
Delta A wedge of sediment formed at a river mouth when the running water of the stream enters standing water, the current slows, the stream loses competence, and sediment settles out.
Dissolved Load Ions dissolved in a stream's water.
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Distributaries The fan of small streams formed where a river spreads out over its delta.
Downcutting The process in which water flowing through a channel cuts into the substrate and deepens the channel relative to its surroundings.
Drainage Basin An area of interconnecting streams that together drain an area.
Deflation The process of lowering the land surface by wind abrasion.
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Discharge The volume of water in a conduit or channel passing a point in one second.
Drainage Divide A highland or ridge that separates one watershed from another.
Ephemeral Stream A stream whose bed lies above the water table, so that the stream flows only when the rate at which water enters the stream from rainfall or meltwater exceeds the rate at which water infiltrates the ground below.
Fluvial Deposits Sediment deposited in a stream channel, along a stream bank, or on a floodplain.
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Longitudinal Profile A cross-sectional image showing the variation in elevation along the length of a river.
Natural Leeves A pair of low rigdes that appear on either side of a stream and develop as a result of the accumulation of sediment depositied naturally during flooding.
Peneplain A nearly flat surfacethat lies at an elevation close to sea level; thought to be the product of long term erosion.
Permanent Stream A stream that flows year round because it's bed lies below the water table, or because more water is supplied from upstream than can infiltrate the ground.
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Point Bar A wedge-shaped deposit of sediment on the inside bank of a meander.
Pothole A bowl-shaped depression carved into the floor of a stream by a long-lived whirlpool carrying sand or gravel.
Plunge Pool A depression at the base of a waterfall scoured by the energy of the falling water.
Saltation The movement of a sediment in which grains bounce along their substrate, knocking other grains into the water column (or air) in the process.
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Sheetwash A film of water less than a few mm thick that covers the ground surface during heavy rains.
Stream Piracy The situation in which headwater erosion causes one stream to intersect the course of another, previously independent stream, so that the intersected stream starts to flow down the channel of the first stream.
Suspended Load Tiny solid grains carried along by a stream without settling to the floor of the channel.
Trunk Stream The single larger stream into which an array of tributaries flow.
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Tributary A smaller stream that flows into a larger stream.
Water Gap An opening in a resistant ridge where a trunk river has cut through the ridge.
Yahzoo Tributary A small tributary that runs parallel to the main river in a floodplain because the tributary is blocked from entering the main river by leeves.
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 Alluvial FanA gently sloping apron of sediment dropped by an ephemeral stream at the base of a mountain in arid or semi arid regions.
 Alluviumsorted sediment deposited by a stream.
 Backswamp DepositsThe low marshy region between the bluffs and the natural levees of a flood plain.
 Base LevelThe lowest elevation a stream channel's floor can reach at a given velocity.
 BedloadLarge particles, such as sand, pebbles, or cobbles, that bounce or roll along a stream bed.
 CutoffA straight reach in a stream that develops when erosion eats through a meander neck.
 DeltaA wedge of sediment formed at a river mouth when the running water of the stream enters standing water, the current slows, the stream loses competence, and sediment settles out.
 Dissolved LoadIons dissolved in a stream's water.
 DistributariesThe fan of small streams formed where a river spreads out over its delta.
 DowncuttingThe process in which water flowing through a channel cuts into the substrate and deepens the channel relative to its surroundings.
 Drainage BasinAn area of interconnecting streams that together drain an area.
 DeflationThe process of lowering the land surface by wind abrasion.
 DischargeThe volume of water in a conduit or channel passing a point in one second.
 Drainage DivideA highland or ridge that separates one watershed from another.
 Ephemeral StreamA stream whose bed lies above the water table, so that the stream flows only when the rate at which water enters the stream from rainfall or meltwater exceeds the rate at which water infiltrates the ground below.
 Fluvial DepositsSediment deposited in a stream channel, along a stream bank, or on a floodplain.
 Longitudinal ProfileA cross-sectional image showing the variation in elevation along the length of a river.
 Natural LeevesA pair of low rigdes that appear on either side of a stream and develop as a result of the accumulation of sediment depositied naturally during flooding.
 PeneplainA nearly flat surfacethat lies at an elevation close to sea level; thought to be the product of long term erosion.
 Permanent StreamA stream that flows year round because it's bed lies below the water table, or because more water is supplied from upstream than can infiltrate the ground.
 Point BarA wedge-shaped deposit of sediment on the inside bank of a meander.
 PotholeA bowl-shaped depression carved into the floor of a stream by a long-lived whirlpool carrying sand or gravel.
 Plunge PoolA depression at the base of a waterfall scoured by the energy of the falling water.
 SaltationThe movement of a sediment in which grains bounce along their substrate, knocking other grains into the water column (or air) in the process.
 SheetwashA film of water less than a few mm thick that covers the ground surface during heavy rains.
 Stream PiracyThe situation in which headwater erosion causes one stream to intersect the course of another, previously independent stream, so that the intersected stream starts to flow down the channel of the first stream.
 Suspended LoadTiny solid grains carried along by a stream without settling to the floor of the channel.
 Trunk StreamThe single larger stream into which an array of tributaries flow.
 TributaryA smaller stream that flows into a larger stream.
 Water GapAn opening in a resistant ridge where a trunk river has cut through the ridge.
 Yahzoo TributaryA small tributary that runs parallel to the main river in a floodplain because the tributary is blocked from entering the main river by leeves.
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