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Class:GEOG 1101 - Introduction to Human Geography
Subject:Geography
University:North Georgia College & State University
Term:Spring 2011
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What is Geography? geo/grafia Earth/writing 1. study of space and place of earth's surface 2. study of location and distribution 3. study of spacial interactions
Two Types of Geography Regional Geography - view of the world in all encompassing way - overall image of the world and region descriptive and idiosyncratic Systematic Geography - world scale generalizations related to other disciplines generalized and nomothetic
Human Geography Human geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography. how societies construct places how humans use the surface of the earth how social phenomena are distributed spatially how we bring space into consciousness
Map Projections A map projection is any method of representing the surface of a sphere or other three-dimensional body on a plane. 1. Flattenable Surface 2. Conic Surface 3. Cylindrical Surface
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Three Types of Map Projections 1. Planar (Azimuthal) Projection (Lambers Equal Area Azimuthal Projection) - Used to represent the projection of a region (northern hemisphere) onto a plane tangent to the globe: Preserves Shape 2. Conic Projection (Lamber Conformal Conic) - This is used to depict the mid-latitudes, large regions size of U.S.: Preserves Area 3. Cylindrical Projection (Mercator) - Based on cylinder tangent to the equator; good for equatorial regions; it is the oldest and most common projection: Preserves Neither
Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory which describes the large scale motions of Earth's lithosphere.
Plate Collision Zone Pacific Ring of Fire example where earthquakes occur
What is Climate? Climate - The comprehensive status of atmosphere's phenomena in a specific region for a long time
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Elements and Factors of Climate Elements: Factors: 1. Temperature 1. Elevation 2. Precipitation 2. Latitude 3. Wind 3. Ocean Ocean Proximity 4. Humidity 4. Altitude 5. Aridity 5. Continentality 6. Evaporation
Major Population Clusters 1. China and East Asia 2. South Asia 3. Europe 4. Eastern North America
Major Developed Regions 1. North America 2. Europe 3. Japan
Reason for Different Development 1. Industrial Revolution 2. Modernization 3. Colonialism 4. Environment
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Three Relations between Human and Environment 1. Environmental Determinism - status and society can be determined by physical and natural environment 2. Environmental Possibilism - Human can develop and utilize the natural environment by scientific knowledge 3. Cultural Determinism - Human life decided by cultural and experience
Space Spatial thinking is the most fundamental skill that geographers possess to understanding the arrangement of objects, people, and activities. 1. Absolute Space - Physically real with measurable extent: ontology 2. Relative Space - Perceptual and variable over time: epistemological 3. Sense of Place: The human attachment we have to specific locations 4. Placelessness - Uniformity; elimination of uniqueness
Location Absolute Location - Identification of place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates Relative Location - The position of a place in a relation to that of other places or activities
Site and Situation Site - Physical and cultural attributes of a place Situation - Expression of relative location with particular reference to items of significance to the place in question
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Types of Regions Formal - 1. Homogenous - like a state 2. Predominant - Electoral Map Functional - Spot areas Perceptual - Subjective, it is a human creation Vernacular - No precise boundary
The Rational Structure of Place Density - a measure of the number of anything within a defined unit area; Number of items in relation to the space in which they are found; the frequency with which something occurs in space Dispersion/Concentration - The amount of spread of a phenomenon over an area Pattern - The geometric arrangement of objects
Culture 1. The body of customary beliefs 2. Material Traits 3. Social Forms 4. Language, religion, and ethnicity 1. Behavioral patterns 2. Social System 3. Tangible and intangible characteristics 4. Cultural Landscape
Three Sub-systems of Culture Ideology - Mentifacts - Ideas, beliefs, knowledge Sociological - Sociofacts - Economy, politics, religion Technological - Artifacts - Material objects: clothes, houses, transportations
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Cultural Ecology Subfield concerned with the relationships between culture and the natural environment - Population Growth - Environmental Modification
Components of Culture 1. Culture Traits - units of behavior, tools, languages, beliefs 2. Culture Complex - the assemblage of traits 3. Culture System - broader generalization, like food preferences 4. Culture Region - region sharing distinctive characteristics 5. Culture Realm - set of culture regions whenever they show related cultural complexes 6. Globalization - Process that is shrinking the scale of the earth in terms of the ability of a person, object, or idea to interact a person, object, or idea in another area
Culture Hearth The Roots of Culture - the place of origin of any culture group whose developed systems of livelihood and life created a distinctive cultural landscape
Three Hypotheses for Culture Hearth 1. Multi-linear Evolution 2. Diffusionism 3. Cultural Convergence
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Two-Types of Spatial Diffusion Relocation - a process in which items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas & relocate to new areas. - The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population. Expansion - The spreading of an innovation or idea through a fixed population in such a way that the number of those adopting grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanded area of dissemination; two type - Contagious and Hierarchical
Diffusion Barriers and Syncretism (1) Diffusion Barriers Any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus retard or prevent the acceptance of an innovation (2) Syncretism The process of the fusion of the old and new is called syncretism and is a major feature of culture change
Two types of Expansion Diffusion Contagious - The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person - Analogous to the communication of a contagious disease Hierarchical - A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by “trickling down” from larger to smaller adopting units - An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wider areas, with geographic distance a less important factor
Summarizing model Complementarity, transferability intervening opportunity
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Friction of distance and distance decay Measuring Interaction (1) Friction of Distance •Distance has a retarding effect on human interaction because there are increasing penalties in time and cost associated with longer distance, more expensive interchanges (2) Distance Decay •The decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin
gravity model or gravity concept The physical laws of gravity and motion developed by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) are applicable to aggregate actions of humans •A large city is more likely to attract an individual than is a small hamlet
Critical distance The extent of the distance people are likely to travel frequently away from their homes
Different types of migration Intercontinental •A reflection of massive intercontinental flows –Intracontinental •Movements between countries –Interregional •Movements within countries –Rural-to-Urban •Movements of peoples from agricultural areas to cities; prominent during the industrial revolution •Rapid increase in impoverished rural populations put increasing and unsustainable pressures on land, fuel, and water in the countryside
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push and pull factors Push factors are negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate –They might include loss of job, lack of professional opportunity, overcrowding or slum clearance, or a variety of other influences •Pull factors are the presumed positive attractions of the migration destination –All the attractive attributes perceived to exist at the new location: safety, and food, perhaps, or job opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, and so forth
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration Most migrants go only a short distance –Longer-distance migration favo rs big cities –Most migration proceeds step-by-step –Most migration is rural to urban –Most migrants are adults and males
Population Geography Provides the background tools and understanding of population data such as: –Numbers of people –Age of people –Sex distribution of people –Patterns of fertility and mortality Density
Demography statistical study of human population
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Population Density ARITHMETIC: the average number of people in a country PHYSIOLOGIC: the number of people in a country per unit of land suitable for farming or grazing.
Rate of natural increase population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths
Doubling Time How long it would take for those populations to double in size. - The time it takes for a population to double if the present growth rate remains constant
Crude Birth Rate –The annual number of live births per 1000 population –It is “crude” because it relates births to total population without regard to the age or sex composition of the population
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Total fertility rate –The average number of children that would be born to each woman if, during her childbearing years, she bore children at the current year’s rate for women that age –A more refined statement than the crude birth rate for showing the rate and probability of reproduction among fertile females
Crude death rate Also called mortality rate –The annual number of deaths per 1000 population –In the past, a valid generalization was that death rate varied with national levels of development –Characteristically, highest rates were found in the less developed countries –Nowadays, countries with a high proportion of elderly people, such as Denmark and Sweden, would be expected to have higher death rates than those with a high proportion of young people
Infant mortality rate –The ratio of deaths of infants aged 1 year or under per 1000 live births. – Infant mortality rates are significant because it is at these ages that the greatest declines in mortality have occurred, largely as a result of the increased availability of health services
Maternal mortality ratio –Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births – Maternal mortality is the single greatest health disparity between developed and developing countries
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Population Pyramids •A graphic device that represents a population’s age and sex composition
Female infanticide in Asia Definition
Demographic transition model (From first stage to Second stage) •An attempt to summarize an observed voluntary relationship between population change and economic development •First Stage –High birth and high but fluctuating death rates –Wars, famine, and disasters took heavy tolls •Second Stage –Industrialization –Falling death rates due to advances in medical and sanitation practices; improved foodstuff storage; urbanization –High birth rates because large families are still considered advantageous
Malthus and Marx for population issue •Malthus –A British economist –In 1798 he published “An Essay on the Principle of Population and It Affects in the Future Improvement of Society” The world’s population was increasing faster than the food supplies needed to sustain it. Population increases at what he called a geometric rate. The means of subsistence growth at an arithmetic rate. Population growth might be checked by hunger or other tragic events. Karl Marx: a vehement critic of Malthus. believed the real problems were exploitation and oppression, that the way to slow population growth was through social justice. workers always provide for themselves if able to work and given a fair share of the fruits of their labor.
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Neo-Malthusianism Neo-Malthusians: 1960s an 1970s, shifted concern from food shortages to poverty, natural resource scarcity, and environmental degradation, particularly in the developing world. Neo-Malthusians made birth control and sterilization highest priority. Largely ignored problems of unequal resource and wealth distribution, oppression, and inequality •Ignores basic social and reproductive rights of women. •Takes resources from health and safety programs. •Does not consider socio-economics or unequal wealth distribution.
Definition of Language A system of communication through speech; a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
Indo-European language family 48% of the World language heritage including English
Genetic classification Language tree
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Language Family Statistics •Linguistic geography - Isogloss •Pidgins and Creoles –Amalgam of languages –Simplified form •Lingua Franca –Language of trade –Second language •Official Languages -The required language of instruction, government and public activities
English Gradual and cumulative changes –Before the 18th century, the English language gained thousands of words from the Latin, Greek, and French languages –After the discovery and colonization of new lands, aboriginal American, Australian, and African names were adopted
Toponyms and toponymy •Toponyms –Place names •Toponymy –The study of place names
Classification of religions –Monotheism and Polytheism •Classification based on religion’s distribution and patterns and processes of diffusion: –Universalizing Religions –Ethnic Religions –Tribal or Traditional Religions
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Five major religions in the world Judaism •Christianity •Islam •Hinduism •Buddhism
Place and Region Place: - Particular Location; all are different, not the same Regions: - Pattern of similarity - Distinctive Characteristics - Cultural Landscape
Multilinear Evolution - The common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances - Environmental zones tend to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit these areas - Comparable events cannot always be explained in the basis of exporting techniques - Significant time and space differences
Diffusionism - Cultural similarities are the product of spatial spread from common origin sites
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Cultural Convergence - Differences between places are being reduced by improved communications leading to homogenization - Sharing of technologies so evident among widely separated societies in a modern world united by efficient communication systems
Complementarity (Sumarizing model opportunity) For two places to interact, one place must have what another place wants and can secure •Effective supply and demand are important considerations for exchange (crude oil exports and imports)
Transferability (Summarizing model opportunity) Acceptable costs of an exchange •An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a function of three interrelated conditions: 1.The characteristics of the product 2.The distance measured in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved 3.The ability of the commodity to bear the cost of movement –If the time and money costs of traversing a distance are too great, exchange does not occur.
Intervening Opportunity (summerizing model opportunity) Complementarity can be effective only in the absence of more attractive alternative sources of supply or demand closer at hand or cheaper •Intervening opportunities serve to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise might develop between distant complementary areas •For reasons of cost and convenience, a purchaser is unlikely to buy identical commodities at a distance when a suitable nearby supply is available
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Demographic transition model (From third stage to fourth stage) Third Stage" –Birth rates decline –People begin to control family size –The advantages of having many children in an agrarian society are not so evident in urbanized, industrialized cultures •Fourth Stage –Characterized by very low birth and death rates
Judaism Ethnic religion Middle East origins Diaspora Two separate branches of Judaism developed in Europe during the Middle Ages: Sephardim (Iberian Peninsula) Ashkenazim (Eastern Europe) Zionism The belief in the need to create an autonomous Jewish state in Palestine
Christianity Middle East origins Diffusion -Expansion Hierarchical From provincial capitals to smaller settlements Contagious Relocation European Imperialism Schism - Divided Medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Roman) branches Protestant Reformation Landscapes of Christianity
Islam Muhammad (571- 632 AD)  Five Pillars Of Faith Repeated Expressions Of Creed Frequent Prayer Month Of Daytime Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage To Mecca  Sunnis vs Shi’ites
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Hinduism  The world’s oldest religion - Ethnic religion - Culture hearth of the Indus River - Diffused south and east down the Ganges  Absorbed and eventually supplanted earlier native religions and customs  Not just a religion - An intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, and artistic elements - No common creed - No single doctrine - No direct divine revelation - No rigid narrow moral code
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.) Adherents objected to harsher features of Hinduism Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals
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 What is Geography?geo/grafia
Earth/writing
1. study of space and place of earth's surface
2. study of location and distribution
3. study of spacial interactions
 Two Types of GeographyRegional Geography -
view of the world in all encompassing way - overall image of the world and region descriptive and idiosyncratic
Systematic Geography -
world scale generalizations related to other disciplines
generalized and nomothetic
 Human GeographyHuman geography is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
how societies construct places
how humans use the surface of the earth
how social phenomena are distributed spatially
how we bring space into consciousness
 Map ProjectionsA map projection is any method of representing the surface of a sphere or other three-dimensional body on a plane.
1. Flattenable Surface
2. Conic Surface
3. Cylindrical Surface
 Three Types of Map Projections1. Planar (Azimuthal) Projection (Lambers Equal Area Azimuthal Projection) - Used to represent the projection of a region (northern hemisphere) onto a plane tangent to the globe: Preserves Shape
2. Conic Projection (Lamber Conformal Conic) - This is used to depict the mid-latitudes, large regions size of U.S.: Preserves Area
3. Cylindrical Projection (Mercator) - Based on cylinder tangent to the equator; good for equatorial regions; it is the oldest and most common projection: Preserves Neither
 Plate TectonicsPlate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory which describes the large scale motions of Earth's lithosphere.
 Plate Collision ZonePacific Ring of Fire example where earthquakes occur
 What is Climate?Climate - The comprehensive status of atmosphere's phenomena in a specific region for a long time
 Elements and Factors of ClimateElements: Factors:
1. Temperature 1. Elevation
2. Precipitation 2. Latitude
3. Wind 3. Ocean Ocean Proximity
4. Humidity 4. Altitude
5. Aridity 5. Continentality
6. Evaporation
 Major Population Clusters1. China and East Asia
2. South Asia
3. Europe
4. Eastern North America
 Major Developed Regions1. North America
2. Europe
3. Japan
 Reason for Different Development1. Industrial Revolution
2. Modernization
3. Colonialism
4. Environment
 Three Relations between Human and Environment1. Environmental Determinism - status and society can be determined by physical and natural environment

2. Environmental Possibilism - Human can develop and utilize the natural environment by scientific knowledge

3. Cultural Determinism - Human life decided by cultural and experience
 SpaceSpatial thinking is the most fundamental skill that geographers possess to understanding the arrangement of objects, people, and activities.
1. Absolute Space - Physically real with measurable extent: ontology
2. Relative Space - Perceptual and variable over time: epistemological
3. Sense of Place: The human attachment we have to specific locations
4. Placelessness - Uniformity; elimination of uniqueness
 LocationAbsolute Location - Identification of place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates




Relative Location - The position of a place in a relation to that of other places or activities
 Site and SituationSite - Physical and cultural attributes of a place


Situation - Expression of relative location with particular reference to items of significance to the place in question
 Types of RegionsFormal - 1. Homogenous - like a state
2. Predominant - Electoral Map

Functional - Spot areas


Perceptual - Subjective, it is a human creation

Vernacular - No precise boundary
 The Rational Structure of PlaceDensity - a measure of the number of anything within a defined unit area; Number of items in relation to the space in which they are found; the frequency with which something occurs in space

Dispersion/Concentration - The amount of spread of a phenomenon over an area

Pattern - The geometric arrangement of objects
 Culture1. The body of customary beliefs
2. Material Traits
3. Social Forms
4. Language, religion, and ethnicity

1. Behavioral patterns
2. Social System
3. Tangible and intangible characteristics
4. Cultural Landscape
 Three Sub-systems of CultureIdeology
- Mentifacts
- Ideas, beliefs, knowledge
Sociological
- Sociofacts
- Economy, politics, religion
Technological
- Artifacts
- Material objects: clothes, houses, transportations
 Cultural EcologySubfield concerned with the relationships between culture and the natural environment

- Population Growth
- Environmental Modification
 Components of Culture1. Culture Traits - units of behavior, tools, languages, beliefs
2. Culture Complex - the assemblage of traits
3. Culture System - broader generalization, like food preferences
4. Culture Region - region sharing distinctive characteristics
5. Culture Realm - set of culture regions whenever they show related cultural complexes
6. Globalization - Process that is shrinking the scale of the earth in terms of the ability of a person, object, or idea to interact a person, object, or idea in another area
 Culture HearthThe Roots of Culture
- the place of origin of any culture group whose developed systems of livelihood and life created a distinctive cultural landscape
 Three Hypotheses for Culture Hearth1. Multi-linear Evolution


2. Diffusionism


3. Cultural Convergence
 Two-Types of Spatial DiffusionRelocation - a process in which items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas & relocate to new areas.
- The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population.

Expansion - The spreading of an innovation or idea through a fixed population in such a way that the number of those adopting grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanded area of dissemination; two type - Contagious and Hierarchical

 Diffusion Barriers and Syncretism(1) Diffusion Barriers
Any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus retard or prevent the acceptance of an innovation

(2) Syncretism
The process of the fusion of the old and new is called syncretism and is a major feature of culture change
 Two types of Expansion DiffusionContagious - The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person
- Analogous to the communication of a contagious disease

Hierarchical - A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by “trickling down” from larger to smaller adopting units
- An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wider areas, with geographic distance a less important factor
 Summarizing modelComplementarity,
transferability
intervening opportunity
 Friction of distance and distance decayMeasuring Interaction
(1) Friction of Distance
•Distance has a retarding effect on human interaction because there are increasing penalties in time and cost associated with longer distance, more expensive interchanges
(2) Distance Decay
•The decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin
 gravity model or gravity conceptThe physical laws of gravity and motion developed by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) are applicable to aggregate actions of humans
•A large city is more likely to attract an individual than is a small hamlet
 Critical distanceThe extent of the distance people are likely to travel frequently away from their homes
 Different types of migrationIntercontinental
•A reflection of massive intercontinental flows
–Intracontinental
•Movements between countries
–Interregional
•Movements within countries
–Rural-to-Urban
•Movements of peoples from agricultural areas to cities; prominent during the industrial revolution
•Rapid increase in impoverished rural populations put increasing and unsustainable pressures on land, fuel, and water in the countryside
 push and pull factorsPush factors are negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate
–They might include loss of job, lack of professional opportunity, overcrowding or slum clearance, or a variety of other influences
•Pull factors are the presumed positive attractions of the migration destination
–All the attractive attributes perceived to exist at the new location: safety, and food, perhaps, or job opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, and so forth
 Ravenstein's Laws of MigrationMost migrants go only a short distance
–Longer-distance migration favo rs big cities
–Most migration proceeds step-by-step
–Most migration is rural to urban
–Most migrants are adults and males
 Population GeographyProvides the background tools and understanding of population data such as:
–Numbers of people
–Age of people
–Sex distribution of people
–Patterns of fertility and mortality
Density
 Demographystatistical study of human population
 Population DensityARITHMETIC: the average number of people in a country
PHYSIOLOGIC: the number of people in a country per unit of land suitable for farming or grazing.
 Rate of natural increasepopulation growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths
 Doubling Time How long it would take for those populations to double in size.
- The time it takes for a population to double if the present growth rate remains constant
 Crude Birth Rate–The annual number of live births per 1000 population

–It is “crude” because it relates births to total population without regard to the age or sex composition of the population
 Total fertility rate–The average number of children that would be born to each woman if, during her childbearing years, she bore children at the current year’s rate for women that age

–A more refined statement than the crude birth rate for showing the rate and probability of reproduction among fertile females
 Crude death rateAlso called mortality rate
–The annual number of deaths per 1000 population
–In the past, a valid generalization was that death rate varied with national levels of development
–Characteristically, highest rates were found in the less developed countries
–Nowadays, countries with a high proportion of elderly people, such as Denmark and Sweden, would be expected to have higher death rates than those with a high proportion of young people
 Infant mortality rate–The ratio of deaths of infants aged 1 year or under per 1000 live births.

– Infant mortality rates are significant because it is at these ages that the greatest declines in mortality have occurred, largely as a result of the increased availability of health services
 Maternal mortality ratio–Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births
– Maternal mortality is the single greatest health disparity between developed and developing countries
 Population Pyramids•A graphic device that represents a population’s age and sex composition
 Female infanticide in AsiaDefinition
 Demographic transition model (From first stage to Second stage)•An attempt to summarize an observed voluntary relationship between population change and economic development
•First Stage –High birth and high but fluctuating death rates
–Wars, famine, and disasters took heavy tolls
•Second Stage –Industrialization
–Falling death rates due to advances in medical and sanitation practices; improved foodstuff storage; urbanization
–High birth rates because large families are still considered advantageous
 Malthus and Marx for population issue•Malthus
–A British economist
–In 1798 he published “An Essay on the Principle of Population and It Affects in the Future Improvement of Society” The world’s population was increasing faster than the food supplies needed to sustain it. Population increases at what he called a geometric rate. The means of subsistence growth at an arithmetic rate. Population growth might be checked by hunger or other tragic events. Karl Marx: a vehement critic of Malthus. believed the real problems were exploitation and oppression, that the way to slow population growth was through social justice. workers always provide for themselves if able to work and given a fair share of the fruits of their labor.
 Neo-MalthusianismNeo-Malthusians: 1960s an 1970s, shifted concern from food shortages to poverty, natural resource scarcity, and environmental degradation, particularly in the developing world.
Neo-Malthusians made birth control and sterilization highest priority. Largely ignored problems of unequal resource and wealth distribution, oppression, and inequality
•Ignores basic social and reproductive rights of women.
•Takes resources from health and safety programs.
•Does not consider socio-economics or unequal wealth distribution.
 Definition of LanguageA system of communication through speech; a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning
 Indo-European language family48% of the World language heritage including English
 Genetic classificationLanguage tree
 Language Family Statistics•Linguistic geography
- Isogloss
•Pidgins and Creoles
–Amalgam of languages
–Simplified form
•Lingua Franca
–Language of trade
–Second language
•Official Languages -The required language of instruction, government and public activities
 EnglishGradual and cumulative changes
–Before the 18th century, the English language gained thousands of words from the Latin, Greek, and French languages
–After the discovery and colonization of new lands, aboriginal American, Australian, and African names were adopted
 Toponyms and toponymy•Toponyms
–Place names

•Toponymy
–The study of place names
 Classification of religions–Monotheism and Polytheism
•Classification based on religion’s distribution and patterns and processes of diffusion:
–Universalizing Religions
–Ethnic Religions
–Tribal or Traditional Religions
 Five major religions in the worldJudaism
•Christianity
•Islam
•Hinduism
•Buddhism
 Place and RegionPlace: - Particular Location; all are different, not the same

Regions: - Pattern of similarity
- Distinctive Characteristics
- Cultural Landscape
 Multilinear Evolution- The common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances

- Environmental zones tend to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit these areas

- Comparable events cannot always be explained in the basis of exporting techniques

- Significant time and space differences
 Diffusionism- Cultural similarities are the product of spatial spread from common origin sites
 Cultural Convergence- Differences between places are being reduced by improved communications leading to homogenization

- Sharing of technologies so evident among widely separated societies in a modern world united by efficient communication systems
 Complementarity(Sumarizing model opportunity)
For two places to interact, one place must have what another place wants and can secure
•Effective supply and demand are important considerations for exchange (crude oil exports and imports)
 Transferability(Summarizing model opportunity)

Acceptable costs of an exchange
•An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a function of three interrelated conditions:
1.The characteristics of the product
2.The distance measured in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved
3.The ability of the commodity to bear the cost of movement
–If the time and money costs of traversing a distance are too great, exchange does not occur.
 Intervening Opportunity(summerizing model opportunity)
Complementarity can be effective only in the absence of more attractive alternative sources of supply or demand closer at hand or cheaper
•Intervening opportunities serve to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise might develop between distant complementary areas
•For reasons of cost and convenience, a purchaser is unlikely to buy identical commodities at a distance when a suitable nearby supply is available
 Demographic transition model (From third stage to fourth stage)Third Stage"
–Birth rates decline
–People begin to control family size
–The advantages of having many children in an agrarian society are not so evident in urbanized, industrialized cultures

•Fourth Stage
–Characterized by very low birth and death rates

 JudaismEthnic religion
Middle East origins
Diaspora
Two separate branches of Judaism developed in Europe during the Middle Ages:
Sephardim (Iberian Peninsula)
Ashkenazim (Eastern Europe)
Zionism
The belief in the need to create an autonomous Jewish state in Palestine
 ChristianityMiddle East origins
Diffusion -Expansion Hierarchical
From provincial capitals to smaller settlements
Contagious Relocation
European Imperialism
Schism - Divided Medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Roman) branches
Protestant Reformation
Landscapes of Christianity
 IslamMuhammad (571- 632 AD)
 Five Pillars Of Faith
Repeated Expressions Of Creed
Frequent Prayer
Month Of Daytime Fasting
Alms-giving
Pilgrimage To Mecca
 Sunnis vs Shi’ites
 Hinduism  The world’s oldest religion - Ethnic religion - Culture hearth of the Indus River - Diffused south and east down the Ganges
 Absorbed and eventually supplanted earlier native religions and customs
 Not just a religion - An intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, and artistic elements - No common creed - No single doctrine - No direct divine revelation - No rigid narrow moral code
 BuddhismSiddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.)
Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.)
Adherents objected to harsher features of Hinduism
Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge
Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals
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